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TIRUNELVELI pronunciation (help ·info )), also known as NELLAI and historically (during British rule ) as TINNEVELLY, is a city in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
. It is the administrative headquarters of the Tirunelveli District . Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
is located 700 km (430 mi) southwest of the state capital, Chennai
Chennai
and 58 km (36 mi) away from Thoothukudi . Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
central street

The city is located on the west bank of the Thamirabarani River ; its twin city Palayamkottai is on the east bank. Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
is believed to be an ancient settlement; it has been ruled at different times by the Early Pandyas , the Medieval and Later Cholas , the later Pandyas, the Ma\'bar and Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
sultanates, the Vijayanagar Empire , the Madurai Nayaks
Madurai Nayaks
, Chanda Sahib , the Carnatic kingdom and the British . The Polygar War , involving Palaiyakkarars led by Veerapandiya Kattabomman and forces of the British East India Company, was waged on the city's outskirts from 1797 to 1801. Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
has a number of historical monuments, the Nellaiappar Temple
Nellaiappar Temple
being the most prominent.

Industries in Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
include administrative services, agricultural trading, tourism, banking, agricultural machinery and educational services. The city is an educational hub of southern Tamil Nadu, with institutions such as Tirunelveli Medical College , the Veterinary College and Research Institution, Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
Law College and the Government College of Engineering . Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
is administered by a municipal corporation with palayamkottai and Melapayalam municipalities, established in 1994 by the Municipal Corporation Act. The city covers an area of 189.9 km2 (73.3 sq mi), and had a population of 473,637 in 2011. Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
is well-connected by road and rail with the rest of Tamil Nadu.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Geography and climate * 4 Demographics * 5 Economy * 6 Administration and politics * 7 Transport * 8 Culture * 9 Education * 10 Utilities * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
was known in Sambandar 's seventh-century Saiva canonical work _ Tevaram _ as Thirunelveli. Nellaiappar temple inscriptions indicate that Shiva
Shiva
(as Vrihivritesvara) descended in the form of a hedge and roof to save the paddy crop of a devotee. In Hindu legend, the place was known as Venuvana ("forest of bamboo") due to the presence of bamboo in the temple under which the deity is believed to have appeared. The early Pandyas named the city Thenpandiyanadu, the Cholas Mudikonda Cholamandalam and the Nayaks Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
Seemai; it was known as Tinnelvelly by the British, and Thirunelveli after independence. The word _Tirunelveli_ is derived from three Tamil words: _thiru_, _nel_ and _veli_, meaning "sacred paddy hedge".

HISTORY

Sculpted pillar in Nellaiappar Temple
Nellaiappar Temple
(the largest temple in Tirunelveli)

The history of Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
was researched by Robert Caldwell (1814–91), a Christian missionary who visited the area. Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
was under the rule of Pandya kings as their secondary capital; Madurai
Madurai
was the empire's primary capital. The Pandya dynasty in the region dates to several centuries before the Christian era from inscriptions by Ashoka (304–232 BCE) and mention in the _Mahavamsa _, the _ Brihat-Samhita _ and the writings of Megasthenes (350–290 CE). The province came under the rule of Cholas under Rajendra Chola I in 1064 CE; however, it is unclear whether he conquered the region or obtained it voluntarily. Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
remained under control of the Cholas until the early 13th century, when the second Pandyan empire was established with Madurai
Madurai
as its capital.

The Nellaiappar temple was the royal shrine of the later Pandyas during the 13th and 14th centuries, and the city benefited from dams constructed with royal patronage during the period. After the death of Kulasekara Pandian (1268–1308), the region was occupied by Vijayangara rulers and Marava chieftains (palayakarars, or _poligars_) during the 16th century. The Maravars occupied the western foothills and the Telugas, and the Kannadigas settled in the black-soil-rich eastern portion. Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
was the subsidiary capital of the Madurai Nayaks ; under Viswanatha Nayak (1529–64), the city was rebuilt about 1560. Inscriptions from the Nellaiappar temple indicate generous contributions to the temple. Nayak rule ended in 1736, and the region was captured by Chanda Sahib (1740–1754), Arcot Nawab and Muhammed Yusuf Khan (1725–1764) during the mid-18th century.

