Tissue paper or simply tissue is a lightweight paper or, light crêpe
paper. Tissue can be made from recycled paper pulp.
Tissue paper sheet
3.1 Hygienic tissue paper
3.2 Facial tissues
3.4 Wrapping tissue
3.5 Toilet tissue
3.6 Table napkins
3.7 Acoustic disrupter
3.8 Road repair
3.9 Packing industry
4 The industry
5.1 Types of eco-labels
6 See also
Key properties are absorbency, basis weight, thickness, bulk (specific
volume), brightness, stretch, appearance and comfort.
Main article: Fourdrinier machine
Tissue paper is produced on a paper machine that has a single large
steam heated drying cylinder (yankee dryer) fitted with a hot air
hood. The raw material is paper pulp. The yankee cylinder is sprayed
with adhesives to make the paper stick. Creping is done by the
yankee's doctor blade that is scraping the dry paper off the cylinder
surface. The crinkle (crêping) is controlled by the strength of the
adhesive, geometry of the doctor blade, speed difference between the
yankee and final section of the paper machine and paper pulp
Paper Converting Machine
Paper Converting Machines with Jumbo Rolls attached.
The highest water absorbing applications are produced with a through
air drying (TAD) process. These papers contain high amounts of NBSK
and CTMP. This gives a bulky paper with high wet tensile strength and
good water holding capacity. The TAD process uses about twice the
energy compared with conventional drying of paper.
The properties are controlled by pulp quality, crêping and additives
(both in base paper and as coating). The wet strength is often an
important parameter for tissue.
Hygienic tissue paper
Hygienic tissue paper is commonly used for facial tissue (paper
handkerchiefs), napkins, bathroom tissue and household towels. Paper
has been used for hygiene purposes for centuries, but tissue paper as
we know it today was not produced in the
United States before the
Western Europe large scale industrial production started
in the beginning of the 1960s.
Main article: Facial tissue
A box of facial tissues
Facial tissue (paper handkerchiefs) refers to a class of soft,
absorbent, disposable paper that is suitable for use on the face. The
term is commonly used to refer to the type of facial tissue, usually
sold in boxes, that is designed to facilitate the expulsion of nasal
mucus although it may refer to other types of facial tissues including
napkins and wipes.
The first tissue handkerchiefs were introduced in the 1920s. They have
been refined over the years, especially for softness and strength, but
their basic design has remained constant. Today each person in Western
Europe uses about 200 tissue handkerchiefs a year, with a variety of
'alternative' functions including the treatment of minor wounds, the
cleaning of face and hands and the cleaning of spectacles.
The importance of the paper tissue on minimising the spread of an
infection has been highlighted in light of fears over a swine flu
epidemic. In the UK, for example, the Government ran a campaign called
“Catch it, bin it, kill it”, which encouraged people to cover
their mouth with a paper tissue when coughing or sneezing.
Paper towels are the second largest application for tissue paper in
the consumer sector. This type of paper has usually a basis weight of
20 to 24 g/m2. Normally such paper towels are two-ply. This kind of
tissue can be made from 100% chemical pulp to 100% recycled fibre or a
combination of the two. Normally, some long fibre chemical pulp is
included to improve strength.
Main article: Wrapping tissue
Wrapping Tissue is a type of thin, translucent tissue paper used for
wrapping/packing various articles & cushioning fragile items.
Main article: Toilet paper
Rolls of toilet paper have been available since the end of the 19th
century. Today, more than 20 billion rolls of toilet tissue are used
each year in Western Europe.
Table napkins can be made of tissue paper. These are made from one up
to four plies and in a variety of qualities, sizes, folds, colours and
patterns depending on intended use and prevailing fashions. The
composition of raw materials varies a lot from deinked to chemical
pulp depending on quality.
Colored paper napkins can be a source of carcinogenic primary aromatic
amines (paAs) when used as a wrapper for food as a result of
degradation of Azo compounds used as paper dyes.
