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Timor
Timor
is an island at the southern end of Maritime Southeast Asia, north of the Timor
Timor
Sea. The island is divided between the sovereign states of East Timor
East Timor
on the eastern part and Indonesia
Indonesia
on the western part. The Indonesian part, also known as West Timor, constitutes part of the province of East Nusa Tenggara. Within West Timor
West Timor
lies an exclave of East Timor
East Timor
called Oecusse District. The island covers an area of 30,777 square kilometres (11,883 square miles). The name is a variant of timur, Malay for "east"; it is so called because it lies at the eastern end of the Lesser Sunda Islands. Mainland Australia
Australia
is less than 500 km away.

Contents

1 Language, ethnic groups and religion 2 Geography 3 Flora and fauna 4 History 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Language, ethnic groups and religion[edit] See also: Languages of East Timor
East Timor
and Tetum

Language map of Timor

Anthropologists identify eleven distinct ethno-linguistic groups in Timor. The largest are the Atoni
Atoni
of western Timor, and the Tetum
Tetum
of central and eastern Timor.[1] Most indigenous Timorese languages belong to the Timor–Babar branch of the Austronesian languages spoken throughout the Indonesian archipelago. Although lexical evidence is lacking, [2] the non- Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
of Timor
Timor
are thought to be related to languages spoken on Halmahera
Halmahera
and in Western New Guinea.[1] Some are so mixed it is difficult to tell which family they descend from. The official languages of East Timor
East Timor
are Tetum
Tetum
and Portuguese, while in West Timor
West Timor
it is Indonesian. Indonesian is also widely spoken and understood in East Timor. Christianity
Christianity
is the dominant religion throughout the island of Timor, at about 90% of the population, but unequally distributed as West Timor
Timor
is 58% Protestant and 37% Catholic, and East Timor
East Timor
is 98% Catholic and 1% Protestant. Islam
Islam
and animism make up most of the remainder at about 5% each across the island. Geography[edit] See also: Geography of East Timor
East Timor
and Geography of West Timor

Timor
Timor
Island
Island
as seen from space in November 1989.

Timor
Timor
is located north of Australia, and is one of the easternmost Sunda Islands. Together with Sumba, Babar and associated smaller islands, Timor
Timor
forms the southern outer archipelago of the Lesser Sunda Islands
Sunda Islands
with the inner islands of Flores, Alor and Wetar
Wetar
to the north, and beyond them Sulawesi. Timor
Timor
is the principal island of the Outer Banda Arc, which has been upthrust by collision with the Australian continent. Timor
Timor
has older geology and lacks the volcanic nature of the northern Lesser Sunda Islands. The orientation of the main axis of the island also differs from its neighbors. These features have been explained as the result of being on the northern edge of the Indo-Australian Plate
Indo-Australian Plate
as it meets the Eurasian Plate
Eurasian Plate
and pushes into South East Asia.[3] The climate includes a long dry season with hot winds blowing over from Australia. Rivers on the island include the Southern and Northern Laclo Rivers in East Timor. The largest towns on the island are the provincial capital of Kupang in West Timor, Indonesia
Indonesia
and the Portuguese colonial towns of Dili
Dili
the capital, and Baucau
Baucau
in East Timor. Poor roads make transport to inland areas difficult, in East Timor
East Timor
especially.[4] East Timor
East Timor
is a poor country, with health issues including malaria and dengue fever. Sources of revenue include gas and oil in the Timor
Timor
Sea, coffee growing and tourism. Flora and fauna[edit] Timor
Timor
and its offshore islands such as Atauro, a former place of exile increasingly known for its beaches and coral[citation needed], as well as Jaco along with Wetar
Wetar
and the other Barat Daya Islands
Barat Daya Islands
to the northeast constitute the Timor
Timor
and Wetar
Wetar
deciduous forests ecoregion. The natural vegetation was tropical dry broadleaf forests with an undergrowth of shrubs and grasses supporting a rich wildlife[citation needed]. However much of the original forest has been cleared for farming[citation needed], especially on the coasts of Timor
Timor
and on the smaller islands like Atauro. Apart from one large block in the centre of Timor
Timor
only patches remain[citation needed]. This ecoregion is part of the Wallacea
Wallacea
area with a mixture of plants and animals of Asian and Australasian origin; it lies in the western part of Wallacea, in which Asian species predominate. Many trees are deciduous or partly deciduous, dropping their leaves during the dry season, there are also evergreen and thorn trees in the woodland. Typical trees of the lowland slopes include Sterculia foetida, Calophyllum
Calophyllum
teysmannii and Aleurites moluccanus. During the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epoch, Timor
Timor
was the abode of extinct giant monitor lizards similar to the Komodo dragon. Like Flores, Sumba
Sumba
and Sulawesi, Timor
Timor
was also once a habitat of extinct dwarf stegodonts, relatives of elephants. Fauna of today includes a number of endemic species such as the distinctive Timor shrew
Timor shrew
and Timor
Timor
rat. The northern common cuscus, a marsupial of Australasian origin occurs as well, but is thought to be introduced.[5] The island have a great number of birds, mainly of Asian origin with some of Australasian origin. There is a total of 250 species of which twenty four are endemic, due to the relative isolation of Timor, including five threatened species; the slaty cuckoo-dove, Wetar
Wetar
ground dove, Timor
Timor
green pigeon, Timor
Timor
imperial pigeon, and iris lorikeet.[6] Saltwater crocodiles are found in the wetlands whereas reticulated pythons can be found in forests and grasslands of Timor. However, the population sizes and status are unknown. Frog species in Timor
Timor
include Duttaphrynus melanostictus, Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, Limnonectes timorensis, Litoria everetti, and Polypedates leucomystax.[7] A new species of microlyhid frog belonging to the genus Kaloula
Kaloula
has also recently been discovered in Timor.[8] Late Cretaceous fossils of marine vertebrates are known from East Timor
Timor
deposits. These include mosasaurs such as Globidens
Globidens
timorensis, lamniforme sharks, coelacanths and the choristodere Champsosaurus.[9] History[edit] See also: History of East Timor
East Timor
and History of Indonesia

Portrait of a Timorese warrior at the area of Kupang
Kupang
in 1875 from report of expedition of German SMS Gazelle.