In 1743 Nizam-ul-mulk, lieutenant of the Deccan Plateau , displaced most of the Marathas from the region and Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
came under the rule of the Nawabs of Arcot . The original power lay in the hands of the _polygars_, who were originally military chiefs of the Nayaks. The city was the chief commercial town during the Nawab and Nayak era. The city was known as Nellai Cheemai, with _Cheemai_ meaning "a developed foreign town". The _polygars_ built forts in the hills, had 30,000 troops and waged war among themselves. In 1755, the British government sent a mission under Major Heron and Mahfuz Khan which restored some order and bestowed the city to Mahfuz Khan. The _poligars_ waged war against Mahfuz Khan seven miles from Tirunelveli, but were defeated. The failure of Mahfuz Khan led the East India Company to send Muhammed Yusuf for help. Khan became ruler, rebelled in 1763 and was hanged in 1764. In 1758, British troops under Colonel Fullarton reduced the _polygar_ stronghold under Veerapandiya Kattabomman . In 1797, the first Polygar war broke out between the British (under Major Bannerman) and the _polygars_ (headed by Kattabomman). Some _polygars_ (such as the head of Ettaiyapuram) aided the British; Kattabomman was defeated and hanged in his home province of Panchalaguruchi. Two years later, another rebellion became known as the Second Polygar War. Panchalankuruchi fell to the British, after stiff resistance. The Carnatic region came under British rule following a treaty with the Nawab of Carnatic.

After acquiring Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
from the Nawab of Arcot in 1801, the British anglicised its name to "Tinnevelly" and made it the headquarters of Tinnelvelli District. The administrative and military headquarters was located in Palayamkottai (anglicised as "Palankottah"), from which attacks against the _polygars_ were launched. After independence both cities reverted to their original names, and Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
remained the capital of Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
district. A separate Thoothukudi district was split off in 1986. And now 30 April 2015 by BJP government it's known to be said as the one of the 100 smart cities of India

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

The Agasthiyamalai hills cut off Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
from the southwest monsoon , creating a rainshadow region.

Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
is located at 8°44′N 77°42′E / 8.73°N 77.7°E / 8.73; 77.7 , and its average elevation is 47 metres (154 ft). It is located at the southernmost tip of the Deccan plateau. The Tamirabarani River divides the city into the Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
quarter and the Palayamkottai area. The river (with its tributaries, such as the Chittar) is the major source of irrigation, and is fed by the northeast and southwest monsoons. The major lakes in the city are Nainar Lake and Udayarpetti Lake. The area around the Tamirabarani River and the Chittar has five streams: Kodagan, Palayan, Tirunelveli, Marudur East and Marudur West, and the Chittar feeds fifteen other channels. The soil is friable, red and sandy.

The climate of Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
is generally hot and humid. The average temperature during summer (March to June) ranges from 25 °C (77 °F) to 41 °C (106 °F), and 18 °C (64 °F) to 29 °C (84 °F) during the rest of the year. The average annual rainfall is 680 millimetres (27 in). Maximum precipitation occurs during the northeast monsoon (October–December). Since the economy of the district is primarily based on agriculture, flooding of the Tamarabarani River or a fluctuation in monsoon rain has an immediate impact on the local economy. The primary crops grown in the region are paddy and cotton. Pineapples were introduced during the 16th century, chilly and tobacco during the late 16th and potatoes during the early 17th centuries. The most common tree is the palmyra palm , a raw material in cottage industries. Other trees grown in the region are teak , wild jack, _manjakadambu_, _venteak_, _vengai_, _pillaimaruthu_, _karimaruthu_ and bamboo. Livestock of the city and district comprises cattle, buffalo, goats, sheep and other animals in smaller numbers.