In the late 1970s and early 1980s, a sound recording engineer named
Bob Clearmountain was said to have hung tissue paper over the tweeter
of his pair of
Yamaha NS-10 speakers to tame the over-bright treble
coming from it. 
The phenomenon became the subject of hot debate and an investigation
into the sonic effects of many different types of tissue paper.
 The authors of a study for Studio Sound magazine suggested
that had the speakers' grilles been used in studios, they would have
had the same effect on the treble output as the improvised tissue
paper filter. Another tissue study found inconsistent results with
different paper, but said that tissue paper generally demonstrated an
undesirable effect known as "comb filtering", where the high
frequencies are reflected back into the tweeter instead of being
absorbed. The author derided the tissue practice as "aberrant
behavior", saying that engineers usually fear comb filtering and its
associated cancellation effects, suggesting that more controllable and
less random electronic filtering would be preferable. 
Tissue paper, in the form of standard single-ply toilet paper, is
commonly used in road repair to protect crack sealants. The sealants
require upwards of 40 minutes to cure enough for they do not stick
onto passing traffic. The application of toilet paper removes the
stickiness and keeps the tar in place, allowing the road to be
reopened immediately and increasing road repair crew productivity. The
paper breaks down and disappears in the following days.  The
use has been credited to Minnesota Department of Transportation
employee Fred Muellerleile, who came up with the idea in 1970 after
initially trying standard office paper, which worked, but did not
Apart from above, a range of speciality tissues are also manufactured
to be used in the packing industry. These are used for
wrapping/packing various items, cushioning fragile items, stuffing in
shoes/bags etc. to keep shape intact or, for inserting in garments
etc. while packing/folding to keep them wrinkle free and safe. It is
generally used printed with the manufacturers brand name or, logo to
enhance the look and aesthetic appeal of the product. It is a type of
thin, translucent paper generally in the range of grammages between 17
and 40 GSM, that can be rough or, shining, hard or soft, depending
upon the nature of use.
In North America, people are consuming around three times as much
tissue as in Europe. Out of the world's estimated production of
21 million tonnes (21,000,000 long tons; 23,000,000 short tons)
of tissue, Europe produces approximately 6 million tonnes
(5,900,000 long tons; 6,600,000 short tons).
The European tissue market is worth approximately 10 billion Euros
annually and is growing at a rate of around 3%. The European market
represents around 23% of the global market. Of the total paper and
board market tissue accounts for 10%. An analysis and market research
in Europe, Germany was one of the top tissue-consuming countries in
Western Europe while Sweden was on top of the per-capita consumption
of tissue paper in Western Europe. Market Study.
In Europe, the industry is represented by the European Tissue
Symposium (ETS), a trade association. The members of ETS represent the
majority of tissue paper producers throughout Europe and about 90% of
total European tissue production. ETS was founded in 1971 and is based
Brussels since 1992.
In the U.S., the tissue industry is organized in the AF&PA.
Tissue paper production and consumption is predicted to continue to
grow because of factors like urbanization, increasing disposable
incomes and consumer spending. In 2015, the global market for tissue
paper is growing at per annum rates between 8-9% (China, currently 40%
of global market) and 2-3% (Europe).
The largest tissue producing companies by capacity - some of them also
global players - in 2015 are (in descending order):
Asia Pulp &
Paper (APP)/Sinar Mas
Procter & Gamble
Narmineh Gostar Natanz (IRAN) (SNAIL, SNOW)
Lila Tissue Turkey
Ipek Kagit Turkey
Environmental impact of paper
See also: Toilet_paper § Environmental_considerations
The paper industry in general has a long history of accusations for
being responsible for global deforestation through legal and illegal
logging. The WWF has urged Asia Pulp &
Paper (APP), "one of the
world's most notorious deforesters" especially in Sumatran rain
forests, to become an environmentally responsible company; in 2012,
the WWF launched a campaign to remove a brand of toilet paper known to
be made from APP fiber from grocery store shelves  According to
the Worldwatch Institute, the world per capita consumption of toilet
paper was 3.8 kilograms in 2005. The WWF estimates that "every day,
about 270,000 trees are flushed down the drain or end up as garbage
all over the world", a rate of which about 10% are attributable to
toilet paper alone.
