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The Timurid Empire
Empire
(Persian: تیموریان‎, Timuriyān), self-designated as Gurkani (Persian: گورکانیان‎, Gurkāniyān), was a Persianate[5][6] Turco-Mongol
Turco-Mongol
empire comprising modern-day Iran, the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, much of Central Asia, as well as parts of contemporary Pakistan, Syria
Syria
and Turkey. The empire was founded by Timur
Timur
(also known as Tamerlane), a warlord of Turco-Mongol
Turco-Mongol
lineage, who established the empire between 1370 and his death in 1405. He envisioned himself as the great restorer of the Mongol Empire
Empire
of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and, while not descended from Genghis, regarded himself as Genghis's heir and associated much with the Borjigin. The ruling Timurid dynasty, or Timurids, lost most of Persia to the Ag Qoyunlu confederation in 1467, but members of the dynasty continued to rule smaller states, sometimes known as Timurid emirates, in Central Asia and parts of India. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid prince from Ferghana
Ferghana
(modern Uzbekistan), invaded Kabulistan
Kabulistan
(modern Afghanistan) and established a small kingdom there, and from there 20 years later he invaded India to establish the Mughal Empire.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Rise 1.2 Fall

2 Culture

2.1 Language 2.2 Literature

2.2.1 Persian 2.2.2 Chagatai

2.3 Art 2.4 Timurid architecture

3 Rulers

3.1 Emperors 3.2 Governors

4 See also 5 References and notes 6 Further reading 7 External links

History[edit]