CLIMATE DATA FOR TIRUNELVELI, TAMIL NADU

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 30.5 (86.9) 32.4 (90.3) 34.6 (94.3) 34.9 (94.8) 35.6 (96.1) 34.6 (94.3) 33.5 (92.3) 34.0 (93.2) 34.3 (93.7) 32.9 (91.2) 30.4 (86.7) 30.0 (86) 33.14 (91.65)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 22.3 (72.1) 22.7 (72.9) 24.4 (75.9) 25.8 (78.4) 26.9 (80.4) 26.5 (79.7) 26.2 (79.2) 26.2 (79.2) 25.7 (78.3) 24.9 (76.8) 23.6 (74.5) 22.6 (72.7) 24.82 (76.68)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 34 (1.34) 29 (1.14) 36 (1.42) 66 (2.6) 42 (1.65) 16 (0.63) 13 (0.51) 19 (0.75) 35 (1.38) 166 (6.54) 195 (7.68) 101 (3.98) 752 (29.62)

Source: Climate-Data.org

Panoramic view of Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
as viewed from the Palayamkottai bank of river Thamirabarani . Sulochana Mudaliar bridge, the 12-arch link between both cities, is on the far right of this Deepavali 2009 image.

DEMOGRAPHICS

According to 2011 census , Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
had a population of 473,637 with a sex-ratio of 1,027 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929. A total of 46,624 were under the age of six, constituting 23,894 males and 22,730 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 13.17% and .32% of the population respectively. Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
had a literacy rate of 91 percent, with male literacy 95 percent and female literacy 87 percent. The city had a total of 120,466 households. There were a total of 182,471 workers, comprising 2,088 cultivators, 5,515 main agricultural labourers, 18,914 in house hold industries, 142,435 other workers, 13,519 marginal workers, 166 marginal cultivators, 913 marginal agricultural labourers, 1,828 marginal workers in household industries and 10,612 other marginal workers.

The city covers an area of 108.65 square kilometres (41.95 sq mi). The population density of the city in the 2001 census was 3,781 persons per square kilometre, compared with 2,218 persons per square kilometre in 1971. Hindus form the majority of the urban population, followed by Muslims and Christians. Tamil is the main language spoken in the city, but the use of English is relatively common; English is the medium of instruction in most educational institutions and offices in the service sector. The Tamil dialect spoken in this region is distinct, and is widely spoken throughout Tamil Nadu.

ECONOMY

Inscriptions from the eighth to the 14th centuries (during the rule of the Pandyas, Cholas and later Tenkasi Pandyas) indicate the growth of Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
as a centre of economic growth which developed around the Nellaiappar temple. The drier parts of the province also flourished during the rule of the Vijayanagara kings. From 1550 until the early modern era, migration to the city from other parts of the state was common and the urban regions became hubs of manufacturing and commerce. Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
was a strategic point, connecting the eastern and western parts of the peninsula, as well as a trading centre. Records of sea and overland trade between 1700 and 1850 indicate close trading connections with Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and Kerala
Kerala
. During the 1840s, cotton produced in the region was in demand for British mills. The chief exports during British rule were cotton, jaggery , chillies, tobacco, palmyra fibre, salt, dried saltwater fish and cattle.

Occupations in Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
include service-sector activities such as administration, agricultural trading, tourism, banking, agro-machinery and educational services. In 1991, the Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
region ranked second in the number of women workers. Service sectors such as tourism have developed, due to a growth in religious tourism. Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
has beedi and cement factories, tobacco companies, workshops for steel-based products and mills for cotton textiles, spinning and weaving; there are also small-scale industries, such as tanneries and brick kilns. The agricultural areas, hand-woven clothes and household industries contribute to the economic growth of the city. Food-processing industries have developed since the late 1990s; at the district level, it is the foremost industrial segment. Industries involving rice-making, blue-jelly metal manufacturing and jem power generating are located on the outskirts of the city. The major agricultural produce in the region is paddy and cotton. Beedi production during the 1990s earned an annual revenue of ₹190 billion and a foreign exchange of ₹8 billion across the three districts of Tirunelveli, Tiruchirapalli
Tiruchirapalli
and Vellore.

Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
is a major area for wind-power generation. Most wind-power-generation units in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
are located in Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari
Kanyakumari
Districts. In 2005 they contributed 2036.9 MW to the state power-generation capacity. Many private, multinational wind companies are located on the outskirts of the city. In June 2007 the Tata Group signed a memorandum of understanding with the state government to open a titanium dioxide plant, with an estimated value of ₹25 billion, in Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
and Thoothukudi Districts . However, the state government put the project on hold after increasing protests against it.