Meanwhile, the paper tissue industry, along with the rest of the paper
manufacturing sector, has worked to minimise its impact on the
environment. Recovered fibres now represent some 46.5% of the paper
industry's raw materials. The industry relies heavily on biofuels
(about 50% of its primary energy). Its specific primary energy
consumption has decreased by 16% and the specific electricity
consumption has decreased by 11%, due to measures such as improved
process technology and investment in combined heat and power (CHP).
Specific carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels decreased by 25%
due to process-related measures and the increased use of low-carbon
and biomass fuels. Once consumed, most forest-based paper products
start a new life as recycled material or biofuel
EDANA, the trade body for the non-woven absorbent hygiene products
industry (which includes products such as household wipes for use in
the home) has reported annually on the industry’s environmental
performance since 2005. Less than 1% of all commercial wood production
ends up as wood pulp in absorbent hygiene products. The industry
contributes less than 0.5% of all solid waste and around 2% of
municipal solid waste (MSW) compared with paper and board, garden
waste and food waste which each comprise between 18 and 20 percent of
There has been a great deal of interest, in particular, in the use of
recovered fibres to manufacture new tissue paper products. However,
whether this is actually better for the environment than using new
fibres is open to question. A Life Cycle Assessment study indicated
that neither fibre type can be considered environmentally preferable.
In this study both new fibre and recovered fibre offer environmental
benefits and shortcomings.
Total environmental impacts vary case by case, depending on for
example the location of the tissue paper mill, availability of fibres
close to the mill, energy options and waste utilization possibilities.
There are opportunities to minimise environmental impacts when using
each fibre type.
When using recovered fibres, it is beneficial to:
Source fibres from integrated deinking operations to eliminate the
need for thermal drying of fibre or long distance transport of wet
Manage deinked sludge in order to maximise beneficial applications and
minimise waste burden on society; and
Select the recovered paper depending on the end-product requirements
and that also allows the most efficient recycling process.
When using new fibres, it is beneficial to:
Manage the raw material sources to maintain legal, sustainable
forestry practices by implementing processes such as forest
certification systems and chain of custody standards; and
Consider opportunities to introduce new and more renewable energy
sources and increase the use of biomass fuels to reduce emissions of
When using either fibre type, it is beneficial to:
Improve energy efficiency in tissue manufacturing;
Examine opportunities for changing to alternative, non fossil based
sources, of energy for tissue manufacturing operations
Deliver products that maximise functionality and optimize consumption;
Investigate opportunities for alternative product disposal systems
that minimize the environmental impact of used products.
The Confederation of European
Paper Industries (CEPI) has published
reports focusing on the industry’s environmental credentials. In
2002, it noted that “a little over 60% of the pulp and paper
produced in Europe comes from mills certified under one of the
internationally recognised eco-management schemes”. There are a
number of ‘eco-labels’ designed to help consumers identify paper
tissue products which meet such environmental standards. Eco-labelling
entered mainstream environmental policy-making in the late seventies,
first with national schemes such as the German Blue Angel programme,
to be followed by the Nordic Swan (1989). In 1992 a European
eco-labelling regulation, known as the EU Flower, was also adopted.
The stated objective is to support sustainable development, balancing
environmental, social and economical criteria.
Types of eco-labels
There are three types of eco-labels, each defined by ISO
(International Organization for Standardization).
Type I: ISO 14024 This type of eco-label is one where the criteria are
set by third parties (not the manufacturer). They are in theory based
on life cycle impacts and are typically based on pass/fail criteria.
The one that has European application is the EU Flower.
