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Tipu Sultan
Sultan
(born Sultan
Sultan
Fateh Ali
Ali
Sahab Tipu,[2] 20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799), also known as the Tipu Sahib,[3] was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore. He was the eldest son of Sultan
Sultan
Hyder Ali
Ali
of Mysore.[4] Tipu Sultan
Sultan
introduced a number of administrative innovations during his rule,[5] including his coinage, a new Mauludi lunisolar calendar,[6] and a new land revenue system which initiated the growth of the Mysore
Mysore
silk industry.[7] He expanded the iron-cased Mysorean rockets
Mysorean rockets
and commissioned the military manual Fathul Mujahidin, and is considered a pioneer in the use of rocket artillery.[8] He deployed the rockets against advances of British forces and their allies during the Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
Wars, including the Battle of Pollilur
Battle of Pollilur
and Siege of Seringapatam. He also embarked on an ambitious economic development program that established Mysore
Mysore
as a major economic power, with some of the world's highest real wages and living standards in the late 18th century.[9] Napoleon
Napoleon
was the French commander-in-chief, and he sought an alliance with Tipu Sultan. Both Tipu Sultan
Sultan
and his father used their French-trained army[10] in alliance with the French in their struggle with the British, and in Mysore's struggles with other surrounding powers, against the Marathas, Sira, and rulers of Malabar, Kodagu, Bednore, Carnatic, and Travancore. Tipu's father, Hyder Ali, rose to power in Mysore, and Tipu succeeded to a large kingdom upon his father's death in 1782, bordered by the Krishna River
Krishna River
in the north, the Eastern Ghats
Eastern Ghats
in the east, and the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
in the west.[11] He won important victories against the British in the Second Anglo-Mysore War and negotiated the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore with them after his father died from cancer in December 1782 during the Second Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
War. Tipu became involved in conflicts with his neighbors, including the Maratha– Mysore
Mysore
War which ended with Maratha
Maratha
and Tipu signing treaty of Gajendragad,[12] as per which Tipu Sultan
Sultan
was obligated to pay 4.8 million rupees as a one time war cost to the Marathas, and an annual tribute of 1.2 million rupees, In addition to returning all the territory captured by Hyder Ali.[13][14] Tipu remained an implacable enemy of the British East India Company, renewing conflict with his attack on British-allied Travancore
Travancore
in 1789. In the Third Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
War, he was forced into the Treaty of Seringapatam, losing a number of previously conquered territories, including Malabar and Mangalore. He sent emissaries to foreign states, including the Ottoman Empire, Afghanistan, and France, in an attempt to rally opposition to the British. In the Fourth Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
War, the forces of the British East India Company were supported by the Nizam
Nizam
of Hyderabad. They defeated Tipu, and he was killed on 4 May 1799 while defending his fort of Srirangapatna. He was one of the few South Indian
South Indian
kings to provide stiff resistance to British imperialism, along with Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
and Kerala Varma Pazhassi. He is applauded as a ruler who fought against British colonialism.[15] Similarly he has been a controversial figure and criticized for his atrocities against Hindus, Christians, and Mappla Muslims.[16][17]

Contents

1 Early years

1.1 Childhood 1.2 Early military service 1.3 Second Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
War

1.3.1 Tanjore abductions

2 Ruler of the Mysore
Mysore
State

2.1 Foreign relations 2.2 Conflicts with Maratha
Maratha
Confederacy 2.3 The Invasion of Malabar by Sultanate of Mysore
Mysore
(1766–1790) 2.4 Third Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
War 2.5 Napoleon's attempt at a junction

3 Death

3.1 Fourth Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
War

4 Leadership, policy, and innovations

4.1 Mysorean rockets 4.2 Mysorean Navy 4.3 Economic development program 4.4 Promotion of the Urdu
Urdu
language

5 Religious policy

5.1 British accounts 5.2 Relations with Muslims 5.3 Relations with Hindus

5.3.1 Hindu
Hindu
officers 5.3.2 Regular endowments to 156 Hindu
Hindu
temples 5.3.3 Sringeri
Sringeri
incident, Maratha
Maratha
sacking, and rebuilding temple 5.3.4 Controversial figure 5.3.5 Treatment of Lingayats 5.3.6 Treatment of Hindus
Hindus
outside Mysore

5.4 Inscriptions 5.5 Relations with Christians 5.6 Treatment of prisoners

6 Legacy

6.1 Family 6.2 Sword and tiger 6.3 Tipu Jayanti 6.4 In fiction

7 Image gallery 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Early years[edit] Childhood[edit]

Tippu Birthplace, Devanahalli

Tipu Sultan
Sultan
confronts his opponents during the Siege of Srirangapatna.

Tipu Sultan
Sultan
was born on 20 November 1750 (Friday, 20th Dhu al-Hijjah, 1163 AH) at Devanahalli,[1] in present-day Bangalore
Bangalore
Rural district, about 33 km (21 mi) north of Bangalore
Bangalore
city. He was named "Tipu Sultan" after the saint Tipu Mastan Aulia of Arcot. Tipu was also called " Sultan
Sultan
Sayyid
Sayyid
walShareef Fateh Ali
Ali
Khan Tipu" after his grandfather Fath Muhammad. Tipu was born at Devanhalli
Devanhalli
in a Najeeb AlTarfayn Sayyid
Sayyid
family meaning having ancestry to both Imams
Imams
Hassan and Hussain, as the son of Hyder Ali.[citation needed] Being illiterate, Hyder was very particular in giving his eldest son a prince's education and a very early exposure to military and political affairs. From the age of 17 Tipu was given independent charge of important diplomatic and military missions. He was his father's right arm in the wars from which Hyder emerged as the most powerful ruler of southern India.[citation needed] Tipu's father, Hyder Ali, was a military officer in service to the Kingdom of Mysore; he rapidly rose in power, seized power and became the de facto ruler of Mysore
Mysore
in 1761. Hyder himself claimed descent from the Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
clan of the Quraysh tribe
Quraysh tribe
of Arabs[citation needed], the tribe of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad
Muhammad
through his ancestor Sayyid
Sayyid
walShareef Hassan bin Yahya who was the Sherif of Makkah. Hyder's father, Fath Muhammad, was born in Kolar, and served as a commander of 50 men in the bamboo rocket artillery (mainly used for signalling) in the army of the Nawab
Nawab
of Carnatic. Fateh Muhammad eventually entered the service of the Wodeyar Rajas of the Kingdom of Mysore. Tipu's mother Fatima Fakhr-un-Nisa was the daughter of Mir Muin-ud-Din, the governor of the fort of Kadapa. Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
appointed able teachers to give Tipu an early education in subjects like Urdu, Persian, Arabic, Kannada, Quran, Islamic jurisprudence, riding, shooting and fencing.[1] Early military service[edit]

A flintlock blunderbuss, built for Tipu Sultan
Sultan
in Srirangapatna, 1793–94. Tipu Sultan
Sultan
used many Western craftsmen, and this gun reflects the most up-to-date technologies of the time.[18]

Tipu Sultan
Sultan
was instructed in military tactics by French officers in the employment of his father. At age 15, he accompanied his father against the British in the First Mysore
Mysore
War in 1766. He commanded a corps of cavalry in the invasion of Carnatic in 1767 at age 16. He also distinguished himself in the First Anglo-Maratha War
First Anglo-Maratha War
of 1775–1779.[19] Alexander Beatson, who published a volume on the Fourth Mysore
Mysore
War entitled View of the Origin and Conduct of the War with Tippoo Sultaun, described Tipu Sultan
Sultan
as follows: "His stature was about five feet eight inches; he had a short neck, square shoulders, and was rather corpulent: his limbs were small, particularly his feet and hands; he had large full eyes, small arched eyebrows, and an aquiline nose; his complexion was fair, and the general expression of his countenance, not void of dignity".[20] Second Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
War[edit] Main article: Second Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
War In 1779, the British captured the French-controlled port of Mahé, which Tipu had placed under his protection, providing some troops for its defence. In response, Hyder launched an invasion of the Carnatic, with the aim of driving the British out of Madras.[21] During this campaign in September 1780, Tipu Sultan
Sultan
was dispatched by Hyder Ali with 10,000 men and 18 guns to intercept Colonel Baillie who was on his way to join Sir Hector Munro. In the Battle of Pollilur, Tipu decisively defeated Baillie. Out of 360 Europeans, about 200 were captured alive, and the sepoys, who were about 3800 men, suffered very high casualties. Munro was moving south with a separate force to join Baillie, but on hearing the news of the defeat he was forced to retreat to Madras, abandoning his artillery in a water tank at Kanchipuram.[22]

Mural
Mural
of the Battle of Pollilur
Battle of Pollilur
on the walls of Tipu's summer palace, painted to celebrate his triumph over the British

Tipu Sultan
Sultan
defeated Colonel Braithwaite at Annagudi near Tanjore on 18 February 1782. Braithwaite's forces, consisting of 100 Europeans, 300 cavalry, 1400 sepoys and 10 field pieces, was the standard size of the colonial armies. Tipu Sultan
Sultan
seized all the guns and took the entire detachment prisoner. In December 1781 Tipu Sultan
Sultan
successfully seized Chittur from the British. Tipu Sultan
Sultan
had thus gained sufficient military experience by the time Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
died on Friday, 6 December 1782 – some historians put it at 2 or 3 days later or before, (Hijri date being 1 Muharram, 1197 as per some records in Persian – there may be a difference of 1 to 3 days due to the Lunar Calendar). Tipu Sultan
Sultan
realised that the British were a new kind of threat in India. He became the ruler of Mysore
Mysore
on Sunday, 22 December 1782 (The inscriptions in some of Tipu's regalia showing it as 20 Muharram, 1197 Hijri – Sunday), in a simple coronation ceremony. He then worked on to check the advances of the British by making alliances with the Marathas
Marathas
and the Mughals. The Second Mysore
Mysore
War came to an end with the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore. It was the last occasion when an Indian king dictated terms to the British, and the treaty is a prestigious document in the history of India.[citation needed] Tanjore abductions[edit] The war is also noted for excesses committed by Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
and Tipu Sultan
Sultan
in Tanjore.[23] During the period of occupation, which lasted six months, Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
and Tipu Sultan
Sultan
are believed to have impoverished the country, destroying crops and cattle.[23] As late as 1785, the Dutch missionary Christian Friedrich Schwarz
Christian Friedrich Schwarz
describes Tipu's alleged abduction of 12,000 children from the region.[23] The economic output of Tanjore is estimated to have fallen by 90% between 1770 and 1782.[24] The ravages of Hyder and Tipu were followed by alleged expeditions of plunder launched by the Kallars. The economic devastation wrought by these attacks was so severe that Tanjore's economy did not recover until the start of the 19th century; the era is referred to in local folklore as the Hyderakalam.[23] Ruler of the Mysore
Mysore
State[edit]