ADMINISTRATION AND POLITICS

MUNICIPAL OFFICIALS

Chairman vacant

Commissioner S.Sivasubramaniam

Vice-Chairman vacant

ELECTED MEMBERS

Member of Legislative Assembly A.L.S.Lakshmanan

Member of Parliament K. R. P. Prabakaran

The Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
Corporation was established in 1866 during British rule. It became a municipal corporation in 1994, bringing the Palayamkottai and Melapalayam municipalities, the Thatchanallur town panchayat and eleven other village panchayats within the city limits. The municipal corporation has four zones: Tirunelveli, Thatchanallur, Palayamkottai and Melapalayam. The corporation has 55 wards, with an elected councillor for each ward. The corporation has six departments: general administration and personnel, engineering, revenue, public health, city planning and information technology (IT). All departments are under the control of a municipal commissioner. Legislative power is vested in a body of 55 members, one from each ward. The legislative body is headed by an elected chairperson, assisted by a deputy. Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
city is district headquarters for the Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
district.

The city is part of the Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
assembly constituency, electing a member to the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Legislative Assembly every five years. Since the 1977 elections, the assembly seat was held by the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) for four terms (following the 1989, 1996,2006 and 2016 elections and the All India Anna Dravid Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) for six terms following the 1977, 1980, 1984, 1991, 2001 and 2011 elections. The current MLA is A.L.S.Lakshmanan (DMK).

Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
is a part of the Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
Lok Sabha constituency , with ten assembly constituencies: Tirunelveli, Vasudevanallur (SC) , Sankarankoil (SC) , Kalayanallur, Nanguneri , Ambasamudram , Tenkasi , Alangulam , Radhapuram and Palayamkottai . The current Member of Parliament from the constituency is K.R.P. Prabakaran of the AI ADMK . Since 1957, the Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
parliament seat was held by the Indian National Congress for four terms: 1957–1961, 1962–67, 2004–09 and 2009-14. The Swantantra Party and the CPI won once each, from 1967–71 and 1971–77 respectively. The DMK won the seat twice: 1980–84 and 1996–98. The ADMK won the seat seven times: 1977–80, 1984–89, 1989–91, 1991–96, 1998, 1999–2004 and 2014 elections.

Order in the city is maintained by the Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
division of the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Police , headed by a commissioner of Police. There are units for prohibition enforcement, district crime, social justice and human rights, district crime records and a special branch operating at the district level, each headed by a deputy superintendent of police.

TRANSPORT

Main article: Transport in Tirunelveli Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
railway junction Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
junction name board

Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
has an extensive transport network and is well-connected to other major cities by road, rail and air. The corporation maintains a total of 763.3 km (474.3 mi) of roads. The city has 134.88 km (83.81 mi) of concrete roads, 375.51 km (233.33 mi) of BT roads, 94.291 km (58.590 mi) of water-bound macadam roads, 76.31 km (47.42 mi) of unpaved roads and 82.3 km (51.1 mi) of highways. Twenty-two kilometres (fourteen miles) of highway are maintained by the State Highways Department and thirty kilometres (nineteen miles) by the National Highways Department. In 1844 a bridge was built by Colonel Horsley across the Tamirabarani River, connecting Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
to Palayamkottai. The city is located on NH 7 , 150 km (93 mi) south of Madurai
Madurai
and 91 km (57 mi) north of Kanyakumari
Kanyakumari
. NH 7A, an extension of NH 7, connects Palayamkottai with Tuticorin
Tuticorin
Port. Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
is also connected by major highways to Kollam
Kollam
, Tiruchendur , Rajapalayam , Sankarankovil
Sankarankovil
, Ambasamudram and Nazareth
Nazareth
.

The main bus stand (popularly known as the New Bus Stand), opened in 2003, is located in Veinthaankulam and there is regular bus service to and from the city. Other bus stands (for intracity service) are the Junction and Palay bus stands and recently vannarpettai byepass.. The Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
State Transport Corporation has daily service to a number of cities, and the corporation operates a computerised reservation centre in the main bus stand. It also operates local buses serving the city and neighbouring villages. The State Express Transport Corporation has intercity service to Bangalore
Bangalore
, Chennai
Chennai
, Kanyakumari and other cities.

