TIRONIAN NOTES (Latin: notae Tironianae; or TIRONIAN SHORTHAND) is a
system of shorthand invented by
Tiro (94 – 4 BC), Marcus Tullius
Cicero 's slave and personal secretary, and later his freedman.
Tiro's system consisted of about 4,000 abstract symbols that were
extended in classical times to 5,000 signs. During the medieval period
, Tiro's notation system was taught in European monasteries and was
extended to about 13,000 signs.
* 1 Note on sign counts
* 2 History
* 2.1 Development * 2.2 Controversy * 2.3 Introduction * 2.4 Expansion * 2.5 Use in the Middle Ages
* 3 Current * 4 Support on computers * 5 Gallery * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links
NOTE ON SIGN COUNTS
Tironian et, U+ 204A ⟨⁊⟩.
Nicknamed "the father of stenography" by historians, Tiro (94 BC – 4 AD) was a slave and later a freedman who served as Marcus Tullius Cicero 's (106 – 43 BC) personal secretary. Like others in his position, Tiro was required to quickly and accurately transcribe dictations from Cicero, such as speeches, professional and personal correspondence, and business transactions, sometimes while walking through the Forum or during fast-paced and contentious government and legal proceedings.
The only systematized form of abbreviation in Latin at the time was used for legal notations (notae juris), but it was deliberately abstruse and only accessible to people with specialized knowledge. Otherwise shorthand was improvised for note-taking or writing personal communications and these notations would not have been understood outside of closed circles. Some abbreviations of Latin words and phrases were commonly recognized, such as those inscribed on monuments, but according to literature professor Anthony Di Renzo, "Up to this point, no true Latin shorthand existed".
Scholars believe that after learning about the intricacies of the
Greek shorthand system, Cicero recognized the need for a
Latin notation system and delegated the task
of creating one to his slave, Tiro, whose highly refined and accurate
method became the first standardized and widely adopted system of
Dio Cassius attributes the invention of shorthand to Maecenas , and
states that he employed his freedman Aquila in teaching the system to
Isidore of Seville , however, details another
version of the early history of the system, ascribing the invention of
the art to Quintus
Ennius , who he says invented 1100 marks (
notae). Isidore states that
Tiro brought the practice to Rome, but
This only of all Cato's speeches, it is said, was preserved; for Cicero, the consul, had disposed in various parts of the senate-house, several of the most expert and rapid writers, whom he had taught to make figures comprising numerous words in a few short strokes; as up to that time they had not used those we call shorthand writers, who then, as it is said, established the first example of the art. — Plutarch, "Life of Cato the Younger"
There are no surviving copies of Tiro's original manual and code, so our knowledge of it is based on biographical records and copies of Tironian tables from the medieval period . Historians typically date the invention of Tiro's system as 63 BC, when it was first used in official government business according to Plutarch in his biography of Cato the Younger in The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans (1683). Before Tiro's system was institutionalized, he used it himself as he was developing and fine-tuning it, which historians suspect may have been as early as early as 75 BC when Cicero held public office in Sicily and needed his notes and correspondences to be written in code to protect sensitive information he had gathered about corruption among other government officials there.
There is evidence that Tiro taught his system to Cicero and his other scribes, and possibly to his friends and family, before it was widely used. In "Life of Cato the Younger", Plutarch wrote that during Senate hearings in 65 BC relating to the first Catilinarian conspiracy , Tiro and Cicero's other secretaries were in the audience meticulously and rapidly transcribing Cicero's oration. On many of the oldest Tironian tables, lines from this speech were frequently used as examples, leading scholars to theorize it was originally transcribed using Tironian shorthand. Scholars also believe that in preparation for speeches, Tiro drafted outlines in shorthand that Cicero used as notes while speaking.
