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A timeline of the Holocaust is detailed in the events listed below. Also referred to as the Shoah (in Hebrew), the Holocaust was a genocide in which some six million European Jews
Jews
were killed by Nazi Germany and its World War II
World War II
collaborators. About 1.5 million of the victims were children. Two-thirds of the nine million Jews
Jews
who had resided in Europe
Europe
were murdered. The following timeline has been compiled from a variety of sources including the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.[1][2][3][4][5] Timeline[edit] This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Date Major Events

30 January 1933 Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
appointed Chancellor of Germany

27 February 1933 The Reichstag fire. The subsequent Reichstag Fire Decree
Reichstag Fire Decree
suspends the German Constitution and most civil liberties.

9 March 1933 Dachau concentration camp
Dachau concentration camp
opens.

23 March 1933 Enabling Act of 1933
Enabling Act of 1933
enacted; lets Hitler rule by decree.

1 April 1933 Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses
Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses
begins.

7 April 1933 Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, banning most Jews
Jews
and Communists from government employment, is passed. Shortly after, a similar law affects lawyers, doctors, tax consultants, musicians, and notaries.

29 April 1933 Gestapo
Gestapo
(German Secret Police) established

10 May 1933 Nazi book burnings
Nazi book burnings
begin. Books deemed “un-German,” including all works by Jewish authors, are consumed in ceremonial bonfires.

July 1933 The Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring, calling for compulsory sterilization of the "inferior"

21 September 1933 – 23 December 1933 Leipzig trial
Leipzig trial
acquits 3 of 4 men accused of Reichstag fire. Furious, Hitler establishes a People's Court to try political crimes.

15 September 1935 Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
are unanimously passed by the Reichstag. Jews
Jews
are no longer citizens of Germany and cannot marry Germans.

15 July 1937 Buchenwald
Buchenwald
concentration camp opens

12 March 1938 Austria annexed by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
(the ‘’Anschluss’’). All German anti-Jewish laws now apply in Austria.

29 May 1938 Hungary, under Miklós Horthy, passes the first of a series of anti-Jewish measures emulating Germany's Nuremberg Laws.

14 July 1938 Manifesto of Race
Manifesto of Race
published in Fascist Italy, led to stripping the Jews
Jews
of Italian citizenship and governmental and professional positions

9–10 November 1938 Kristallnacht

13 May 1939 MS St. Louis
MS St. Louis
sails from Hamburg to Cuba with 937 refugees, mostly Jews. Only 29 are allowed in. The rest, refused by Cuba, the United States and Canada are returned to Europe.

18 October 1939 first shipment of Jews
Jews
to Lublin Reservation

1 September 1939 German invasion of Poland
German invasion of Poland
starts World War II
World War II
in Europe

May 1940 Auschwitz
Auschwitz
I opens

22 June 1941 Operation Barbarossa
Operation Barbarossa
Germany invades the Soviet Union

3 September 1941 First gassings at Auschwitz
Auschwitz
using Zyklon B

29–30 September 1941 Babi Yar
Babi Yar
massacre of 33,771 Jews

20 January 1942 Wannsee Conference
Wannsee Conference
plans “final solution”

27 March 1942 first of at least 75,721 French Jews
Jews
deported from France, to Auschwitz

6 July 1942 Anne Frank
Anne Frank
and her family go into hiding

22 July 1942 first deportation from Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
to Treblinka
Treblinka
during Grossaktion Warsaw

23 July 1942 – 19 October 1943 Treblinka
Treblinka
death camp operates, 700-900 thousand Jews
Jews
murdered

19 November 1942 first shipment of Jews
Jews
from Norway

19 April 1943 – 16 May 1943 Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising

2 August 1943 Treblinka
Treblinka
revolt

14 October 1943 Sobibór
Sobibór
revolt and escape

19 March 1944 German troops occupy Hungary

early May 1944 first transport of Hungarian Jews, to Auschwitz, began

23 June 1944 Red Cross
Red Cross
representatives see elaborately staged Nazi propaganda ruse at Theresienstadt
Theresienstadt
designed to portray camps as benign

20 July 1944 Attempt to assassinate Hitler fails

23 July 1944 Majdanek, first major death camp liberated, by the advancing Soviet Red Army

1 August 1944 Warsaw Uprising
Warsaw Uprising
begins

4 August 1944 Anne Frank
Anne Frank
and her family arrested and eventually deported to Auschwitz

7 October 1944 Crematorium IV at Auschwitz
Auschwitz
destroyed in Sonderkommando
Sonderkommando
uprising

25 November 1944 Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
orders the gas chambers of Auschwitz
Auschwitz
destroyed as incriminating evidence of genocide

27 January 1945 Auschwitz
Auschwitz
death camp liberated by the Soviets. Anniversary is observed as International Holocaust Remembrance Day.

c. February or March 1945 Anne Frank
Anne Frank
and her sister Margot die in Bergen-Belsen

11 April 1945 Buchenwald
Buchenwald
death camp liberated by the Americans

15 April 1945 Bergen-Belsen death camp liberated by the British

29 April 1945 Dachau
Dachau
liberated by the Americans and Ravensbrück
Ravensbrück
by the Soviets

30 April 1945 Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
suicide

5 May 1945 Mauthausen
Mauthausen
liberated by the Americans

8 May 1945 Theresienstadt
Theresienstadt
liberated by the Soviets

8 May 1945 VE day
VE day
— Germany surrenders unconditionally

23 May 1945 Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
suicide

20 November 1945 – 1 October 1946 first Nuremberg trials, of 24 top Nazi officials

2 July 1946 Orson Welles’ The Stranger, first feature film with concentration camp footage, released. Hundreds more feature films and documentaries about the Holocaust would be made.