History of Greater Iran

Pre-Islamic BCE / BC

Prehistory

Kura–Araxes culture c. 3400 – c. 2000

Proto-Elamite
Proto-Elamite
civilization 3200–2800

Elamite dynasties 2800–550

Jiroft culture

Mannaeans

Lullubi

Gutians

Cyrtian

Corduene

Bactria–Margiana Complex 2200–1700

Kingdom of Mannai 10th–7th century

Neo-Assyrian Empire 911–609

Urartu 860–590

Median Empire 728–550

Scythian Kingdom 652–625

Achaemenid Empire 550–330

Ancient kingdom of Armenia 331 BCE – 428 CE

Seleucid Empire 330–150

Caucasian Iberia c. 302 BCE – 580 CE

Greco-Bactrian Kingdom 250–125

Parthian Empire 248 BCE–224 CE

Caucasian Albania 2nd century BCE – 8th century CE

Roman Empire 27 BCE – 330 CE

CE / AD

Kushan Empire 30–275

Sasanian Empire 224–651

Afrighid dynasty 305–995

Hephthalite Empire 425–557

Kabul Shahi
Kabul Shahi
kingdom 565–879

Dabuyid dynasty 642–760

Bagratid Armenia 880s – 1045

Alania 8th/9th century – 1238 / 9

Kingdom of Georgia 1008–1490

Islamic

Patriarchal Caliphate 637–651

Umayyad Caliphate 661–750

Abbasid Caliphate 750–1258

Shirvanshah 799–1607

Tahirid dynasty 821–873

Dulafid dynasty 840–897

Zaydis of Tabaristan 864–928

Saffarid dynasty 861–1003

Samanid Empire 819–999

Sajid dynasty 889/90–929

Ziyarid dynasty 928–1043

Buyid dynasty 934–1055

Sallarid dynasty 941–1062

Ghaznavid Empire 975–1187

Ghurid dynasty pre-879 – 1215

Seljuk Empire 1037–1194

Khwarazmian dynasty 1077–1231

Sultanate of Rum 1077–1307

Salghurids 1148–1282

Ilkhanate 1256–1353

Kartids dynasty 1231–1389

Ottoman Empire 1299–1923

Muzaffarid dynasty 1314–1393

Chupanid dynasty 1337–1357

Jalairid Sultanate 1339–1432

Timurid Empire 1370–1507

Qara Qoyunlu Turcomans 1407–1468

Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
Turcomans 1378–1508

Safavid Empire 1501–1722

Mughal Empire 1526–1857

Hotak dynasty 1722–1729

Afsharid dynasty 1736–1750

Zand dynasty 1750–1794

Durrani Empire 1794–1826

Qajar dynasty 1794–1925

v t e

Main articles: Timur
Timur
and History of Iran Timur
Timur
conquered large parts of Central Asia, primarily Transoxiana
Transoxiana
and Khorasan, from 1363 onwards with various alliances ( Samarkand
Samarkand
in 1366, and Balkh
Balkh
in 1369), and was recognized as ruler over them in 1370. Acting officially in the name of Suurgatmish, the Chagatai khan, he subjugated Transoxania
Transoxania
and Khwarazm
Khwarazm
in the years that followed. Already in the 1360s he had gained control of the western Chagatai Khanate and while as emir he was nominally subordinate to the khan, in reality it was now Timur
Timur
that picked the khans who became mere puppet rulers. The western Chagatai khans were continually dominated by Timurid princes in the 15th and 16th centuries and their figurehead importance was eventually reduced into total insignificance. Rise[edit] See also: Siege of Balkh
Balkh
(1370) Timur
Timur
began a campaign westwards in 1380, invading the various successor states of the Ilkhanate. By 1389, he had removed the Kartids from Herat
Herat
and advanced into mainland Persia where he enjoyed many successes. This included the capture of Isfahan in 1387, the removal of the Muzaffarids from Shiraz in 1393, and the expulsion of the Jalayirids
Jalayirids
from Baghdad. In 1394–95, he triumphed over the Golden Horde, following his successful campaign in Georgia, after which he enforced his sovereignty in the Caucasus. Tokhtamysh, the khan of the Golden Horde, was a major rival to Timur
Timur
in the region. He also subjugated Multan
Multan
and Dipalpur
Dipalpur
in modern-day Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1398. Timur gave the north Indian territories to a non-family member, Khizr Khan, whose Sayyid dynasty
Sayyid dynasty
replaced the defeated Tughlaq dynasty
Tughlaq dynasty
of the Sultanate of Delhi.[citation needed] Delhi became a vassal of the Timurids but obtained independence in the years following the death of Timur.[citation needed][dubious – discuss] In 1400–1401 he conquered Aleppo, Damascus
Damascus
and eastern Anatolia, in 1401 he destroyed Baghdad
Baghdad
and in 1402 defeated the Ottomans in the Battle of Ankara. This made Timur
Timur
the most preeminent Muslim ruler of the time, as the Ottoman Empire
Empire
plunged into civil war. Meanwhile, he transformed Samarkand
Samarkand
into a major capital and seat of his realm. Timur
Timur
appointed his sons and grandsons to the main governorships of the different parts of his empire, and outsiders to some others. After his death in 1405, the family quickly fell into disputes and civil wars, and many of the governorships became effectively independent. However, Timurid rulers continued to dominate Persia, Mesopotamia, Armenia, large parts of Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, Pakistan,[citation needed] minor parts of India,[citation needed] and much of Central Asia, though the Anatolian and Caucasian territories were lost by the 1430s. Due to the fact that the Persian cities were desolated by wars, the seat of Persian culture was now in Samarkand
Samarkand
and Herat, cities that became the center of the Timurid renaissance.[7] The cost of Timur's conquests amount to the deaths of possibly 17 million people.[8] Shahrukh Mirza, fourth ruler of the Timurids, dealt with Kara Koyunlu, who aimed to expand into Iran. But, Jahan Shah
Jahan Shah
(bey of the Kara Koyunlu) drove the Timurids to eastern Iran
Iran
after 1447 and also briefly occupied Herat
Herat
in 1458. After the death of Jahan Shah, Uzun Hasan, bey of the Ak Koyunlu, conquered the holdings of the Kara Koyunlu in Iran
Iran
between 1469 and 1471. Fall[edit] By 1500, the divided and wartorn Timurid Empire
Empire
had lost control of most of its territory, and in the following years was effectively pushed back on all fronts. Persia, the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, and Eastern Anatolia
Anatolia
fell quickly to the Shiite Safavid dynasty, secured by Shah Ismail I
Ismail I
in the following decade. Much of the Central Asian lands was overrun by the Uzbeks of Muhammad Shaybani
Muhammad Shaybani
who conquered the key cities of Samarkand
Samarkand
and Herat
Herat
in 1505 and 1507, and who founded the Khanate of Bukhara. From Kabul, the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
was established in 1526 by Babur, a descendant of Timur
Timur
through his father and possibly a descendant of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
through his mother. The dynasty he established is commonly known as the Mughal dynasty though it was directly inherited from the Timurids. By the 17th century, the Mughal Empire
Empire
ruled most of India but eventually declined during the following century. The Timurid dynasty finally came to an end as the remaining nominal rule of the Mughals was abolished by the British Empire
Empire
following the 1857 rebellion. Culture[edit]