Boats along the Timor
Timor
coast

The earliest historical record about Timor
Timor
island is 14th century Nagarakretagama, Canto 14, that identify Timur as an island within Majapahit's realm. Timor
Timor
was incorporated into ancient Javanese, Chinese and Indian trading networks of the 14th century as an exporter of aromatic sandalwood, slaves, honey and wax, and was settled by both the Portuguese, in the end of the 16th century, and the Dutch, based in Kupang, in the mid-17th century. As the nearest island with a European settlement at the time, Timor was the destination of William Bligh
William Bligh
and seamen loyal to him following the infamous mutiny on the Bounty in 1789. It was also where survivors of the wrecked HMS Pandora, sent to arrest the Bounty mutineers, landed in 1791 after that ship sank in the Great Barrier Reef. The island has been politically divided in two parts for centuries. The Dutch and Portuguese fought for control of the island until it was divided by treaty in 1859, but they still did not formally resolve the matter of the boundary until 1912. West Timor, was known as Dutch Timor
Timor
until 1949 when it became Indonesian Timor, a part of the nation of Indonesia
Indonesia
which was formed from the old Netherlands
Netherlands
East Indies; while East Timor
East Timor
was known as Portuguese Timor, a Portuguese colony until 1975. It includes the exclave of Oecussi-Ambeno
Oecussi-Ambeno
in West Timor. Japanese forces occupied the whole island from 1942 to 1945. They were resisted in a guerrilla campaign led initially by Australian commandos. Following the military coup in Portugal
Portugal
in 1974 the Portuguese began to withdraw from Timor, the subsequent internal unrest and fear of the communist Fretilin
Fretilin
party encouraged an invasion by Indonesia, who opposed the concept of an independent East Timor. In 1975, East Timor was annexed by Indonesia
Indonesia
and became known as Timor
Timor
Timur or 'Tim-Tim' for short. It was regarded by Indonesia
Indonesia
as the country's 27th province, but this was never recognised by the United Nations
United Nations
(UN) or Portugal. The people of East Timor, through Falintil
Falintil
the military wing of Fretilin, resisted 35,000 Indonesian troops in a prolonged guerrilla campaign, but the whole island remained under Indonesian control until a referendum held in 1999 under a UN-sponsored agreement between Indonesia
Indonesia
and Portugal
Portugal
in which its people rejected the offer of autonomy within Indonesia. The UN then temporarily governed East Timor until it became independent as Timor-Leste in 2002 under the presidency of Falintil
Falintil
leader Xanana Gusmão. Although political strife continued as the new nation coped with poverty the UN presence was much reduced. A group of people on the Indonesian side of Timor
Timor
have been reported active since 2001 trying to establish a Great Timor
Great Timor
State.[10] However, there is no real evidence whatsoever that the people of West Timor, most of whom are from Atoni
Atoni
ethnicity who are the traditional enemy of the East Timorese, have any interest in joining their tribal enemies. Additionally, East Timor's independence movement never laid claim to West Timor
West Timor
at any time, before the Indonesian invasion or thereafter. Similarly, the government of East Timor
East Timor
fully recognizes Indonesia's existing boundaries as inherited from the Netherlands
Netherlands
East Indies. This is similar to the position taken by Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
in relation to Western New Guinea, when the former became independent of Australia. See also[edit]

Battle of Timor Indonesian occupation of East Timor List of divided islands List of rulers of Timor

References[edit]

^ a b Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. p. 378. ISBN 0-300-10518-5.  ^ Gary Holton; Laura C. Robinson (2014). "The linguistic position of the Timor-Alor-Pantar languages". In Klamer, Marian. The Alor-Pantar languages.  ^ Audley-Charles, M.G. (1987) "Dispersal of Gondwanaland: relevance to evolution of the Angiosperms" In: Whitmore, T.C. (ed.) (1987) Biogeographical Evolution of the Malay Archipelago
Archipelago
Oxford Monographs on Biogeography 4, Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 5–25, ISBN 0-19-854185-6 ^ . 15: 502–513. doi:10.2307/4029980 (inactive 2017-01-15). JSTOR 4029980.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ IUCN Red List: Northern Common Cuscus accessed 17 June 2010 ^ " Timor
Timor
and Wetar
Wetar
deciduous forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund.  ^ Kaiser H, Ceballos J, Freed P, Heacox S, Lester B, Richards S, Trainor C, Sanchez C, O’Shea M (2011) The herpetofauna of Timor-Leste: a first report. ZooKeys 109: 19-86. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.109.1439 ^ O'Shea, Marc and Sanchez, Caitlin. 2015. Herpetological Diversity of Timor-Leste: Updates and a Review of Species Distributions. Asian Herpetological Research, 6(2): 73-131. https://doi.org/10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.140066 ^ J. H. F. Umbgrove, Structural History Of The East Indies ^ etan.org

External links[edit]

The dictionary definition of timor at Wiktionary Timor
Timor
travel guide from Wikivoyage Media related to Timor
Timor
at Wikimedia Commons

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 260846794 GND: 40601

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