Tipu Sultan
Sultan
seated on his throne, by Anna Tonneli

Sardars Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Ali
Ali
AlKubaydan and Ghazi Khan taught Tipu how to fight. While leading a predominantly Hindu
Hindu
country, Tipu remained strong in his Muslim
Muslim
faith, going daily to say his prayers and paying special attention to mosques in the area.[25] During his rule, he completed the project of Lal Bagh
Lal Bagh
started by his father Hyder Ali, and built roads, public buildings, and ports in his kingdom.[citation needed] His dominion extended throughout North Bangalore
Bangalore
including the Nandi Hills and Chickballapur. His trade extended to countries such as Sri Lanka, Oman, Durrani Afghanistan, France, Ottoman Turkey
Turkey
and Iran.[citation needed] Under his leadership, the Mysore
Mysore
army proved to be a school of military science to Indian princes. The serious blows that Tipu Sultan
Sultan
inflicted on the British in the First and Second Mysore
Mysore
Wars affected their reputation as an invincible power.[citation needed]

Tipu Sultan's summer palace at Srirangapatna, Karnataka

Dr APJ Abdul Kalam, the former President of India, in his Tipu Sultan Shaheed Memorial Lecture in Bangalore
Bangalore
(30 November 1991), called Tipu Sultan
Sultan
the innovator of the world's first war rocket. Two of these rockets, captured by the British at Srirangapatna, were displayed in the Royal Artillery Museum in London. According to historian Dr Dulari Qureshi Tipu Sultan
Sultan
was a fierce warrior king and was so quick in his movement that it seemed to the enemy that he was fighting on many fronts at the same time.[26] Tipu managed to subdue all the petty kingdoms in the south. He defeated the Nizams and was also one of the few Indian rulers to have defeated British armies. He is said to have started a new coinage, calendar, and a new system of weights and measures mainly based on the methods introduced by French technicians.[citation needed] Foreign relations[edit] Both Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
and Tipu Sultan
Sultan
were independent rulers of Mysore, but claimed some degree of loyalty to the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Shah Alam II. Both of them are known to have maintained correspondence with the Mughal emperor. Unlike the Nawab
Nawab
of Carnatic, neither owed any allegiance to the Nizam of Hyderabad
Nizam of Hyderabad
and often instead chose direct contact and relations with the Mughal emperor.[27] Immediately after his coronation, Tipu Sultan
Sultan
sought the investiture of the Mughal emperor. Nizam
Nizam
Ali
Ali
Khan, the Nizam
Nizam
of Hyderabad, clearly expressed his hostility by dissuading the Mughal emperor and laying false claims onto Mysore. Disheartened but not disappointed, Tipu Sultan
Sultan
began to establish contacts with other Muslim
Muslim
rulers of that period.[28] After the eunuch Ghulam Qadir had Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
blinded on 10 August 1788, Tipu Sultan
Sultan
is believed to have broken into tears.[29] After facing substantial threats from the Marathas, Tipu Sultan
Sultan
began to correspond with Zaman Shah Durrani, the ruler of the Afghan Durrani Empire, so they could defeat the British and Marathas.[30] Initially, Zaman Shah agreed to help Tipu, but the Persian attack on Afghanistan's Western border diverted its forces, and hence no help could be provided to Tipu.

In his attempts to junction with Tipu Sultan, Napoleon
Napoleon
annexed Ottoman Egypt
Egypt
in the year 1798.

In 1787, Tipu Sultan
Sultan
sent an embassy to the Ottoman capital Istanbul, to the Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
Abdul Hamid I
Abdul Hamid I
requesting urgent assistance against the British East India Company
East India Company
and proposing an offensive and defensive consortium. Tipu Sultan
Sultan
requested the Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
to send him troops and military experts. Furthermore, Tipu Sultan
Sultan
also requested permission from the Ottomans to contribute to the maintenance of the Islamic shrines in (macca)Medina, Najaf
Najaf
and Karbala. However, the Ottomans were themselves in crisis and still recuperating from the devastating Austro-Ottoman War and a new conflict with the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
had begun, for which Ottoman Turkey needed British alliance to keep off the Russians, hence it could not risk being hostile to the British in the Indian theatre. Due to the Ottoman inability to organise a fleet in the Indian Ocean, Tipu Sultan's ambassadors returned home only with gifts from their Ottoman allies; this event caused his defeat and loss of much territory by the year 1792. Nevertheless, Tipu Sultan's correspondence with the Ottoman Turkish Empire and particularly its new Sultan
Sultan
Selim III
Selim III
continued till his final battle in the year 1799.[31] Tipu sought support from the French, who had been his traditional allies, aimed at driving the British East India Company
East India Company
out of the subcontinent. With aspiration to extend the French influence in India at the cost of the British, Louis XVI
Louis XVI
in 1782 sealed an alliance with the Peshwa
Peshwa
Madhu Rao Narayan. This treaty enabled Bussy to move his troops to the Isle de France (now Mauritius). In the same year, French Admiral De Suffren ceremonially presented a portrait of Louis XVI
Louis XVI
to Haidar Ali
Ali
and sought his alliance.[32] Napoleon
Napoleon
sought an alliance with Tipu Sultan
Sultan
against the British, their common enemy. Napoleon
Napoleon
conquered Egypt
Egypt
in an attempt to link with Tipu Sultan.[citation needed] In February 1798, Napoleon
Napoleon
wrote a letter to Tipu Sultan
Sultan
appreciating his efforts of resisting the British annexation and plans, but this letter never reached Tipu and was seized by a British spy in Muscat. The idea of a possible Tipu- Napoleon
Napoleon
alliance alarmed the British Governor, General Sir Richard Wellesley (also known as Lord Wellesley), so much that he immediately started large scale preparations for a final battle against Tipu Sultan.

Tipu Sultan's forces during the Siege of Srirangapatna.

Both Tipu Sultan
Sultan
and the French Emperor Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte were defeated by the same English General, Arthur Wellesley. In the final siege and fall of Srirangapatna
Srirangapatna
in 1799, General Arthur Wellesley led the British army into the city after the fall of Tipu Sultan. Wellesley was the younger brother of Richard Wellesley, and was one of the English East India Company
East India Company
Generals[citation needed] in the Fourth Mysore
Mysore
War. Several years later, in Europe, Arthur Wellesley, by now the Duke of Wellington, led the armies of the Seventh Coalition and defeated the Imperial French army led by Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte in the Battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo
in 1815. Like his father before him, Tipu Sultan
Sultan
maintained many embassies and made several contacts with Mohammad Ali
Ali
Khan, ruler of the Zand Dynasty
Dynasty
in Persia. Tipu Sultan
Sultan
also maintained correspondence with Hamad bin Said, the ruler of the Sultanate of Oman.[33] Regional interests and clever British diplomacy left Tipu with more enemies and betrayers, but no allies when he needed them the most – the final showdown with the British in the Fourth Mysore
Mysore
War. Conflicts with Maratha
Maratha
Confederacy[edit] See also: Maratha– Mysore
Mysore
War and Battles involving the Maratha Empire The Maratha
Maratha
Empire, under its new Peshwa
Peshwa
Madhavrao I, regained most of Indian subcontinent, twice defeating Tipu's father, who was forced to accept Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
as the supreme power in 1764 and then in 1767. In 1767 Maratha
Maratha
Peshwa
Peshwa
Madhavrao defeated both Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
and Tipu Sultan
Sultan
and entered Srirangapatna, the capital of Mysore. Hyder Ali accepted the authority of Madhavrao who gave him the title of Nawab
Nawab
of Mysore.[34] However Tipu Sultan
Sultan
wanted to escape from the treaty of Marathas
Marathas
and therefore tried to take some Maratha
Maratha
forts in Southern India, which were captured by Marathas
Marathas
in the previous war.[citation needed] Tipu also stopped the tribute to Marathas
Marathas
which was promised by Hyder Ali.[citation needed] This brought Tipu in direct conflict with the Marathas, leading to Maratha– Mysore
Mysore
War Conflicts between Mysore
Mysore
(under Tipu) and Marathas:

Siege of Nargund during February 1785 won by Mysore Siege of Badami during May 1786 in which Mysore
Mysore
surrendered Siege of Adoni during June 1786 won by Mysore Battle of Gajendragad, June 1786 won by Marathas Battle of Savanur during October 1786 won by Maysore Siege of Bahadur Benda during January 1787 won by Maysore