Timur
Timur
– Forensic facial reconstruction by M.Gerasimov, 1941

Although the Timurids hailed from the Barlas
Barlas
tribe, which was of Turkicized Mongol origin,[9] they had embraced Persian culture,[10] converted to Islam, and resided in Turkestan
Turkestan
and Khorasan. Thus, the Timurid era had a dual character,[7] reflecting both its Turco-Mongol origins and the Persian literary, artistic, and courtly high culture of the dynasty.[11][11][12] Language[edit] During the Timurid era, Central Asian society was bifurcated, with the responsibilities of government and rule divided into military and civilian spheres along ethnic lines. At least in the early stages, the military was almost exclusively Turko-Mongolian, while the civilian and administrative element was almost exclusively Persian. The spoken language shared by all the Turko-Mongolians throughout the area was Chaghatay. The political organization hearkened back to the steppe-nomadic system of patronage introduced by Genghis Khan.[13] The major language of the period, however, was Persian, the native language of the Tājīk (Persian) component of society and the language of learning acquired by all literate and/or urban people. Timur
Timur
was already steeped in Persian culture[14] and in most of the territories he incorporated, Persian was the primary language of administration and literary culture. Thus the language of the settled "diwan" was Persian, and its scribes had to be thoroughly adept in Persian culture, whatever their ethnic origin.[15] Persian became the official state language of the Timurid Empire[12][16] and served as the language of administration, history, belles lettres, and poetry.[17] The Chaghatay language was the native and "home language" of the Timurid family,[18] while Arabic served as the language par excellence of science, philosophy, theology and the religious sciences.[19] Literature[edit] Persian[edit]

Folio of Poetry From the Divan
Divan
of Sultan Husayn Mirza, ca. 1490. Brooklyn Museum.

Illustration from Jāmī's "Rose Garden of the Pious", dated 1553. The image blends Persian poetry
Persian poetry
and Persian miniature
Persian miniature
into one, as is the norm for many works of the Timurid era.

Persian literature, especially Persian poetry, occupied a central place in the process of assimilation of the Timurid elite to the Perso-Islamic courtly culture.[20] The Timurid sultans, especially Šāhrukh Mīrzā and his son Mohammad Taragai Oloğ Beg, patronized Persian culture.[11] Among the most important literary works of the Timurid era is the Persian biography of Timur, known as "Zafarnāmeh" (Persian: ظفرنامه‎), written by Sharaf ud-Dīn Alī Yazdī, which itself is based on an older "Zafarnāmeh" by Nizām al-Dīn Shāmī, the official biographer of Timur
Timur
during his lifetime. The most famous poet of the Timurid era was Nūr ud-Dīn Jāmī, the last great medieval Sufi
Sufi
mystic of Persia and one of the greatest in Persian poetry. In addition, some of the astronomical works of the Timurid sultan Ulugh Beg
Ulugh Beg
were written in Persian, although the bulk of it was published in Arabic.[21] The Timurid ruler Baysunğur also commissioned a new edition of the Persian national epic Shāhnāmeh, known as Shāhnāmeh of Baysunğur, and wrote an introduction to it. According to T. Lenz:[22]