25 June 1947 The Diary of a Young Girl, Anne Frank’s diary, is published in the Netherlands [6]

11 July 1947 SS Exodus
SS Exodus
departs France for the British Mandate of Palestine. Her 4,515 passengers, mostly Holocaust survivors, are intercepted by the British Navy and shipped back to camps in Germany.

14 May 1948 State of Israel
State of Israel
declares independence

11 May 1960 Adolf Eichmann, one of the major organizers of the Holocaust, is captured in Argentina, and brought to Israel where he is tried, convicted.

31 May 1962 Adolf Eichmann
Adolf Eichmann
executed

See also[edit]

Timeline of deportations of French Jews
Jews
to death camps Timeline of the Holocaust in Norway Timeline of Treblinka
Treblinka
extermination camp

References[edit]

^ College of Education, University of South Florida (September 9, 2000). "HOLOCAUST TIMELINE 1933-1945". Tampa, Florida.  ^ The History Place (June 30, 2014). "Holocaust Timeline". A chronicle of the Nazi persecution of the Jews.  ^ Holocaust Encyclopedia (2017). " The Holocaust
The Holocaust
and World War II: Timeline". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.  ^ JewishGen.org (April 2, 2002). "A Timeline of the Holocaust (1939-1945)". New York, NY.  ^ Museum of Tolerance (February 2017). "Timeline of the Holocaust". Los Angeles, CA: A Simon Wiesenthal Center Museum.  ^ Anne Frank’s diary is published, Anne Frank
Anne Frank
House web site, accessed 4 April 2017

v t e

The Holocaust

By territory

Albania Belarus Belgium Channel Islands Croatia Estonia France Norway Latvia Libya Lithuania Luxembourg Poland Russia Serbia Ukraine

Lists and timelines

Victims of Nazism Holocaust survivors Survivors of Sobibór Victims and survivors of Auschwitz

Books and other resources Films about the Holocaust Nazi concentration camps Nazi ideologues Rescuers of Jews Shtetls depopulated of Jews Timeline of deportations of French Jews Timeline of the Holocaust Timeline of the Holocaust in Norway Treblinka
Treblinka
timeline

Camps

Concentration

Bergen-Belsen Bogdanovka Buchenwald Dachau Danica Dora Đakovo Esterwegen Flossenbürg Gonars Gospić Gross-Rosen Herzogenbusch Jadovno Janowska Kaiserwald Kraków-Płaszów Kruščica Lobor Mauthausen-Gusen Neuengamme Rab Ravensbrück Sachsenhausen Salaspils Sisak children's camp Stutthof Tenja Theresienstadt Topovske Šupe Uckermark Warsaw

Extermination

Auschwitz-Birkenau Bełżec Chełmno Jasenovac Majdanek Maly Trostenets Sajmište Slana Sobibór Treblinka

Transit

be Breendonk Mechelen fr Gurs Drancy it Bolzano Risiera di San Sabba nl Amersfoort Schoorl Westerbork

Methods

Einsatzgruppen Gas van Gas chamber Extermination through labour Human medical experimentation

Nazi units

SS-Totenkopfverbände Concentration Camps Inspectorate Politische Abteilung Sanitätswesen

Victims

Jews

Roundups

fr Izieu Marseille Vel' d'Hiv

Pogroms

Kristallnacht Bucharest Dorohoi Iaşi Jedwabne Kaunas Lviv Odessa Tykocin Wąsosz

Ghettos

Poland

Białystok Kraków Łódź Lublin Lwów Warsaw

Elsewhere

Budapest Kovno Minsk Riga Vilna

"Final Solution"

Wannsee Conference Operation Reinhard Holocaust trains Extermination camps

Einsatzgruppen

Babi Yar Bydgoszcz Kamianets-Podilskyi Ninth Fort Piaśnica Ponary Rumbula Erntefest

Resistance

Jewish partisans Ghetto uprisings

Warsaw Białystok Częstochowa

End of World War II

Death marches Wola Bricha Displaced persons Holocaust denial

trivialization

Others

Romani people (gypsies) Poles Soviet POWs Slavs in Eastern Europe Homosexuals People with disabilities Serbs Freemasons Jehovah's Witnesses Black people

Responsibility

Organizations

Nazi Party Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) Reich Security Main Office (RSHA) Sicherheitsdienst
Sicherheitsdienst
(SD) Waffen-SS Wehrmacht

Units

Einsatzgruppen Police Regiments Orpo Police Battalions

Collaborators

Ypatingasis būrys Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann Arajs Kommando Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Trawnikis Nederlandsche SS Special
Special
Brigades

Individuals

Major perpetrators Nazi ideologues

Early elements Aftermath Remembrance

Early elements

Nazi racial policy Nazi eugenics Nuremberg Laws Haavara Agreement Madagascar Plan Forced euthanasia (Action T4)

Nuremberg trials Denazification Holocaust survivors

Survivor guilt

Reparations

Remembrance

Days of remembrance Memorials and muse

.