Conflict ended with Treaty of Gajendragad in March 1787, as per which Tipu returned all the territory captured by Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
to Maratha Empire.[35][36] Tipu agreed to pay four year arrears of tribute which his father Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
had agreed to pay to Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
(4.8 million rupees), The Marathas
Marathas
agreed to address Tipu sultan as "Nabob Tipu Sultan
Sultan
Futteh Ally Khan".[37] The Invasion of Malabar by Sultanate of Mysore
Mysore
(1766–1790)[edit] In 1766, when Tipu Sultan
Sultan
was just 15 years old, he got the chance to apply his military training in battle for the first time, when he accompanied his father on an invasion of Malabar. After the incident- Siege of Tellicherry in Thalassery
Thalassery
in North Malabar,[38] Hyder Ali started losing his territories in Malabar. Tipu came from Mysore
Mysore
to reinstate the authority over Malabar. After the Battle of the Nedumkotta (1789–90), due to the monsoon flood, the stiff resistance of the Travancore
Travancore
forces and news about the attack of British in Srirangapatnam
Srirangapatnam
he went back.[39][40] Third Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
War[edit] Main article: Third Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
War

Cannon used by Tipu Sultan's forces at the battle of Srirangapatna 1799

Very small Cannon used by Tipu Sultan's forces now in Government Museum (Egmore), Chennai

In 1789, Tipu Sultan
Sultan
disputed the acquisition by Dharma
Dharma
Raja of Travancore
Travancore
of two Dutch-held fortresses in Cochin. In December 1789 he massed troops at Coimbatore, and on 28 December made an attack on the lines of Travancore, knowing that Travancore
Travancore
was (according to the Treaty of Mangalore) an ally of the British East India Company.[citation needed] On account of the staunch resistance by the Travancore
Travancore
army, Tipu was unable to break through the Tranvancore lines and the Maharajah of Travancore
Travancore
appealed to the East India Company for help. In response, Lord Cornwallis mobilised company and British military forces, and formed alliances with the Marathas
Marathas
and the Nizam of Hyderabad
Nizam of Hyderabad
to oppose Tipu. In 1790 the company forces advanced, taking control of much of the Coimbatore
Coimbatore
district.[citation needed] Tipu counterattacked, regaining much of the territory, although the British continued to hold Coimbatore
Coimbatore
itself. He then descended into the Carnatic, eventually reaching Pondicherry, where he attempted without success to draw the French into the conflict.[citation needed]

General Lord Cornwallis, receiving two of Tipu Sultan's sons as hostages in the year 1793.

In 1791 his opponents advanced on all fronts, with the main British force under Cornwallis taking Bangalore
Bangalore
and threatening Srirangapatna. Tipu harassed the British supply and communication and embarked on a "scorched earth" policy of denying local resources to the invaders.[citation needed] In this last effort he was successful, as the lack of provisions forced Cornwallis to withdraw to Bangalore rather than attempt a siege of Srirangapatna. Following the withdrawal, Tipu sent forces to Coimbatore, which they retook after a lengthy siege.[citation needed] The 1792 campaign was a failure for Tipu. The allied army was well-supplied, and Tipu was unable to prevent the junction of forces from Bangalore
Bangalore
and Bombay
Bombay
before Srirangapatna.[citation needed] After about two weeks of siege, Tipu opened negotiations for terms of surrender. In the ensuing treaty, he was forced to cede half his territories to the allies,[19] and deliver two of his sons as hostages until he paid in full three crores and thirty lakhs rupees fixed as war indemnity to the British for the campaign against him. He paid the amount in two instalments and got back his sons from Madras.[citation needed] Napoleon's attempt at a junction[edit] Main article: Franco-Indian alliances

Louis XVI
Louis XVI
receives the ambassadors of Tipu Sultan
Sultan
in 1788. Tipu Sultan is known to have sent many diplomatic missions to France, the Ottoman Empire, Sultanate of Oman, Zand Dynasty
Dynasty
and Durrani Empire.[41]

In 1794, with the support of French Republican officers, Tipu helped found the Jacobin Club of Mysore
Mysore
for 'framing laws comfortable with the laws of the Republic'. He planted a Liberty Tree and declared himself Citizen Tipoo.[42] One of the motivations of Napoleon's Invasion of Egypt
Egypt
was to establish a junction with India against the British. Bonaparte wished to establish a French presence in the Middle East, with the ultimate dream of linking with Tippoo Sahib.[43] Napoleon
Napoleon
assured the French Directory that "as soon as he had conquered Egypt, he will establish relations with the Indian princes and, together with them, attack the English in their possessions."[44] According to a 13 February 1798 report by Talleyrand: "Having occupied and fortified Egypt, we shall send a force of 15,000 men from Suez
Suez
to India, to join the forces of Tipu-Sahib and drive away the English."[44] Napoleon
Napoleon
was unsuccessful in this strategy, losing the Siege of Acre in 1799 and at the Battle of Abukir in 1801.[45]

“ Although I never supposed that he (Napoleon) possessed, allowing for some difference of education, the liberality of conduct and political views which were sometimes exhibited by old Hyder Ali, yet I did think he might have shown the same resolved and dogged spirit of resolution which induced Tipu Sahib to die manfully upon the breach of his capital city with his sabre clenched in his hand. ”

— Sir Walter Scott, commenting on the abdication of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1814

Death[edit] Fourth Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
War[edit] Main article: Fourth Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
War

Umdat ul-Umara
Umdat ul-Umara
the Nawab of the Carnatic
Nawab of the Carnatic
was a covert ally of Tipu Sultan.

The Last Effort and Fall of Tipu Sultan
Sultan
by Henry Singleton, c. 1800

The spot in Srirangapatana where Tipu's body was found

Horatio Nelson
Horatio Nelson
defeated François-Paul Brueys D'Aigalliers
François-Paul Brueys D'Aigalliers
at the Battle of the Nile
Battle of the Nile
in Egypt
Egypt
in 1798. Three armies marched into Mysore in 1799—one from Bombay
Bombay
and two British, one of which included Arthur Wellesley.[citation needed] They besieged the capital Srirangapatna
Srirangapatna
in the Fourth Mysore
Mysore
War.[46] There were more than 26,000 soldiers of the British East India Company, approximately 4,000 Europeans and the rest Indians. A column was supplied by the Nizam
Nizam
of Hyderabad consisting of ten battalions and more than 16,000 cavalry, and many soldiers were sent by the Marathas. Thus, the soldiers in the British force numbered more than 50,000, whereas Tipu Sultan
Sultan
had only about 30,000.[citation needed] The British broke through the city walls, and French military advisers told Tipu Sultan[citation needed] to escape via secret passages, but he replied, "Better to live one day as a tiger than a thousand years as a sheep".[47] Tipu Sultan
Sultan
died defending his capital on 4 May.[citation needed] Tipu Sultan
Sultan
was killed at the Hoally (Diddy) Gateway, which was located 300 yards (270 m) from the N.E. Angle of the Srirangapatna
Srirangapatna
Fort.[48] He was buried the next afternoon at the Gumaz, next to the grave of his father. Many members of the British East India Company believed that Nawab of Carnatic
Nawab of Carnatic
Umdat Ul-Umra
Umdat Ul-Umra
secretly provided assistance to Tipu Sultan
Sultan
during the war and sought his deposition after 1799.[citation needed] Leadership, policy, and innovations[edit] Tipu introduced a new calendar, new coinage, and seven new government departments, during his reign, and made military innovations in the use of rocketry. Mysorean rockets[edit] Main article: Mysorean rockets

Tipu Sultan
Sultan
organised his Rocket artillery
Rocket artillery
brigades known as Cushoons, Tipu Sultan
Sultan
expanded the number of servicemen in the various Cushoons from 1500 to almost 5000. The Mysorean rockets
Mysorean rockets
utilised by Tipu Sultan, were later updated by the British and successively employed during the Napoleonic Wars.