Tirunelveli Junction railway station is one of the oldest railway stations in India. The line from Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
to Sengottai was opened in 1903; the connection to Quilon , which was completed later, was the most important trade route to Travancore province in British India. The city is connected to major cities in all four directions: Madurai and Sankarankovil
Sankarankovil
to the north, Nagercoil to the south, Sengottai and Kollam
Kollam
to the west and Tiruchendur to the east. Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
is also connected to major Indian cities with daily service to Chennai
Chennai
, Coimbatore
Coimbatore
, Tiruchirappalli
Tiruchirappalli
, Madurai
Madurai
, Salem , Kanyakumari
Kanyakumari
, Mumbai , Guruvayur , Howrah
Howrah
, Delhi
Delhi
and Trivandrum
Trivandrum
. There is passenger service to Madurai
Madurai
, Tiruchendur , Tiruchirapalli
Tiruchirapalli
and Kollam
Kollam
.

The nearest airport to Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
is Tuticorin Airport (TCR) at Vaagaikulam in Thoothukkudi District, 22 km (14 mi) east of the city, which offers daily flights to Chennai. The nearest international airports are Madurai
Madurai
International Airport , 150 km (93 mi) away and Thiruvananthapuram International Airport (TRV), about 130 km (81 mi) away.

CULTURE

Nellaiappar Temple
Nellaiappar Temple
is a Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva
Shiva
in the form of Nellaiappar. The deity is revered in the verses of _ Tevaram _, a seventh-century Saiva work by Sambandar . The temple was greatly expanded during the 16th-century Nayak period and has a number of architectural attractions, including musical pillars. The temple has several festivals, the foremost an annual festival when the temple chariot is brought around the streets near the temple. It is one of the _ Pancha Sabhai _ temples, the five royal courts of Nataraja
Nataraja
(the dancing form of Shiva), where he performed a cosmic dance. The Nataraja
Nataraja
shrine in the temple represents copper, and features many copper sculptures. Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
has its fair share of temples, dating back to ancient times. It also prides itself as being the site where the Nellaiappar Temple
Nellaiappar Temple
is located, the state’s largest Shiva
Shiva
Temple

Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
is also known for halwa , a sweet made of wheat, sugar and ghee. It originated during the mid-1800s at Lakshmi Vilas Stores, which still exist. The art of sweet-making spread to other parts of Tamil Nadu, such as Nagercoil , Srivilliputhur and Thoothukudi . Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
halwa was popularised by Irutukadai Halwa, a shop opened in 1900 which sells the sweets only during twilight. Tirunelveli Melting Halwas is the first branded halwa manufactured by Melting Foods India which is now spread across the world. Central Theatre, Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli

Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
has a number of cinemas which predominantly play Tamil movies. It is among the 40 cities in India with FM radio stations. Tirunelveli's stations are Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
Vanoli Nilayam (All India Radio , from the Government of India), Suryan FM (operated by Sun Network on 93.5 MHz) and Hello FM (operated by the Malai Malar Group on 106.4 MHz).

A number of state- and national-level sports events are sponsored in Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
annually. The VOC grounds (in central Palayamkottai) and the Anna Stadium (on St. Thomas Road) are popular venues in the city, and some events are held at scholastic sports facilities. As in India generally, the most popular sport is cricket . Also popular are football, volleyball, swimming and hockey, played on facilities provided by the Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
Division of the Sports Development Authority of Tamil Nadu.

The Government Exhibition, an annual event at Exhibition Grounds, attracts thousands of visitors from in and around Tirunelveli. Near the city are regional tourist attractions such as the Manimuthar and Papanasam Dams, the Ariakulam and Koonthakulam Bird Sanctuaries,mundanthurai tiger reserve, Manjolai and Upper Kodaiyar,very famous cuttralam water falls.

EDUCATION

Tirunelveli Medical College auditorium

During the 1790s, Tamil Christians established a number of schools in Tirunelveli. The missionary educational system included primary and boarding schools, seminaries, industrial schools, orphanages and colleges. The first boarding school for girls was opened in 1821, but its efforts were hampered by the emphasis on Christian education. Thomas Munro (1761 – 1827 CE) of the British East India Company established a two-tier school system: district schools, teaching law, and sub-district schools teaching vernacular languages in the Madras Presidency . Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
had four sub-district schools: two teaching Tamil and one each for Telugu and Persian.

Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
has 80 schools: 29 higher secondary schools, 12 high schools, 22 middle schools and 17 primary schools; the city corporation operates 33 of these schools. The city has eight arts and science colleges and six professional colleges. The Manonmaniam Sundaranar University is named for poet Manonmaniam Sundaranar, who wrote _"Tamil Thai Vazhthu"_ the state anthem. Most Christian schools and colleges in the city are located in the Palayamkottai area. famous schools like cathidral hr.sec.school,marry sargent hr.sec.school,st.johns hr.sec.school,sara tucker hr.sec.school,st.xeviers hr.sec.school.

Anna University of Technology Tirunelveli was established in 2007, offering a variety of engineering and technology courses for undergraduate and graduate students. Tirunelveli Medical College , Veterinary College and Research Institution and the Government College of Engineering, Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
are professional colleges operated by the government of Tamil Nadu. The Jesuit St. Xavier's College, and St. John's College (operated by the Church of South India diocese), MDT Hindu College, Sadakathulla Appa College and Sarah Tucker College are notable arts colleges.

The Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (IIG) operates a regional unit, the Equatorial Geophysical Research Laboratory, conducting research in geomagnetism and atmospheric and space sciences. The city has a District Science Centre (a satellite unit of Visvesvaraya Industrial and Technological Museum , Bangalore
Bangalore
) with permanent exhibitions, science shows, interactive self-guided tours, a mini-planetarium and sky observation.

Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
and the district have a high rate of child labour. The drop in female school attendance between ages 15 and 19 is almost four times greater than that in the rest of Tamil Nadu.

UTILITIES

Electric service to Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
is regulated and distributed by the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Electricity Board (TNEB). The city is headquarters for the Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
region of the four-division TNEB and, with its suburbs, forms the Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
Electricity Distribution Circle. A chief distribution engineer is stationed at regional headquarters. Water supply is provided by the Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
City
City
Corporation from the Tamirabarani River, throughout the city.

About 100 metric tonnes of solid waste are collected from the city daily in door-to-door collection; source segregation and disposal is performed by the sanitary department of the Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
Municipal Corporation. The underground drainage system was constituted in 1998, covering 22 percent of the corporation area. The remaining system for disposal of sewage is through septic tanks and public conveniences. The corporation maintains a total of 184.8 kilometres (114.8 mi) of stormwater drains, 27 percent of the total road length. The clinics operated by the corporation provide primary health care to the urban poor through family-welfare and immunisation programs. In addition, there are private hospitals and clinics providing health care to citizens.

Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
is part of the Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
Telecom District of Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), India's state-owned telecom and internet-services provider. Both Global System for Mobile Communications ( GSM
GSM
) and Code division multiple access (CDMA) mobile services are available. In addition to telecommunications, BSNL also provides broadband internet service. Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
is one of a few cities in India where BSNL's Caller Line Identification (CLI)-based internet service, Netone, is available. The city has a Passport Seva Kendra, a public-private-sector collaboration, which accepts passport applications from the Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
region for the passport office in Madurai.