It can be viewed as a specific reaction in the wake of Timur's death in 807/1405 to the new cultural demands facing Shahhrokh and his sons, a Turkic military elite no longer deriving their power and influence solely from a charismatic steppe leader with a carefully cultivated linkage to Mongol aristocracy. Now centered in Khorasan, the ruling house regarded the increased assimilation and patronage of Persian culture as an integral component of efforts to secure the legitimacy and authority of the dynasty within the context of the Islamic Iranian monarchical tradition, and the Baysanghur Shahnameh, as much a precious object as it is a manuscript to be read, powerfully symbolizes the Timurid conception of their own place in that tradition. A valuable documentary source for Timurid decorative arts that have all but disappeared for the period, the manuscript still awaits a comprehensive monographic study.

Chagatai[edit] The Timurids also played a very important role in the history of Turkic literature. Based on the established Persian literary tradition, a national Turkic literature was developed in the Chagatai language. Chagatai poets such as Mīr Alī Sher Nawā'ī, Sultan Husayn Bāyqarā, and Zāher ud-Dīn Bābur encouraged other Turkic-speaking poets to write in their own vernacular in addition to Arabic and Persian.[7][23][24][25] The Bāburnāma, the autobiography of Bābur (although being highly Persianized in its sentence structure, morphology, and vocabulary),[26] as well as Mīr Alī Sher Nawā'ī's Chagatai poetry are among the best-known Turkic literary works and have influenced many others. Art[edit] Main article: Timurid art The golden age of Persian painting began during the reign of the Timurids.[27] During this period — and analogous to the developments in Safavid Persia — Chinese art
Chinese art
and artists had a significant influence on Persian art.[7] Timurid artists refined the Persian art of the book, which combines paper, calligraphy, illumination, illustration and binding in a brilliant and colourful whole.[28] The Mongol ethnicity of the Chaghatayid and Timurid Khans was the source of the stylistic depiction of Persian art
Persian art
during the Middle Ages. These same Mongols intermarried with the Persians and Turks of Central Asia, even adopting their religion and languages. Yet their simple control of the world at that time, particularly in the 13th–15th centuries, reflected itself in the idealised appearance of Persians as Mongols. Though the ethnic make-up gradually blended into the Iranian and Mesopotamian local populations, the Mongol stylism continued well after and crossed into Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and even North Africa. Timurid architecture[edit] Timurid architecture drew on and developed many Seljuq traditions. Turquoise and blue tiles forming intricate linear and geometric patterns decorated the facades of buildings. Sometimes the interior was decorated similarly, with painting and stucco relief further enriching the effect.[29] Timurid architecture is the pinnacle of Islamic art
Islamic art
in Central Asia. Spectacular and stately edifices erected by Timur
Timur
and his successors in Samarkand
Samarkand
and Herat
Herat
helped to disseminate the influence of the Ilkhanid
Ilkhanid
school of art in India, thus giving rise to the celebrated Mughal (or Mongol) school of architecture. Timurid architecture started with the sanctuary of Ahmed Yasawi in present-day Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and culminated in Timur's mausoleum Gur-e Amir
Gur-e Amir
in Samarkand. Timur's Gur-I Mir, the 14th-century mausoleum of the conqueror is covered with "turquoise Persian tiles".[30] Nearby, in the center of the ancient town, a Persian style Madrassa (religious school)[30] and a Persian style Mosque[30] by Ulugh Beg
Ulugh Beg
is observed. The mausoleum of Timurid princes, with their turquoise and blue-tiled domes remain among the most refined and exquisite Persian architecture.[31] Axial symmetry
Axial symmetry
is a characteristic of all major Timurid structures, notably the Shāh-e Zenda in Samarkand, the Musallah complex in Herat, and the mosque of Gowhar Shād in Mashhad. Double domes of various shapes abound, and the outsides are perfused with brilliant colors. Timur's dominance of the region strengthened the influence of his capital and Persian architecture
Persian architecture
upon India.[32]

"Akhangan" tomb, where Gowharšād's sister Gowhartāj is buried. The architecture is a fine example of the Timurid era in Persia.