[citation needed] Tipu Sultan's father had expanded on Mysore's use of rocketry, making critical innovations in the rockets themselves and the military logistics of their use.[citation needed] He deployed as many as 1,200 specialised troops in his army to operate rocket launchers. These men were skilled in operating the weapons and were trained to launch their rockets at an angle calculated from the diameter of the cylinder and the distance to the target. The rockets had twin side sharpened blades mounted on them, and when fired en masse ,spun and wreaked significant damage against a large army. Tipu greatly expanded the use of rockets after Hyder's death, deploying as many as 5,000 rocketeers at a time.[citation needed] The rockets deployed by Tipu during the Battle of Pollilur were much more advanced than those the British East India Company had previously seen, chiefly because of the use of iron tubes for holding the propellant; this enabled higher thrust and longer range for the missiles (up to 2 km range).[8] British accounts describe the use of the rockets during the third and fourth wars.[citation needed] During the climactic battle at Srirangapatna
Srirangapatna
in 1799, British shells struck a magazine containing rockets, causing it to explode and send a towering cloud of black smoke with cascades of exploding white light rising up from the battlements. After Tipu's defeat in the fourth war the British captured a number of the Mysorean rockets. These became influential in British rocket development, inspiring the Congreve rocket, which was soon put into use in the Napoleonic Wars.[8] Mysorean Navy[edit] In 1786 Tipu Sultan, again following the lead of his father, decided to build a navy consisting of 20 battleships of 72 cannons and 20 frigates of 62 cannons. In the year 1790 he appointed Kamaluddin as his Mir Bahar and established massive dockyards at Jamalabad
Jamalabad
and Majidabad. Tipu Sultan's board of admiralty consisted of 11 commanders in service of a Mir Yam. A Mir Yam led 30 admirals and each one of them had two ships. By the year 1789 most of Tipu Sultan's ships had copper-bottoms, an idea that increased the longevity of the ships and was introduced to Tipu by Admiral Suffren.[49] Economic development program[edit] Main article: Economy of the Kingdom of Mysore Further information: Mysore
Mysore
silk and Economic history of India The peak of Mysore's economic power was under Tipu Sultan
Sultan
in the late 18th century. Along with his father Hyder Ali, he embarked on an ambitious program of economic development, aiming increase the wealth and revenue of Mysore.[50] Under his reign, Mysore
Mysore
overtook Bengal Subah as India's dominant economic power, with highly productive agriculture and textile manufacturing.[9] Mysore's average income was five times higher than subsistence level at the time.[51] The Mysore
Mysore
silk industry was first initiated during the reign of Tipu Sultan. He sent an expert to Bengal Subah
Bengal Subah
to study silk cultivation and processing, after which Mysore
Mysore
began developing polyvoltine silk.[52] Under Tipu Sultan, Mysore
Mysore
had some of the world's highest real wages and living standards in the late 18th century, higher than Britain, which in turn had the highest living standards in Europe.[9] Mysore's average per-capita income was five times higher than subsistence level,[53] i.e. five times higher than $400 (1990 international dollars),[54] or $2,000 per capita. In comparison, the highest national per-capita incomes in 1820 were $1,838 for the Netherlands and $1,706 for Britain.[55] Promotion of the Urdu
Urdu
language[edit] Tipu strengthened and instituted education in Urdu
Urdu
and Persian among Muslims in the Mysore
Mysore
region.[citation needed] However the Muslims of North Kanara speak Nawayathi, the Muslims of South Kanara speak Beary and the Muslims of Kodagu speak Kodava. He made Persian the official language throughout his kingdom.[citation needed] Religious policy[edit] As a Muslim
Muslim
ruler in a largely Hindu
Hindu
domain, Tipu Sultan
Sultan
faced problems in establishing the legitimacy of his rule, and in reconciling his desire to be seen as a devout Islamic ruler with the need to be pragmatic to avoid antagonising the majority of his subjects. A scholarly assessment of his religious policy is that it was secular,[56][57] tolerant to most religious groups,[56] and with regular endowments made to Hindus
Hindus
and Hindu
Hindu
institutions including 156 temples,[58] including lavish gifts to temples such as Ranganathaswamy Temple, Srirangam.[57] In 1780, he was declared the Badshah or Emperor of Mysore, and struck coinage. His alliance with the French was supposedly aimed at achieving this goal by driving his main rivals, the British, out of the subcontinent. During the early period of Tipu Sultan's reign in particular, he appears to have been as strict as his father against those accused of collaboration with the British East India Company
East India Company
or the Maratha.[59] He clamped down on several minority religious communities that helped the British,[56][57] but on the basis of politics rather than religion, as these communities fell under Hinduism, Christianity, and Islam: the Hindus
Hindus
of Coorg, the Christians of Mangalore, the Nayars of Malabar, the Mappila
Mappila
Muslims of Malabar, the Mahadevi Muslims, and the Muslim
Muslim
Nawabs of Sawanur and Nizam.[57] His religious legacy has become a source of considerable controversy in India, with some groups proclaiming him a great warrior for the faith or Ghazi, while others revile him as a bigot who massacred Hindus,[60][61][59] Christians.[62][63] British accounts[edit] Historians such as Brittlebank, Hasan, Chetty, Habib, and Saletare, amongst others, argue that controversial stories of Tipu Sultan's religious persecution of Hindus
Hindus
and Christians
Christians
are largely derived from the work of early British authors (who were very much against Tipu Sultan's independence and harboured prejudice against the Sultan) such as Kirkpatrick[64] and Wilks,[65] whom they do not consider to be entirely reliable[66] and likely fabricated.[67] A. S. Chetty argues that Wilks' account in particular cannot be trusted.[68] Irfan Habib
Irfan Habib
and Mohibbul Hasan argue that these early British authors had a strong vested interest in presenting Tipu Sultan
Sultan
as a tyrant from whom the British had liberated Mysore.[67] This assessment is echoed by Brittlebank in her recent work where she writes that Wilks and Kirkpatrick must be used with particular care as both authors had taken part in the wars against Tipu Sultan
Sultan
and were closely connected to the administrations of Lord Cornwallis and Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley.[69] However, such arguments are dubious because even contemporary French sources mentions about cruelties of Tippu Sultan. The French were allies of Tipu Sultan. Francois Fidele Ripaud de Montaudevert, a French soldier who fought for Tippu, in his diary entry of January 14, 1799 writes: “I’m disturbed by Tipu Sultan’s treatment of these most gentle souls, the Hindus. During the siege of Mangalore, Tipu’s soldiers daily exposed the heads of many innocent Brahmins within sight from the fort for the Zamorin and his Hindu
Hindu
followers to see."[70] Relations with Muslims[edit] During his campaigns of clamping down on groups that helped the British, Tipu Sultan
Sultan
targeted several Muslim
Muslim
groups, including the Mappila
Mappila
Muslims of Malabar, the Mahadevi Muslims, and the Nawabs of Sawanur and Nizam. He is not known to have treated them any better or differently to the several Hindu
Hindu
or Christian
Christian
minority groups that helped the British, pointing to his policy being politically motivated, rather than religiously motivated.[57][56] Relations with Hindus[edit] Hindu
Hindu
officers[edit] Tipu Sultan's treasurer was Krishna Rao, Shamaiya Iyengar was his Minister of Post and Police, his brother Ranga Iyengar was also an officer, and Purnaiya held the very important post of "Mir Asaf". Moolchand and Sujan Rai were his chief agents at the Mughal court, and his chief "Peshkar", Suba Rao, was also a Hindu.[71] Regular endowments to 156 Hindu
Hindu
temples[edit] Editor of Mysore
Mysore
Gazettes spondence between his court and temples, and his having donated jewellery and deeded land grants to several temples, which he was compelled to do to make alliances with Hindu rulers. Between 1782 and 1799 Tipu Sultan
Sultan
issued 34 "Sanads" (deeds) of endowment to temples in his domain, while also presenting many of them with gifts of silver and gold plate. The Srikanteswara Temple in Nanjangud still possesses a jeweled cup presented by the Sultan.[72] He also gave a greenish linga; to Ranganatha temple at Srirangapatna he donated seven silver cups and a silver camphor burner. This temple was hardly a stone's throw from his palace from where he would listen with equal respect to the ringing of temple bells and the muezzin's call from the mosque; to the Lakshmikanta Temple at Kalale
Kalale
he gifted four cups, a plate and Spitoon
Spitoon
in silver.[73][74] Sringeri
Sringeri
incident, Maratha
Maratha
sacking, and rebuilding temple[edit] During the Maratha– Mysore
Mysore
War in 1791, a group of Maratha
Maratha
horsemen under Raghunath Rao Patwardhan raided the temple and matha of Sringeri Shankaracharya. They killed and wounded many people, including Brahmins, plundered the monastery of all its valuable possessions, and desecrated the temple by displacing the image of goddess Sarada.[75] The incumbent Shankaracharya
Shankaracharya
petitioned Tipu Sultan
Sultan
for help. A bunch of about 30 letters written in Kannada, which were exchanged between Tipu Sultan's court and the Sringeri
Sringeri
Shankaracharya
Shankaracharya
were discovered in 1916 by the Director of Archaeology in Mysore. Tipu Sultan
Sultan
expressed his indignation and grief at the news of the raid:[75][76]

"People who have sinned against such a holy place are sure to suffer the consequences of their misdeeds at no distant date in this Kali age in accordance with the verse: "Hasadbhih kriyate karma rudadbhir-anubhuyate" (People do [evil] deeds smilingly but suffer the consequences crying)."[77]

He immediately ordered the Asaf of Bednur
Bednur
to supply the Swami with 200 rahatis (fanams) in cash and other gifts and articles. Tipu Sultan's interest in the Sringeri
Sringeri
temple continued for many years, and he was still writing to the Swami in the 1790s.[78] Controversial figure[edit] In light of this and other events, historian B. A. Saletare has described Tipu Sultan
Sultan
as a defender of the Hindu
Hindu
dharma, who also patronised other temples including one at Melkote, for which he issued a Kannada
Kannada
decree that the Shrivaishnava invocatory verses there should be recited in the traditional form.[citation needed] The temple at Melkote still has gold and silver vessels with inscriptions indicating that they were presented by the Sultan. Tipu Sultan
Sultan
also presented four silver cups to the Lakshmikanta Temple at Kalale.[79] Tipu Sultan does seem to have repossessed unauthorised grants of land made to Brahmins and temples, but those which had proper sanads (certificates) were not. It was a normal practice for any ruler, Muslim
Muslim
or Hindu, on his accession or on the conquest of new territory. Noted for his persecution of Christians, historian Thomas Paul notes that Tipu had shifted his hatred for the British to Catholics of Mangalore
Mangalore
and other Christian
Christian
communities of South India.[80] According to historian Praxy Fernandes, Tipu Sultan
Sultan
was "an enlightened monarch who followed a secular policy towards his subjects."[56] C. Hayavadana Rao wrote about Tipu in his encyclopaedic court history of Mysore. He asserted that Tipu's "religious fanaticism and the excesses committed in the name of religion, both in Mysore
Mysore
and in the provinces, stand condemned for all time. His bigotry, indeed, was so great that it precluded all ideas of toleration". He further asserts that the acts of Tipu that were constructive towards Hindus
Hindus
were largely political and ostentatious rather than an indication of genuine tolerance.[81] Treatment of Lingayats[edit] After Haider Ali
Ali
led a coup, after being appointed the military chief of Hindu
Hindu
Wadiyar dynasty
Wadiyar dynasty
of Mysore, the Lingayats of Karnataka
Karnataka
came under Islamic rule in the late 18th century.[82] During this period, the followers of Lingayatism
Lingayatism
were persecuted. A British source claimed that Tipu Sultan
Sultan
found the practice of Lingayat
Lingayat
women of being topless, offensive and ordered the mutilation of breasts of a Lingayat woman, as a result, wearing of long garments came into use by Hindu women.[83] Treatment of Hindus
Hindus
outside Mysore[edit] Main article: Captivity of Kodavas at Seringapatam

Kodagu (Coorg)

A soldier from Tipu Sultan's army, using his rocket as a flagstaff.