NOTES

* ^ "Census 2011". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 29 May 2016. * ^ Moondram Thirumurai . * ^ _A_ _B_ Ayyar 1991 , pp. 498–499. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Kanmony 2010 , p. 42. * ^ _A_ _B_ Caldwell 1989 , p. 88. * ^ P. 2008 , p. 67. * ^ Caldwell 1989 . * ^ Daughrity 2005 . * ^ Mission Studies 2007 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Stein et al. 1989 , p. 79. * ^ Caldwell 1989 , p. 23-30. * ^ Salma Ahmed 2011 , p. 26. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Hunter 1908 , pp. 379–380. * ^ Harman 1992 , pp. 30–36. * ^ _A_ _B_ W. 2002 , p. 214-221. * ^ _The Hindu_ & 19 May 2007 . * ^ Hunter 1908 , pp. 375–379. * ^ Caldwell 1989 , p. 93-96. * ^ Falling Rain Genomics . * ^ Hunter 1908 , p. 215. * ^ Subrahmanyam 1990 , p. 28. * ^ Soundarapandian 2002 , p. 48. * ^ "CLIMATE: TIRUNELVELI, Tamil Nadu", Climate-Data.org. Web: . * ^ Census dashboard 2011 . * ^ Census of India 2011 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ About the city . * ^ Census of India 2001 . * ^ Kumar 2003 , pp. 113–115. * ^ Kumar 2003 , pp. 112. * ^ Hunter 1908 , p. 372. * ^ Kapadia 2002 , p. 74. * ^ _A_ _B_ Urban Infrastructure report 2007 , p. 15. * ^ Soundarapandian 2002 , p. 49. * ^ Soundarapandian 2002 , pp. 52–53. * ^ _A_ _B_ Ramchandani 2000 , p. 144. * ^ Soundarapandian 2002 , p. 160. * ^ _The Economic Times_ & 26 July 2012 . * ^ _The Indian Express_ & 31 July 2007 . * ^ Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
Municipality
Municipality
chairman 2011 . * ^ Tirunelveli
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Municipality
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vice-chairman 2011 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ MP of Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
2014 . * ^ About Corporation 2011 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Commissionerate of Municipal Administration 2006 . * ^ List of Councillors 2011 . * ^ Economic and political weekly 1995 . * ^ List of Assembly constituencies 2010 . * ^ Partywise Comparison Since 1977 2011 . * ^ Parliamentary constituency map 2008 . * ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1957 to the Second Lok Sabha . * ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1962 to the Third Lok Sabha . * ^ Key highlights of the general elections 2004 to the Fourteenth Lok Sabha . * ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1967 to the Fourth Lok Sabha . * ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1971 to the Fifth Lok Sabha . * ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1980 to the Seventh Lok Sabha . * ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1996 to the Eleventh Lok Sabha . * ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1977 to the Sixth Lok Sabha . * ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1984 to the Eighth Lok Sabha . * ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1989 to the Ninth Lok Sabha . * ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1991 to the Tenth Lok Sabha . * ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1998 to the Twelfth Lok Sabha . * ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1999 to the Thirteenth Lok Sabha . * ^ _A_ _B_ Tirunelveli district police 2011 . * ^ Urban Infrastructure report 2007 , p. 19. * ^ Caldwell 1989 , p. 89. * ^ SETC Computer reservation centres 2004 . * ^ Hunter 1908 , pp. 373. * ^ Trains to Tirunelveli
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. * ^ Soundara Rajan 2001 , p. 63. * ^ Kumar 2001 , p. 184. * ^ Smith 1996 , pp. 10–48. * ^ _The Hindu_ & 23 June 2012 . * ^ _The Hindu_ & 21 April 2011 . * ^ _Business Line_ & 26 February 2003 . * ^ _The Hindu_ & 10 January 2007 . * ^ Sports Development Authority . * ^ _The Hindu_ & 24 June 2012 . * ^ Tourism in Tirunelveli
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. * ^ Lewis 2004 , p. 117. * ^ O\'Connor 2000 , p. 285. * ^ Forbes 1996 , p. 39. * ^ Manohar 2007 , p. 2. * ^ Raman 2012 , pp. 102–103. * ^ _A_ _B_ Urban Infrastructure report 2007 , p. 21. * ^ Nellai Medical College . * ^ Veterinary College . * ^ Government College of Engineering, Tirunelveli . * ^ Equatorial Geophysical Research Laboratory, Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
(T.N) . * ^ Visvesvaraya Satellite Centre . * ^ _The Hindu_ & 17 January 2007 . * ^ Kapadia 2002 , p. 111. * ^ Kapadia 2002 , p. 75. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Important Address of TNEB . * ^ Urban Infrastructure report 2007 , p. 17. * ^ Water Supply Details . * ^ Waste management programme 2011 . * ^ Urban Infrastructure report 2007 , p. 18. * ^ Tirunelveli
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hospitals 2011 . * ^ List of cities where BSNL broadband service is available (As on 1 January 2007) . * ^ List of cities where Calling Line Identification (CLI) Based Internet Service is available . * ^ _The Hindu_ -webkit-column-count: 3; column-count: 3;">

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