Façade Bibi Khanym Mosque

Rulers[edit] Emperors[edit] Main article: Timurid dynasty

Timur Pir Muhammad ibn Jahangir Khalil Sultan Shahrukh Mirza Ulugh Beg Abdal-Latif Mirza Abdallah Mirza Sultan Muhammad bin Baysonqor Abul-Qasim Babur
Babur
Mirza Sultan Ahmed Mirza Sultan Mahmud Mirza Mirza Shah Mahmud Ibrahim Mirza bin Ala-ud-Daulah Abu Sa'id Mirza Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqara Yadgar Muhammad Mirza Badi' al-Zaman Mirza

Governors[edit]

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Qaidu bin Pir Muhammad bin Jahāngīr 808–811 AH Abu Bakr bin Mīrān Shāh 1405–07 (807–09 AH) Pir Muhammad bin Umar Sheikh 807–12 AH Rustam 812–17 AH Sikandar 812–17 AH Alaudaullah 851 AH Abu Bakr bin Muhammad 851 AH Sultān Muhammad 850–55 AH Muhammad bin Hussayn 903–06 AH Abul A'la Fereydūn Hussayn 911–12 AH Muhammad Mohsin Khān 911–12 AH Muhammad Zamān Khān 920–23 AH Shāhrukh II bin Abu Sa’id 896–97 AH Ulugh Beg
Ulugh Beg
Kābulī 873–907 AH Sultān Uways 1508–22 (913–27 AH)

See also[edit]

Timurid dynasty Turkic peoples List of Turkic dynasties and countries List of Mongol states History of Iran List of Sunni Muslim dynasties Mughal Empire Afghanistan

References and notes[edit]

^ Subtelny, Maria E. (2007). Timurids in Transition: Turko-Persian Politics and Acculturation in Medieval Iran. Leiden: Brill. p. 260. ISBN 978-9004160316.  ^

Manz, Beatrice Forbes (1999). The Rise and Rule of Tamerlane. Cambridge University Press, p.109. ISBN 0-521-63384-2. Limited preview at Google Books. p.109.

"In almost all the territories which Temür incorporated into his realm Persian was the primary language of administration and literary culture. Thus the language of the settled 'divan' was Persian."

B.F. Manz, W.M. Thackston, D.J. Roxburgh, L. Golombek, L. Komaroff, R.E. Darley-Doran. "Timurids" Encyclopaedia of Islam
Encyclopaedia of Islam
Brill Publishers 2007;

"During the Timurid period, three languages, Persian, Turkish, and Arabic were in use. The major language of the period was Persian, the native language of the Tajik (Persian) component of society and the language of learning acquired by all literate and/or urban Turks. Persian served as the language of administration, history, belles lettres, and poetry."

Bertold Spuler. "CENTRAL ASIA v. In the Mongol and Timurid Periodse". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2017-09-14. 

... Like his father, Olōğ Beg was entirely integrated into the Persian Islamic cultural circles, and during his reign Persian predominated as the language of high culture, a status that it retained in the region of Samarqand until the Russian revolution 1917... Ḥoseyn Bāyqarā encouraged the development of Persian literature and literary talent in every way possible...)

Robert Devereux (ed.) "Muhakamat Al-Lughatain (Judgment of Two Languages)" Mir 'Ali Shir Nawāi; Leiden, E.J. Brill
E.J. Brill
1966:

...Nawa'i also employs the curious argument that most Turks also spoke Persian but only a few Persians ever achieved fluency in Turkic. It is difficult to understand why he was impressed by this phenomenon, since the most obvious explanation is that Turks found it necessary, or at least advisable, to learn Persian – it was, after all, the official state language – while Persians saw no reason to bother learning Turkic which was, in their eyes, merely the uncivilized tongue of uncivilized nomadic tribesmen.)