The battles between Kodavas and Tippu Sultan
Sultan
is one of the most bitter rivalries in South India. There were repeated attempts to capture Kodagu by the sultan and his father Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
before him. The primary reason for Sultan's interest in Kodagu was that annexing Kodagu would provide access to Mangalore
Mangalore
port. The Kodavas knew their lands and mountains very well which made them excellent at guerrilla warfare. Kodavas were outnumbered 3 to 1 in most of Tippu's attempts to annex Kodagu but they managed to beat back Tippu most of the times by drawing his army towards hilly regions of their land. On few occasions Tippu's army managed to reach Madikeri (Capital of Kodagu) but the Kodavas always ambushed the contingent left behind by Tippu. Kodavas refusal to bow to the sultan was primarily because throughout their history they enjoyed independence, though there were Rajahs ruling over them, governance of the land mainly rested with Kodavas. After capturing Kodagu on another occasion, Tippu proclaimed, "If you ever dare to ambush my men again, I will honor everyone of you with Islam", undeterred, the resilient Kodavas ambushed his men yet again and drove them back to Mysore. By now Tippu realised conventional warfare would never yield him Kodagu. He devised a plan to annex Kodagu by offering his friendship. His offer of friendship was welcomed by Kodavas as the battles with the Sultan
Sultan
over the years had cost them dearly. When Kodavas welcomed Sultan
Sultan
to their land in the name of friendship, the Sultan
Sultan
and his men attacked them and took thousands as prisoners. Tipu got Runmust Khan, the Nawab
Nawab
of Kurnool, to launch a surprise attack upon the Kodava Hindus
Hindus
who were besieged by the invading Muslim
Muslim
army. 500 were killed and over 40,000 Kodavas fled to the woods and concealed themselves in the mountains.[84] Thousands of Kodavas were seized along with the Raja and held captive at Seringapatam. They were thought to be subjected to forcible conversions to Islam, death, and torture.[85] In Seringapatam, the young men were all forcibly circumcised and incorporated into the Ahmedy Corps, and were formed into eight Risalas or regiments.[84] The actual number of Kodavas that were captured in the operation is unclear. The British administrator Mark Wilks
Mark Wilks
gives it as 70,000, historian Lewis Rice arrives at the figure of 85,000, while Mir Kirmani's score for the Coorg
Coorg
campaign is 80,000 men, women and child prisoners.[84] Mohibbul Hasan, Prof. Sheikh Ali, and other historians cast great doubt on the scale of the deportations and forced conversions in Coorg in particular. Hassan says that it is difficult to estimate the real number of Coorgis captured by Tipu.[86] In a letter to Runmust Khan, Tipu himself stated:[87]

"We proceeded with the utmost speed, and, at once, made prisoners of 40,000 occasion-seeking and sedition-exciting Coorgis, who alarmed at the approach of our victorious army, had slunk into woods, and concealed themselves in lofty mountains, inaccessible even to birds. Then carrying them away from their native country (the native place of sedition) we raised them to the honour of Islam, and incorporated them into our Ahmedy corps."

[88]

Kasaragod
Kasaragod
(near Mangalore)

Tipu sent a letter on 19 January 1790 to the Governor of Bekal
Bekal
(near Kasaragod), Budruz Zuman Khan. It says:

"Don't you know I have achieved a great victory recently in Malabar and over four lakh Hindus
Hindus
were converted to Islam? I am determined to march against that cursed Raman Nair
Nair
( Rajah
Rajah
of Travancore) very soon. Since I am overjoyed at the prospect of converting him and his subjects to Islam, I have happily abandoned the idea of going back to Srirangapatanam now."[89]

Malabar

Main article: Captivity of Nairs
Nairs
at Seringapatam

North Malabar

In 1788, Tipu entered into Malabar to quell a rebellion. Nairs
Nairs
were surrounded with offers of death or circumcision. Chirakkal's Nair
Nair
Raja who was received with distinctions for surrendering voluntarily was later hanged. Tipu then divided Malabar into districts, with three officers in each district given the task of numbering productive trees, collecting revenue and giving religious orders to Nairs.

Calicut (Kozhikode)

The merchants of Calicut seized and chained to a barren rock, by the order of Tippoo Sahib

In 1788, Tipu ordered his governor in Calicut Sher Khan to begin the process of converting Hindus
Hindus
to Islam, and in July of that year, 200 Brahmins were forcibly converted.[90] Destruction of the Palace at Vittala: In 1784, Tippu Sultan
Sultan
captured Achutha Heggade, king of Vittala. He beheaded him and set fire to the ancient royal palace of the Domba- Heggade kings of Vittala. It was an ancient and sacred palace of the dyansty whose age goes back to the period when the first kings settled in that area.[91] Inscriptions[edit] On the handle of the sword presented by Tipu to Marquess Wellesley was the following inscription:[92]

"My victorious sabre is lightning for the destruction of the unbelievers. Ali, the Emir of the Faithful, is victorious for my advantage, and moreover, he destroyed the wicked race who were unbelievers. Praise be to him (God), who is the Lord of the Worlds! Thou art our Lord, support us against the people who are unbelievers. He to whom the Lord giveth victory prevails over all (mankind). Oh Lord, make him victorious, who promoteth the faith of Muhammad. Confound him, who refuseth the faith of Muhammad; and withhold us from those who are so inclined from the true faith. The Lord is predominant over his own works. Victory and conquest are from the Almighty. Bring happy tidings, Oh Muhammad, to the faithful; for God is the kind protector and is the most merciful of the merciful. If God assists thee, thou will prosper. May the Lord God assist thee, Oh Muhammad, with a mighty great victory."

During a search of his palace in 1795, some gold medals were found in the palace, on which the following was inscribed on one side in Persian: "Of God the bestower of blessings", and the other: "victory and conquest are from the Almighty". These were carved in commemoration of a victory after the war of 1780.[93] The following is a translation of an inscription on the stone found at Seringapatam, which was situated in a conspicuous place in the fort:[92]

"Oh Almighty God! dispose the whole body of Kafirs (infidels)! Scatter their tribe, cause their feet to stagger! Overthrow their councils, change their state, destroy their very root! Cause death to be near them, cut off from them the means of sustenance! Shorten their days! Be their bodies the constant object of their cares (i.e., infest them with diseases), deprive their eyes of sight, make black their faces (i.e., bring shame), destroy in them organs of speech! Slay them as slay them as Shedaud (i .e. the Prince who presumptuously aimed at establishing a paradise for himself and was slain by command of God); drown them as Pharoah was drowned, and visit them with the severity of the wrath. Oh Avenger! Oh Universal Father ! I am depressed and overpowered , grant me thy assistance."[94]

The Mysore
Mysore
Gazetteer states that this inscription should have been engraved after the Cornwallis Treaty, stating it showed his inveterate rancour and determined hostility to the English.[93] Relations with Christians[edit] Main article: Captivity of Mangalorean Catholics
Mangalorean Catholics
at Seringapatam

The Jamalabad
Jamalabad
fort route. Mangalorean Catholics
Mangalorean Catholics
had travelled through this route on their way to Seringapatam

Tipu is considered to be anti- Christian
Christian
by several historians.[95][96][97] While Alan Machado in his book 'Slaves of Sultans', argues that by expelling Christian
Christian
priests, Tipu was only following precedent set by European rivals.[98][99] Historian J. B. Prashant More in his paper 'Tipu Sultan
Sultan
and the Christians' argues that Tipu's encounters and dealings with the Christians
Christians
of both European and Indian origin were in accordance with the spirit of his times and also had a political dimension.[100] The captivity of Mangalorean Catholics
Mangalorean Catholics
at Seringapatam, which began on 24 February 1784 and ended on 4 May 1799, remains the most disconsolate memory in their history.[101] The Barcoor Manuscript reports him as having said: "All Musalmans should unite together, and considering the annihilation of infidels as a sacred duty, labour to the utmost of their power, to accomplish that subject."[102] Soon after the Treaty of Mangalore in 1784, Tipu gained control of Canara.[103] He issued orders to seize the Christians
Christians
in Canara, confiscate their estates,[104] and deport them to Seringapatam, the capital of his empire, through the Jamalabad
Jamalabad
fort route.[105] However, there were no priests among the captives. Together with Fr. Miranda, all the 21 arrested priests were issued orders of expulsion to Goa, fined Rupees 200,000, and threatened death by hanging if they ever returned.[102] Tipu ordered the destruction of 27 Catholic churches. Among them included the Church of Nossa Senhora de Rosario Milagres at Mangalore, Fr Miranda's Seminary at Monte Mariano, Church of Jesu Marie Jose at Omzoor, Chapel at Bolar, Church of Merces at Ullal, Imaculata Conceicão at Mulki, San Jose at Perar, Nossa Senhora dos Remedios at Kirem, Sao Lawrence at Karkal, Rosario at Barkur, Immaculata Conceição at Baidnur.[102] All were razed to the ground, with the exception of The Church of Holy Cross at Hospet, owing to the friendly offices of the Chauta Raja of Moodbidri.[106] According to Thomas Munro, a Scottish soldier and the first collector of Canara, around 60,000 people,[107] nearly 92 percent of the entire Mangalorean Catholic community, were captured; only 7,000 escaped. Francis Buchanan gives the numbers as 70,000 captured, from a population of 80,000, with 10,000 escaping. They were forced to climb nearly 4,000 feet (1,200 m) through the jungles of the Western Ghat mountain ranges. It was 210 miles (340 km) from Mangalore
Mangalore
to Seringapatam, and the journey took six weeks. According to British Government records, 20,000 of them died on the march to Seringapatam. James Scurry, a British officer, who was held captive along with Mangalorean Catholics, said that 30,000 of them were forcibly converted to Islam. The young women and girls were forcibly made wives of the Muslims living there.[108] The young men who offered resistance were disfigured by cutting their noses, upper lips, and ears.[109] According to Mr. Silva of Gangolim, a survivor of the captivity, if a person who had escaped from Seringapatam
Seringapatam
was found, the punishment under the orders of Tipu was the cutting off of the ears, nose, the feet and one hand.[110] Gazetteer of South India describes Tipu Sultan
Sultan
forcibly circumcising 30,000 West Coast Christians
Christians
and deporting them to Mysore.[111] Tipu's persecution of Christians
Christians
even extended to captured British soldiers. For instance, there were a significant number of forced conversions of British captives between 1780 and 1784. Following their disastrous defeat at the 1780 Battle of Pollilur, 7,000 British men along with an unknown number of women were held captive by Tipu in the fortress of Seringapatnam. Of these, over 300 were circumcised and given Muslim
Muslim
names and clothes and several British regimental drummer boys were made to wear ghagra cholis and entertain the court as nautch girls or dancing girls. After the 10-year-long captivity ended, James Scurry, one of those prisoners, recounted that he had forgotten how to sit in a chair and use a knife and fork. His English was broken and stilted, having lost all his vernacular idiom. His skin had darkened to the swarthy complexion of negroes, and moreover, he had developed an aversion to wearing European clothes.[112] During the surrender of the Mangalore
Mangalore
fort which was delivered in an armistice by the British and their subsequent withdrawal, all the Mestizos
Mestizos
and remaining non-British foreigners were killed, together with 5,600 Mangalorean Catholics. Those condemned by Tipu Sultan
Sultan
for treachery were hanged instantly, the gibbets being weighed down by the number of bodies they carried. The Netravati River was so putrid with the stench of dying bodies, that the local residents were forced to leave their riverside homes.[102] The Archbishop of Goa wrote in 1800, "It is notoriously known in all Asia and all other parts of the globe of the oppression and sufferings experienced by the Christians
Christians
in the Dominion of the King of Kanara, during the usurpation of that country by Tipu Sultan
Sultan
from an implacable hatred he had against them who professed Christianity."[102]

