A timestamp is a sequence of characters or encoded information identifying when a certain event occurred, usually giving date and time of day, sometimes accurate to a small fraction of a second. The term derives from rubber stamp
s used in offices to stamp the current date, and sometimes time, in ink on paper documents, to record when the document was received. Common examples of this type of timestamp are a postmark
on a letter or the "in" and "out" times on a time card
In modern times usage of the term has expanded to refer to digital date and time information attached to digital data. For example, computer file
s contain timestamps that tell when the file was last modified, and digital camera
s add timestamps to the pictures they take, recording the date and time the picture was taken.
This data is usually presented in a consistent format, allowing for easy comparison of two different records and tracking progress over time; the practice of recording timestamps in a consistent manner along with the actual data is called timestamping
. The sequential numbering of events is sometimes called timestamping.
Timestamps are typically used for logging events
or in a sequence of events
(SOE), in which case each event in the log or SOE is marked with a timestamp.
Practically all computer file systems store one or more timestamps in the per-file metadata
In particular, most modern operating systems support the POSIX stat (system call)
, so each file has three timestamps associated with it:
time of last access (atime:
time of last modification (mtime:
time of last status change (ctime:
Some file archiver
s and some version control software
, when they copy a file from some remote computer to the local computer, adjust the timestamps of the local file to show the date/time in the past when that file was created or modified on that remote computer, rather than the date/time when that file was copied to the local computer.
standardizes the representation of dates and times.
These standard representations are often used to construct timestamp values.
Examples of timestamps:
* Thurs 01-01-2009 6:00
* 2005-10-30 T 10:45 UTC
* 2007-11-09 T 11:20 UTC
* Sat Jul 23 02:16:57 2005
* 2009-10-31T01:48:52Z (ISO 8601)
* 1256953732 (Unix time
, equivalent to 2009-10-31T01:48:52Z)
* (1969-07-21 T 02:56 UTC)
* 07:38, 11 December 2012 (UTC)
* 1985-102 T 10:15 UTC ''(year 1985, day 102 = 12 April 1985)''
* 1985-W15-5 T 10:15 UTC ''(year 1985, week 15, day 5 = 12 April 1985)''
* 20180203073000 (02/03/2018 7:30:00)
* Bates numbering
* Timestamping (computing)
* Timestamp-based concurrency control
* Trusted timestamping
* Decentralized Trusted Timestamping on the blockchain
* Linked timestamping