David J. Roxburgh. The Persian Album, 1400–1600: From Dispersal to Collection. Yale University Press, 2005. pg 130:

"Persian literature, especially poetry, occupied a central in the process of assimilation of Timurid elite to the Perso-Islamicate courtly culture, and so it is not surprising to find Baysanghur commissioned a new edition of Firdawsi's Shanama

^ Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of world-systems research. 12 (2): 222. ISSN 1076-156X. Retrieved 2016-09-14.  ^ Rein Taagepera
Rein Taagepera
(September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3): 500. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. Retrieved 2016-09-14.  ^ Subtelny, Maria (2007). Timurids in Transition: Turko-Persian Politics and Acculturation in Medieval Iran. BRILL. pp. 40–41. ISBN 9004160310. Nevertheless, in the complex process of transition, members of the Timurid dynasty and their Turko-Mongolian supporters became acculturated by the surrounding Persianate
Persianate
millieu adopting Persian cultural models and tastes and acting as patrons of Persian culture, painting, architecture and music. [...] The last members of the dynasty, notably Sultan-Abu Sa'id and Sultan-Husain, in fact came to be regarded as ideal Perso-Islamic rulers who develoted as much attention to agricultural development as they did to fostering Persianate
Persianate
court culture.  ^ B.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006 ^ a b c d "Timurids". The Columbia Encyclopedia (Sixth ed.). New York City: Columbia University. Archived from the original on 2006-12-05. Retrieved 2006-11-08.  ^ "Selected Death Tolls: Timur
Timur
Lenk (1369–1405)". Necrometrics.com. Retrieved 2013-02-11.  ^ M.S. Asimov & C. E. Bosworth, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, UNESCO
UNESCO
Regional Office, 1998, ISBN 92-3-103467-7, p. 320: "... One of his followers was [...] Timur
Timur
of the Barlas tribe. This Mongol tribe had settled [...] in the valley of Kashka Darya, intermingling with the Turkish population, adopting their religion (Islam) and gradually giving up its own nomadic ways, like a number of other Mongol tribes in Transoxania
Transoxania
..." ^ Lehmann, F. "Zaher ud-Din Babor — Founder of Mughal empire". Encyclopædia Iranica (Online ed.). New York City: Columbia University Center for Iranian (Persian) Studies. pp. 320–323. Retrieved 2012-09-17. ... His origin, milieu, training, and culture were steeped in Persian culture and so Babor was largely responsible for the fostering of this culture by his descendants, the Mughals of India, and for the expansion of Persian cultural influence in the Indian subcontinent, with brilliant literary, artistic, and historiographical results ...  ^ a b c B. Spuler, " Central Asia
Central Asia
in the Mongol and Timurid periods", published in Encyclopædia Iranica. ([1]) Note:"... Like his father, Olōğ Beg was entirely integrated into the Persian Islamic cultural circles, and during his reign Persian predominated as the language of high culture, a status that it retained in the region of Samarqand until the Russian revolution 1917 [...] Ḥoseyn Bāyqarā encouraged the development of Persian literature
Persian literature
and literary talent in every way possible ..." ^ a b Mir 'Ali Shir Nawāi (1966). Muhakamat Al-Lughatain (Judgment of Two Languages). Robert Devereux (ed.). Leiden: E.J. Brill. OCLC 3615905. LCC PL55.J31 A43. Any linguist of today who reads the essay will inevitably conclude that Nawa'i argued his case poorly, for his principal argument is that the Turkic lexicon contained many words for which the Persian had no exact equivalents and that Persian-speakers had therefore to use the Turkic words. This is a weak reed on which to lean, for it is a rare language indeed that contains no loan words. In any case, the beauty of a language and its merits as a literary medium depend less on size of vocabulary and purity of etymology that on the euphony, expressiveness and malleability of those words its lexicon does include. Moreover, even if Nawā'ī's thesis were to be accepted as valid, he destroyed his own case by the lavish use, no doubt unknowingly, of non-Turkic words even while ridiculing the Persians for their need to borrow Turkic words. The present writer has not made a word count of Nawa'i's text, but he would estimate conservatively that at least one half the words used by Nawa'i in the essay are Arabic or Persian in origin. To support his claim of the superiority of the Turkic language, Nawa'i also employs the curious argument that most Turks also spoke Persian but only a few Persians ever achieved fluency in Turkic. It is difficult to understand why he was impressed by this phenomenon, since the most obvious explanation is that Turks found it necessary, or at least advisable, to learn Persian – it was, after all, the official state language – while Persians saw no reason to bother learning Turkic which was, in their eyes, merely the uncivilized tongue of uncivilized nomadic tribesmen.  ^ Babur, Emperor of Hindustan (2002). The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor. translated, edited and annotated by W.M. Thackston. Modern Library. ^ Gérard Chaliand, Nomadic Empires: From Mongolia to the Danube translated by A. M. Berrett, Transaction Publishers, 2004. pg 75 ^ Beatrice Forbes Manz. The Rise and Rule of Tamerlane. Cambridge University Press, 1999. pg 109: "...In Temür's government, as in those of most nomad dynasties, it is impossible to find a clear distinction between civil and military affairs, or to identify the Persian bureaucracy solely civil, and the Turko-Mongolian solely with military government. It is in fact difficult to define the sphere of either side of the administration and we find Persians and Chaghatays sharing many tasks. (In discussiong the settled bureaucracy and the people who worked within it I use the word Persian in a cultural rather than ethnological sense. In almost all the territories which Temür incorporated into his realm Persian was the primary language of administration and literary culture. The language of the settled population and the chancery ("diwan") was Persian, and its scribes had to be thoroughly adept in Persian culture, whatever their ethnic origin.) Temür's Chaghatay emirs were often involved in civil and provincial administration and even in financial affairs, traditionally the province of Persian bureaucracy...." ^ Spuler, Bertold. "Central Asia". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2008-04-02. [Part] v. In the Mongol and Timurid periods:... Like his father, Olōğ Beg was entirely integrated into the Persian Islamic cultural circles, and during his reign Persian predominated as the language of high culture, a status that it retained in the region of Samarqand until the Russian revolution 1917... Ḥoseyn Bāyqarā encouraged the development of Persian literature
Persian literature
and literary talent in every way possible...  ^ B.F. Manz; W.M. Thackston; D.J. Roxburgh; L. Golombek; L. Komaroff; R.E. Darley-Doran (2007). "Timurids". Encyclopaedia of Islam
Encyclopaedia of Islam
(Online ed.). Brill Publishers. During the Timurid period, three languages, Persian, Turkish, and Arabic were in use. The major language of the period was Persian, the native language of the Tajik (Persian) component of society and the language of learning acquired by all literate and/or urban Turks. Persian served as the language of administration, history, belles lettres, and poetry.  ^ B.F. Manz; W.M. Thackston; D.J. Roxburgh; L. Golombek; L. Komaroff; R.E. Darley-Doran (2007). "Timurids". Encyclopaedia of Islam
Encyclopaedia of Islam
(Online ed.). Brill Publishers. What is now called Chaghatay Turkish, which was then called simply türki, was the native and 'home' language of the Timurids...  ^ B.F. Manz; W.M. Thackston; D.J. Roxburgh; L. Golombek; L. Komaroff; R.E. Darley-Doran (2007). "Timurids". Encyclopaedia of Islam
Encyclopaedia of Islam
(Online ed.). Brill Publishers. "As it had been prior to the Timurids and continued to be after them, Arabic was the language par excellence of science, philosophy, theology and the religious sciences. Much of the astronomical work of Ulugh Beg
Ulugh Beg
and his co-workers... is in Arabic, although they also wrote in Persian. Theological works... are generally in Arabic.  ^ David J. Roxburgh. The Persian Album, 1400–1600: From Dispersal to Collection. Yale University Press, 2005. pg 130: "Persian literature, especially poetry, occupied a central in the process of assimilation of Timurid elite to the Perso-Islamicate courtly culture, and so it is not surprising to find Baysanghur commissioned a new edition of Firdawsi's Shanameh ^ B.F. Manz/W.M. Thackston/D.J. Roxburgh/L. Golombek/L. Komaroff/R.E. Darley-Doran; "Timurids", in Encyclopaedia of Islam; Brill; Online Edition (2007): "... As it had been prior to the Timurids and continued to be after them, Arabic was the language par excellence of science, philosophy, theology and the religious sciences. Much of the astronomical work of Ulugh Beg
Ulugh Beg
and his co-workers [...] is in Arabic, although they also wrote in Persian. Theological works [...] are generally in Arabic. ..." ^ "BĀYSONḠORĪ ŠĀH-NĀMA" in Encyclopædia Iranica by T. Lenz ^ "Persian Paintings". Persian Paintings. Retrieved 2013-02-11.  ^ "MSN Encarta. Islamic Art and Architecture". encarta.msn.com. Retrieved 2017-11-28.  ^ "Art Arena. Persian art
Persian art
– the Safavids". Art-arena.com. Retrieved 2013-02-11.  ^ Stephen Frederic DaleThe Garden of the Eight Paradises: Babur
Babur
and the Culture of Empire. BRILL, 2004. pg 150 ^ New Orient, By Czechoslovak Society for Eastern Studies, Czechoslovak Society for Eastern Studies, 1968. pg 139. ^ John Onians, Atlas of World Art, Laurence King Publishing, 2004. pg 132. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, "Timurid Dynasty", Online Academic Edition, 2007. (Quotation:...Turkic dynasty descended from the conqueror Timur
Timur
(Tamerlane), renowned for its brilliant revival of artistic and intellectual life in Iran
Iran
and Central Asia....Trading and artistic communities were brought into the capital city of Herat, where a library was founded, and the capital became the centre of a renewed and artistically brilliant Persian culture...) ^ a b c John Julius Norwich, Great Architecture of the World, Da Capo Press, 2001. pg 278. ^ Hugh Kennedy, "The Great Arab Conquests: How the Spread of Islam Changed the World We Live In", Da Capo Press, 2007. pg 237 ^ Banister Fletcher, Dan Cruickshan, "Sir Banister Fletcher's a History of Architecture", Architectural Press, 1996. pg 606