The British officer James Scurry, who was detained a prisoner for 10 years by Tipu Sultan
Sultan
along with the Mangalorean Catholics

Tipu Sultan's invasion of the Malabar had an adverse impact on the Syrian Malabar Nasrani
Syrian Malabar Nasrani
community of the Malabar coast. Many churches in the Malabar and Cochin
Cochin
were damaged. The old Syrian Nasrani seminary at Angamaly which had been the center of Catholic religious education for several centuries was razed to the ground by Tipu's soldiers. A lot of centuries old religious manuscripts were lost forever. The church was later relocated to Kottayam where it still exists to this date. The Mor Sabor church at Akaparambu and the Martha Mariam Church attached to the seminary were destroyed as well. Tipu's army set fire to the church at Palayoor and attacked the Ollur Church in 1790. Furthernmore, the Arthat church and the Ambazhakkad seminary was also destroyed. Over the course of this invasion, many Syrian Malabar Nasrani were killed or forcibly converted to Islam. Most of the coconut, arecanut, pepper and cashew plantations held by the Syrian Malabar farmers were also indiscriminately destroyed by the invading army. As a result, when Tipu's army invaded Guruvayur and adjacent areas, the Syrian Christian
Christian
community fled Calicut and small towns like Arthat to new centres like Kunnamkulam, Chalakudi, Ennakadu, Cheppadu, Kannankode, Mavelikkara, etc. where there were already Christians. They were given refuge by Sakthan Tamburan, the ruler of Cochin
Cochin
and Karthika Thirunal, the ruler of Travancore, who gave them lands, plantations and encouraged their businesses. Colonel Macqulay, the British resident of Travancore
Travancore
also helped them.[113] Treatment of prisoners[edit] According to historian Professor Sheikh Ali, Tipu "took his stand on the bedrock of humanity, regarding all his subjects as equal citizen to live in peace, harmony and concord."[citation needed] However, during the storming of Srirangapatna
Srirangapatna
by the British in 1799, thirteen murdered British prisoners were discovered, killed by either having their necks broken or nails driven into their skulls.[114] Tipu's palace in Seringapatam
Seringapatam
had a strictly guarded Zenana
Zenana
quarters for women. Many of the women in his Hareem were daughters of native princes and Brahmins, who had been abducted in infancy and brought up Muslim. Hindu
Hindu
women were made sex slaves. In the same palace, the legitimate Wadiyar king Chamaraja Wodeyar IX was held captive. The prince having no children had adopted his relative, who was also imprisoned by the Sultan. The palaces and temples raised by the earlier Wadiyar kings were also pulled down by Tipu, on the pretext of strengthening the fortress.[115] Legacy[edit]

Among his many innovations, Tipu introduced new coin denominations and new coin types, including this handsome copper double paisa weighing over 23 gm. The coin on the left also contains the emblem of the Sultanate of Mysore.

Tipu Sultan
Sultan
was one of the first Indian kings to be killed on the battlefield while defending his Kingdom against the Colonial British. Tipu has been recognized as a freedom fighter by the Government of Karnataka
Karnataka
and has been treated as one of the national heroes. A 1990 television series was based on him, The Sword of Tipu Sultan, directed by Sanjay Khan
Sanjay Khan
and based on a historical novel by Bhagwan Gidwani. Tipu Sultan
Sultan
has been also treated as a controversial figure and criticized for his atrocities against Hindus, Christians, and Mappla Muslims.[16][15] Family[edit]

The mausoleum housing Tipu's tomb is another example of Islamic architecture. Tipu's flag is in the foreground.

The tomb of Tipu Sultan
Sultan
at Srirangapatna. Tipu's tomb is adjacent to his mother's and father's graves.

Shahzada Sayyid
Sayyid
walShareef Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
Khan Sultan
Sultan
(1771 – 30 July 1815) Shahzada Sayyid
Sayyid
walShareef Abdul Khaliq Khan Sultan
Sultan
(1782 – 12 September 1806) Shahzada Sayyid
Sayyid
walShareef Muhi-ud-din Ali
Ali
Khan Sultan
Sultan
(1782 – 30 September 1811) Shahzada Sayyid
Sayyid
walShareef Mu'izz-ud-din Ali
Ali
Khan Sultan (1783 – 30 March 1818) Shahzada Sayyid
Sayyid
walShareef Mi'raj-ud-din Ali
Ali
Khan Sultan (1784? – ?) Shahzada Sayyid
Sayyid
walShareef Mu'in-ud-din Ali
Ali
Khan Sultan (1784? – ?) Shahzada Sayyid
Sayyid
walShareef Muhammad
Muhammad
Yasin Khan Sultan
Sultan
(1784 – 15 March 1849) Shahzada Sayyid
Sayyid
walShareef Muhammad
Muhammad
Subhan Khan Sultan
Sultan
(1785 – 27 September 1845) Shahzada Sayyid
Sayyid
walShareef Muhammad
Muhammad
Shukrullah Khan Sultan (1785 – 25 September 1830) Shahzada Sayyid
Sayyid
walShareef Sarwar-ud-din Khan Sultan
Sultan
(1790 – 20 October 1833) Shahzada Sayyid
Sayyid
walShareef Muhammad
Muhammad
Nizam-ud-din Khan Sultan (1791 – 20 October 1791) Shahzada Sayyid
Sayyid
walShareef Muhammad
Muhammad
Jamal-ud-din Khan Sultan (1795 – 13 November 1842) Shahzada Sayyid
Sayyid
walShareef Munir-ud-din Khan Sultan
Sultan
(1795 – 1 December 1837) His Highness Shahzada Sir Sayyid
Sayyid
walShareef Ghulam Muhammad
Muhammad
Sultan Sahib, KCSI (March 1795 – 11 August 1872) Shahzada Sayyid
Sayyid
walShareef Ghulam Ahmad Khan Sultan
Sultan
(1796 – 11 April 1824) Shahzada Sayyid
Sayyid
walShareef Hashmath Ali
Ali
Khan Sultan
Sultan
(expired at birth)

Tipu had several wives. One of his wives quite renowned for her beauty and intelligence was Sindh Sahiba whose grandson was Sahib Sindh Sultan
Sultan
also known as His Highness Shahzada Sayyid
Sayyid
walShareef Ahmed Halim-az-Zaman Khan Sultan
Sultan
Sahib. Tipu Sultan's family was sent to Calcutta by the British. A descendent of one of Tipu Sultan's uncles Noor Inayat Khan
Noor Inayat Khan
was a British Special Operations Executive
Special Operations Executive
agent during the Second World War, murdered in the German Dachau concentration camp in 1944. Many other descendants continue to live in Kolkata. Sword and tiger[edit] Main article: Tipu's Tiger