Type II: ISO 14021 These are based on the manufacturers or retailers
own declarations. Well known amongst these are claims of “100%
recycled” in relation to tissue/paper.
Type III: ISO 14025 These claims give quantitative details of the
impact of the product based on its life cycle. Sometimes known as EPDs
(Environmental Product Declarations), these labels are based on an
independent review of the life cycle of the product. The data supplied
by the manufacturing companies are also independently reviewed.
The most well known example in the paper industry is the Paper
Profile. You can tell a
Paper Profile meets the Type III requirements
when the verifiers logo is included on the document.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tissue.
^ Paulapuro, Hannu (2000). "3".
Paper and Board grades. Papermaking
Science and Technology. 18. Finland: Fapet Oy. pp. 75–92.
Paper Converting Machine Photos Al Baraka
^ Nanko, Hirko; Button, Allan; Hillman, Dave (2005). The World of
Market Pulp. Appleton, WI, USA: WOMP, LLC. pp. 44–46.
^ a b European Tissue Symposium. "Tissue Product Properties",
Retrieved on 2010-01-02.
^ Department of Health "Respiratory and hand hygiene guidance",
retrieved on 2009-06-05.
^ Paulapuro, Hannu (2000). "3".
Paper and Board grades. Papermaking
Science and Technology. 18. Finland: Fapet Oy. p. 80.
^ Azo compounds#European regulation
^ Gardiner, Bryan (15 September 2010). "Yamaha's NS-10: The Most
Important Speaker You've Never Heard Of". Gizmodo
^ a b 1977 Yamaha NS-10M SpeakersMix Inducts the Yamaha NS10M
Speakers into the TECnology Hall of Fame. Mix (28 August 2008).
^ a b PR Newell, KR Holland & JP Newell. "The Yamaha NS10M: Twenty
Years a Reference Monitor. Why?". Report commissioned by Sound on
Sound, Institute of Acoustics (2001)
^ a b Bob Hodas. "Examining the Yamaha NS-10M 'Tissue Paper
Phenomenon' – An Analysis of the Industry-Wide Practice of Using a
Paper Layer to Reduce High-Frequency Output". Recording
Engineer/Producer Magazine, February 1986
^ Aguilar, John (2016-11-03). "Littleton TP's its own streets as a way
to fill its cracks — single-ply only". The Denver Post. Denver,
Colorado. Retrieved 2017-09-22.
^ Salter, Peter (2014-12-31). "City crews hitting the streets with
single-ply toilet paper". Lincoln Journal-Star. Lincoln, Nebraska.
^ Ojanpa, Brian (2011-08-12). "Road T.P. was his idea that stuck".
Mankato Free Press. Mankato, Minnesota. Retrieved 2017-09-22.
^ European Tissue Symposium "Facts and Figures". Retrieved on
^ European Tissue Symposium "Profile of the ETS". Retrieved on
^ Western European Tissue Consumption, 2010 - 2016
^ European Tissue Symposium "ETS: About Us". Retrieved on 2010-01-02
^ a b "Is tissue becoming a safe haven for the global pulp and paper
industry? Global paper and board industry is in transition".
^ Homepage – Producer for Sanitary
Paper - toilet paper, tissues,
kitchen towels and napkins
^ "Does your toilet paper cause rain forest destruction?". WWF.
^ Flushing Forests Worldwatch Institute
^ Don’t flush forests down the toilet WWF
Paper Online "Environmental Issues" Retrieved on 2010-02-04
^ European Disposables and Nonwoven Association "Sustainability and
Absorbent Hygiene Products" Retrieved on 2009-06-05
^ European Tissue Symposium "Sustainable Use of New and Recovered
Fibre Types" Retrieved on 2009-06-05
Paper Online "Environmental Reports" Retrieved on 2010-02-04
^ European Tissue Symposium "European-Wide Tissue Eco labels"
Units of paper quantity
Surface chemistry of paper
Manufacture and process
Bleaching of wood pulp
Environmental impact of paper
In the United States
List of paper mills