Further reading[edit]

BĀYSONḠORĪ ŠĀH-NĀMA in Encyclopædia Iranica Aka, Ismail (1996). "The Agricultural and Commercial Activities of the Timurids in the First Half of the 15th Century". Oriente Moderno. Istituto per l'Oriente C. A. Nallino. 15 (76/2): 9–21. JSTOR 25817400.  Elliot, Sir H. M.; edited by Dowson, John. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; published by London Trubner Company 1867–77. (Online Copy: The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; by Sir H. M. Elliot; Edited by John Dowson; London Trubner Company 1867–1877 — This online copy has been posted by: The Packard Humanities Institute; Persian Texts in Translation; Also find other historical books: Author List and Title List) Subtelny, Maria Eva (1988). "Centralizing Reform and Its Opponents in the Late Timurid Period". Iranian Studies. International Society for Iranian Studies. 21 (1/2): 123–51. doi:10.1080/00210868808701712. JSTOR 4310597. 

External links[edit]

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Timurid Empire
Empire
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Timurid Empire

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Timur Pir Muhammad ibn Jahangir Khalil Sultan Shah Rukh Ulugh Beg Abdal-Latif Mirza Abdallah Mirza Sultan Muhammad bin Baysonqor Abul-Qasim Babur
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Mirza Sultan Ahmed Mirza Sultan Mahmud Mirza Mirza Shah Mahmud Ibrahim Mirza bin Ala-ud-Daulah Abu Sa'id Mirza Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqara Yadgar Muhammad Mirza Badi' al-Zaman Mirza

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 64803093 GND: 11875

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