Tipu Sultan's Tiger. Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Tipu Sultan
Sultan
had lost his sword in a war with the Nairs
Nairs
of Travancore during the Battle of the Nedumkotta
Battle of the Nedumkotta
(1789), in which he was forced to withdraw due to the severe joint attack from Travancore
Travancore
army and British army.[116] The Nair
Nair
army under the leadership of Raja Kesavadas again defeated the Mysore
Mysore
army near Aluva. The Maharaja, Dharma
Dharma
Raja, gave the famous sword to the Nawab
Nawab
of Arcot, from whom the sword was taken away forcibly by the British after annexing Arcot and sent to London. The sword was on display at the Wallace Collection, No. 1 Manchester Square, London. Tipu was commonly known as the Tiger of Mysore
Mysore
and adopted this animal as the symbol (bubri/babri)[117] of his rule.[118] It is said that Tipu Sultan
Sultan
was hunting in the forest with a French friend. He came face to face with a tiger. His gun did not work, and his dagger fell on the ground as the tiger jumped on him. He reached for the dagger, picked it up, and killed the tiger with it. That earned him the name "the Tiger of Mysore". He even had French engineers build a mechanical tiger for his palace.[119] The device, known as Tipu's Tiger, is on display in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.[120] Not only did Tipu place relics of tigers around his palace and domain, but also had the emblem of a tiger on his banners and some arms and weapons. Sometimes this tiger was very ornate and had inscriptions within the drawing, alluding to Tipu's faith.[121] Historian Alexander Beatson reported that "in his palace was found a great variety of curious swords, daggers, fusils, pistols, and blunderbusses; some were of exquisite workmanship, mounted with gold, or silver, and beautifully inlaid and ornamented with tigers' heads and stripes, or with Persian and Arabic verses".[122] The last sword used by Tipu in his last battle, at Sri Rangapatnam, and the ring worn by him were taken by the British forces as war trophies. Till April 2004, they were kept on display at the British Museum London as gifts to the museum from Maj-Gen Augustus W.H. Meyrick and Nancy Dowager.[123] At an auction in London in April 2004, Vijay Mallya
Vijay Mallya
purchased the sword of Tipu Sultan
Sultan
and some other historical artefacts, and brought them back to India.[124] In October 2013, another sword owned by Tipu Sultan
Sultan
and decorated with his babri (tiger stripe motif) surfaced and was auctioned by Sotheby's.[125] It was purchased for £98,500[126] by a telephone bidder. Tipu Jayanti[edit] On 10 November 2017, the Government of Karnataka
Government of Karnataka
under the leadership of Chief Minister Siddaramaiah
Siddaramaiah
celebrated Tipu's birth anniversary but BJP
BJP
and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
protested against this move due to the persecution of Hindus
Hindus
by Tipu Sultan. Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
Congress leader, Mallikarjuna Kharge, hit back at the RSS, asking,

When they can celebrate Nathuram Godse
Nathuram Godse
can't we celebrate Tipu Sultan[127]

In fiction[edit]

He has a role in G.A.Henty's 1896 book The Tiger of Mysore,[128] and is also mentioned in Henty's 1902 At the Point of the Bayonet,[129] which deals with much the same period. In Jules Verne's Mysterious Island, Captain Nemo
Captain Nemo
is described as a nephew of Tipu Sultan. Tipu Sultan's life and adventures were the central theme of a short-running South Indian
South Indian
television series "The Adventures of Tipu Sultan", and of a more popular national television series "The Sword of Tipu Sultan". Naseem Hijazi's novels Muazam Ali
Ali
and Aur Talvar Ṭūṭ Gaye (And The Sword Broke) describe Tipu Sultan's wars. Wilkie Collins's novel The Moonstone
The Moonstone
contains an account of Tipu Sultan
Sultan
and the fall of Srirangapatna
Srirangapatna
in the prologue. In The Surprising Adventures of Baron Munchausen
Baron Munchausen
by Rudolf Erich Raspe, Munchausen vanquishes Tippoo near the end of the novel. Sharpe's Tiger is a novel in which Napoleonic soldier Richard Sharpe fights at Seringapatam, later killing Tipu Sultan. The Only King Who Died on the Battlefield: An Historical Novel Based on Truth (published in 2006), was written by a US-Pakistani resident and a young college student Mohammad Faisal Iftikhar. The novel claims that in recent history, Tipu Sultan
Sultan
is the only king who died on the battlefield. Tipu Sultan
Sultan
appears as a "Great Person" in the video games, Sid Meier's Civilization: Revolution and Sid Meier's Civilization IV. In his historical novels on the Seringapatam
Seringapatam
captivity of Konkani Catholics by the Konkani littérateur V.J.P. Saldanha, Belthangaddicho Balthazar (Balthazar of Belthangady), Devache Krupen (By the Grace of God), Sardarachi Sinol (The sign of the Knights) and Infernachi Daram (The gates of Hell), Tipu is portrayed as cunning, haughty, hard-hearted, revengeful, yet full of self-control.[130]

Image gallery[edit]

A view of the Hoally Gateway, Srirangapatnam, where Tipu Sultan
Sultan
was killed, Seringapatam
Seringapatam
(Mysore), by Thomas Sydenham (c.1799)

A flintlock blunderbuss, made for Tippu Sultan
Sultan
in Seringapatam
Seringapatam
in 1793-94. Tippu Sultan
Sultan
used many Western craftsmen, and this gun reflects the most up-to-date technologies of the time.[18]

Cannon used by Tippu Sultan
Sultan
in the battle of Seringapatam
Seringapatam
1799

See also[edit]

Mughal weapons Muslim
Muslim
warriors Mysore
Mysore
invasion of Kerala PNS Tippu Sultan Tipu Sultan
Sultan
Mosque Tipu's Tiger The Dreams of Tipu Sultan
Sultan
by Girish Karnad Mir Ghulam Ali, an official and senior military commander

Notes[edit]