Isidore tells of the development of additional
USE IN THE MIDDLE AGES
Entering the Middle Ages, Tiro's shorthand was often used in combination with other abbreviations and the original symbols were expanded to 14,000 symbols during the Carolingian dynasty , but it quickly fell out of favor as shorthand became associated with witchcraft and magic and was forgotten until interest was rekindled by Thomas Becket , archbishop of Canterbury , in the 12th century. In the 15th century Johannes Trithemius, abbot of the Benedictine abbey of Sponheim, discovered the notae Benenses: a psalm and a Ciceronian lexicon written in Tironian shorthand.
A pay and display sign in Dublin with the Tironian et for the Irish agus ("and").
In blackletter texts (especially in German printing) it was used in the abbreviation ⟨⁊c.⟩ = etc. (for et cetera ) still throughout the 19th century.
The Tironian "et" can look very similar to an r rotunda , ⟨ꝛ⟩, depending on the typeface .
Old English manuscripts, the Tironian "et" served as both a
phonetic and morphological place holder. For instance a Tironian "et"
between two words would be phonetically pronounced "ond" and would
mean "and". However, if the Tironian "et" followed the letter "s",
then it would be phonetically pronounced "sond" and mean water
Modern English sound ). This additional function of a
phonetic as well as a conjunction placeholder has escaped formal
Modern English ; for example, one may not spell the word "sand" as
"s&" (although this occurs in an informal style practised on certain
internet forums). This practice was distinct from the occasional use
of "&c." for "etc.", where the on macOS and iOS devices in
Some applications (for example the
Scottish Gaelic localisations of
A number of other Tironian signs have been assigned to the Private
Use Area of
Unicode by the
Medieval Unicode Font Initiative
Psalm 68. Manuscript, 9th century *
Tironian note glossary from the 8th century, codex Casselanus *
Tironian et in the abbreviation "etc." at the end of the nobility title list. German printing, 1768
* Ampersand * Gaelic script
* ^ Di Renzo, Anthony (2000), "His Master\'s Voice: Tiro and the Rise of the Roman Secretarial Class" (PDF), Journal of Technical Writing & Communication, 30 (2), retrieved 31 July 2016 * ^ Guénin, Louis-Prosper; Guénin, Eugène (1908), Histoire de la sténographie dans l'antiquité et au moyen-âge; les notes tironiennes (in French), Paris, Hachette et cie, OCLC 301255530 * ^ A B Mitzschke, Paul Gottfried; Lipsius, Justus; Heffley, Norman P (1882), Biography of the father of stenography, Marcus Tullius Tiro. Together with the Latin letter, "De notis", concerning the origin of shorthand, Brooklyn, N.Y, OCLC 11943552 * ^ Kopp, Ulrich Friedrich; Bischoff, Bernhard (1965), Lexicon Tironianum (in German), Osnabrück, Zeller, OCLC 2996309 * ^ A B C D E F Di Renzo, Anthony (2000), "His Master\'s Voice: Tiro and the Rise of the Roman Secretarial Class" (PDF), Journal of Technical Writing & Communication, 30 (2), retrieved 31 July 2016 * ^ Dio Cassius. Roman History. 55.7.6 * ^ A B Isidorus. Etymologiae or Originum I.21ff, Gothofred, editor * ^ Plutarch (1683), "Life of Cato the Younger", The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans, translated by John Dryden * ^ Bankston, Zach (2012), "Administrative Slavery in the Ancient Roman Republic: The Value of Marcus Tullius Tiro in Ciceronian Rhetoric", Rhetoric Review, 31 (3): 203–218, doi :10.1080/07350198.2012.683991 * ^ Russon, Allien R. (n.d.), "Shorthand", Encyclopædia Britannica Online, retrieved 1 August 2016 * ^ David A. King, The ciphers of the monks: a forgotten number-notation of the Middle Ages * ^ Dwelly, William Robertson, Michael Bauer, Edward. "Am Faclair Beag - Scottish Gaelic Dictionary". www.faclair.com. * ^ Cox, Richard (1991). Brìgh nam Facal. Roinn nan Cànan Ceilteach. p. V. ISBN 0903204-21-5 .
Look up ⁊ or VIZ. in