^ a b c Hasan, Mohibbul (2005). History of Tipu Sultan. Aakar Books. p. 6. ISBN 81-87879-57-2. Retrieved 19 January 2013.  ^ "Tipu Sultan's 216th death anniversary: 7 unknown facts you should know about the Tiger of Mysore : Listicles: Microfacts". Indiatoday.intoday.in. 4 May 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.  ^ Cavendish, Richard (4 May 1999). "Tipu Sultan
Sultan
killed at Seringapatam". History Today. 49 (5). Retrieved 13 December 2013.  ^ Allana, Gulam (1988). Muslim
Muslim
political thought through the ages: 1562–1947 (2 ed.). Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania: Royal Book Company. p. 78. Retrieved 18 January 2013.  ^ "Tipu Jayanti debate: Akbar is the hero India should really celebrate".  ^ Hasan, Mohibbul (2005). History of Tipu Sultan. Aakar Books. p. 399. ISBN 81-87879-57-2. Retrieved 19 January 2013.  ^ R.k.datta (2007). Global Silk
Silk
Industry: A Complete Source Book. APH Publishing. p. 17. ISBN 81-313-0087-0. Retrieved 22 January 2013.  ^ a b c Roddam Narasimha (1985). Rockets in Mysore
Mysore
and Britain, 1750–1850 A.D. National Aeronautical Laboratory and Indian Institute of Science. ^ a b c Parthasarathi, Prasannan (2011), Why Europe Grew Rich and Asia Did Not: Global Economic Divergence, 1600–1850, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1-139-49889-0  ^ Kaushik Roy, War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740–1849, (Routledge, 2011), 77. ^ Hasan, Mohibbul (2005). History of Tipu Sultan. Aakar Books. p. 24. ISBN 81-87879-57-2. Retrieved 19 January 2013.  ^ Mohibbul Hasan, History of Tipu Sultan, p. 105-107  ^ Naravane, M. S. (2006). Battles of the Honourable East India Company: Making of the Raj. APH Publishing. ISBN 9788131300343.  ^ Sen, Sailendra Nath (1995). Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
Relations, 1785-96. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 9788171547890.  ^ a b Binita Mehta (2002). Widows, Pariahs, and Bayadères: India as Spectacle. Bucknell University Press. p. 110.  ^ a b Varghese, Alexander (2008). India: History, Religion, Vision and Contribution to the World, Volume 1. Atlantic Publishers.  ^ Sanyal, Sanjeev (2016). The Ocean of Churn: How the Indian Ocean Shaped Human History. p. 188.  ^ a b Exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. ^ a b Chisholm 1911. ^ Beatson, Alexander (1800). "Appendix No. XXXIII". A View of the Origin and Conduct of the War with Tippoo Sultaun. London: G. & W. Nichol. pp. ci–civ.  ^ Fortescue, John William (1902). A history of the British army, Volume 3. Macmillan. pp. 431–432.  ^ "The Tiger and The Thistle – Tipu Sultan
Sultan
and the Scots in India". nationalgalleries.org.  ^ a b c d Subramanian, K. R. (1928). The Maratha
Maratha
Rajas of Tanjore. p. 64.  ^ Subramanian, p. 65 ^ Economic and Political Weekly, Tipu Sultan: Giving the Devil His Due, p. 2837 ^ Zachariah, Mini Pant. "Tipu's legend lives on". The Hindu. Retrieved 18 December 2013.  ^ Brittlebank ^ Özcan, Azmi (1997). "Pan-Islamism: Indian Muslims, the Ottomans and Britain, 1877–1924". ISBN 978-90-04-10632-1.  ^ Kausar, Kabir (1980). "Secret correspondence of Tipu Sultan".  ^ I. M. Muthanna, I. M. Muthanna – CHAPTER XIII TIPU'S FERVENT APPEAL TO MUSLIMS ABROAD ^ Özcan, Azmi (1997). "Pan-Islamism: Indian Muslims, the Ottomans and Britain, 1877–1924". ISBN 978-90-04-10632-1.  ^ "Tipu Sultan
Sultan
and the Scots in India". The Tiger and The Thistle. Archived from the original on 2008-11-21. Retrieved 11 March 2017.  ^ Bhacker, Mohmed Reda (1992). "Trade and Empire in Muscat and Zanzibar: The Roots of British Domination". ISBN 978-0-415-07997-6.  ^ Roy, Kaushik (30 March 2011). "War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740–1849". ISBN 978-1-136-79087-4.  ^ Naravane, M. S. (2006). Battles of the Honourable East India Company: Making of the Raj. APH Publishing. ISBN 9788131300343.  ^ Sen, Sailendra Nath (1995). Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
Relations, 1785-96. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 9788171547890.  ^ Sen, Sailendra Nath (1995). Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
Relations, 1785-96. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 9788171547890.  ^ "Dictionary of Indian biography". archive.org.  ^ A Survey of Kerala History by a Sreedhara Menon ^ madur. "Tipu Sultan
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– Personalities". Karnataka.com.  ^ "Islamic Voice". islamicvoice.com.  ^ Upendrakishore Roychoudhury (101). White Mughals.  ^ "Tricolor and Crescent". google.com.  ^ a b " Napoleon
Napoleon
and Persia". google.com.  ^ "Empires of the Sand". google.com.  ^ The Parliamentary Register; Or, History of the Proceedings and Debates of the [House of Lords and House of Commons]-J. Almon, 1793 ^ http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199539536.001.0001/acref-9780199539536-e-156, Tipu Sultan's world-famous quote, "Better to live one day as a tiger than a thousand years as a sheep" on oxfordreference.com website, Retrieved 14 February 2017 ^ "View of the Hoally Gateway, where Tipu Sultan
Sultan
was killed, Seringapatam
Seringapatam
(Mysore)". British Library Online Gallery. Retrieved 14 June 2009.  ^ Roy, Kaushik (30 March 2011). "War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740–1849". ISBN 978-1-136-79087-4.  ^ Parthasarathi, Prasannan (2011), Why Europe Grew Rich and Asia Did Not: Global Economic Divergence, 1600–1850, Cambridge University Press, p. 207, ISBN 978-1-139-49889-0  ^ Parthasarathi, Prasannan (2011), Why Europe Grew Rich and Asia Did Not: Global Economic Divergence, 1600–1850, Cambridge University Press, p. 45, ISBN 978-1-139-49889-0  ^ R.k.datta (2007). Global Silk
Silk
Industry: A Complete Source Book. APH Publishing. p. 17. ISBN 8131300870. Retrieved 22 January 2013.  ^ Parthasarathi, Prasannan (2011), Why Europe Grew Rich and Asia Did Not: Global Economic Divergence, 1600–1850, Cambridge University Press, p. 45, ISBN 978-1-139-49889-0  ^ Angus Maddison
Angus Maddison
(2007). The World Economy Volume 1: A Millennial Perspective Volume 2: Historical Statistics. Academic Foundation. p. 260.  ^ Maddison, Angus (2007), Contours of the World Economy, 1–2030 AD. Essays in Macro-Economic History, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-922721-1, p. 382, table A.7 ^ a b c d e Binita Mehta (2002). Widows, Pariahs, and Bayadères: India as Spectacle. Bucknell University Press. pp. 110–111.  ^ a b c d e B. N. Pande (1996). Aurangzeb and Tipu Sultan: Evaluation of Their Religious Policies. University of Michigan.  ^ A. Subbaraya Chetty "Tipu's endowments to Hindus
Hindus
and Hindu institutions" in Habib (Ed.) Confronting Colonialism ^ a b Valath, V. v. k. (1981). Keralathile Sthacharithrangal – Thrissur Jilla (in Malayalam). Kerala Sahithya Academy. pp. 74–79.  ^ Brittlebank, pp. 1–3 ^ Phillip B. Wagoner "Tipu Sultan's Search for Legitimacy: Islam
Islam
and Kingship in a Hindu
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Domain by Kate Brittlebank (Review The Journal of Asian Studies Vol. 58, No. 2 (May 1999) pp. 541–543 ^ The Chaldean Syrian Church of the East. ISPCK. p. 30.  ^ Balakrishna S, Tipu Sultan-The Tyrant of Mysore
Mysore
(1st ed. Rare Publications 2013)ISBN 978-81-927884-7-0 ^ W. Kirkpatrick Select Letters of Tipu Sultan, London 1811 ^ M. Wilks Report on the Interior Administration, Resources and Expenditure of the Government of Mysore
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under the System prescribed by the Order of the Governor-General in Council dated 4 September 1799, Bangalore
Bangalore
1864, and Historical Sketches of the South of India in an Attempt to Trace the History of Mysore, 2 vols, ed. M. Hammick, Mysore 1930. ^ C.C. Davies "Review of The History of Tipu Sultan
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by Mohibbul Hasan" in The English Historical Review Vol.68 No.266 (Jan 1953) pp 144–5 ^ a b Irfan Habib
Irfan Habib
"War and Peace. Tipu Sultan's Account of the last Phase of the Second War with the English, 1783-4" State and Diplomacy Under Tipu Sultan
Sultan
(Delhi) 2001 p5; Mohibbul Hasan, The History of Tipu Sultan
Sultan
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& Tipu Sultan, Anthem Press, London, ISBN 1-84331-024-4 ^ Hasan, Mohibbul (1951), p360, History of Tipu Sultan, Aakar Books, Delhi, ISBN 81-87879-57-2 ^ a b Mohibbul Hasan, History of Tipu Sultan, p. 358  ^ Vikram Sampath. "Why we love to hate Tipu Sultan". www.livemint.com/.  ^ Annual Report of the Mysore
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as Defender of the Hindu
Hindu
Dharma" in Habib (Ed.) Confronting Colonialism, pp. 116–8 ^ Thomas, Paul (1954), Christians
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and Christianity
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in India and Pakistan: a general survey of the progress of Christianity
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References[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Tippoo Sahib". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  Bowring, Lewin (1899), Haidar Alí and Tipú Sultán, and the Struggle with the Musalmán Powers of the South, Oxford: Clarendon Press, OCLC 11827326  Brittlebank, Kate (1999), Tipu Sultan's Search for Legitimacy, Delhi: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-563977-3, OCLC 246448596  Hasan, Mohibbul, History of Tipu Sultan, Aakar Books, ISBN 81-87879-57-2  Subramanian, K. R (1928), The Maratha
Maratha
Rajas of Tanjore, Mylapore, Madras: self-published, OCLC 249773661  William, Logan (1887), Malabar Manual, ISBN 978-81-206-0446-9  Grose, John Henry; Charmichael; ), John Carmichael (of the East India Company) (1777), A Voyage to the East Indies  Balakrishna, Sandeep, Tipu Sultan, The Tyrant of Mysore, Rare Publications  Thompson, Rev. E. W. (1990) [1923]. The last siege of Seringapatam. Mysore
Mysore
City: Wesleyan Mission. ISBN 8120606027. 

Further reading[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Tipu Sultan

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tipu Sultan.

Agha, Shamsu. Tipu Sultan", "Mirza Ghalib in London";, "Flight Delayed", Paperback, ISBN 0-901974-42-0 Ali, B Sheik. Tipu Sultan, Nyasanal Buk Trast Amjad, Sayyid. ' Ali
Ali
Ashahri, Savanih Tipu Sultan, Himaliyah Buk Ha®us Banglori, Mahmud Khan Mahmud. Sahifah-yi Tipu Sultan, Himālayah Pablishing Hā'ūs, Bhagwan, Gidwami S (1976). The Sword of Tipu Sultan: a historical novel about the life and legend of Tipu Sultan
Sultan
of India. Allied Publishers. OCLC 173807200.  A fictionalised account of Tipu's life. Buddle, Anne. Tigers Round the Throne, Zamana Gallery, ISBN 1-869933-02-8 Bowring, Lewin (1893). Haidar Ali
Ali
and Tipu Sultan
Sultan
and the struggle with the Musalman powers of the south (1974 ed.). Delhi: ADABIYAT-I DELLI. ISBN 81-206-1299-X. Campbell, Richard Hamilton. Tippoo Sultan: The fall of Srirangapattana and the restoration of the Hindu
Hindu
raj, Govt. Press Chinnian, P. Tipu Sultan
Sultan
the Great, Siva Publications Habib, Irfan. State and Diplomacy Under Tipu Sultan: Documents and Essays, Manohar Publishers and Distributors, ISBN 81-85229-52-X Hashimi, Sajjad. Tipu Sultan, Publisher: Maktabah-yi Urdu
Urdu
Da®ijast Home, Robert. Select Views in Mysore: The Country of Tipu Sultan
Sultan
from Drawings Taken on the Spot by Mr. Home, Asian Educational Services, India, ISBN 81-206-1512-3 Kareem, C.K (1973). Kerala Under Haidar Ali
Ali
and Tipu Sultan. Kerala History Association: distributors, Paico Pub. House. V.M. Korath, P. Parameswaran, Ravi Varma, Nandagopal R Menon, S.R. Goel & P.C.N. Raja: Tipu Sultan: Villain or hero? : an anthology. (1993). ISBN 9788185990088 Mohibbul Hasan. Tipu Sultan's Mission to Constantinople, Aakar Books, ISBN 81-87879-56-4 Moienuddin, Mohammad. Sunset at Srirangapatam: After the death of Tipu Sultan, Orient Longman, ISBN 81-250-1919-7 Pande, B. N. Aurangzeb and Tipu Sultan: Evaluation of their religious policies (IOS series), Institute of Objective Studies Sharma, H. D. (1991). The real Tipu: A brief history of Tipu Sultan. Varanasi: Rishi Publ. Sil, Narasingha P. "Tipu Sultan: A Re-Vision," Calcutta Historical Journal' (2008) 28#1 pp 1–23. historiography Strandberg, Samuel. Tipu Sultan: The Tiger of Mysore: or, to fight against the odds, AB Samuel Travel, ISBN 91-630-7333-1 Taylor, George. Coins of Tipu Sultan, Asian Educational Services, India, ISBN 81-206-0503-9 Wigington, Robin. Firearms of Tipu Sultan, 1783–99, J. Taylor Book Ventures, ISBN 1-871224-13-6 Confronting Colonialism: Resistance and Modernization Under Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan
Sultan
(Anthem South Asian Studies), Anthem Press, ISBN 1-84331-024-4 Ashfaq Ahmed Mathur – "SALTANATH-E-KHUDADAT" and a book by Allama Iqbal ahmed (RH) "Daana e Raaz Diyaar e Dakan mein"

External links[edit]

Tipu Sultan
Sultan
remembered on his 212th martyrdom anniversary – TCN News The Tiger of Mysore – Dramatised account of the British campaign against Tipu Sultan
Sultan
by G. A. Henty, from Project Gutenberg Biography by Dr. K. L. Kamat Coins of Tipu Sultan Illuminated Qurʾān from the library of Tippoo Ṣāḥib, Cambridge University Digital Library

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 64808584 LCCN: n50052021 ISNI: 0000 0000 6678 3184 GND: 11902327X SUDOC: 027928594 BNF: cb119866280 (data) SN

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