This is a timeline of Afghan history', comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Afghanistan and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Afghanistan. See also the list of leaders of Afghanistan and the list of years in Afghanistan.

18th Century

Year Date Event
1709 21 April Mirwais Hotak, an influential Afghan tribal chief, gained independence at Kandahar after a successful revolution against the Persian Safavid dynasty.[1]
1709-1713 The Persian government sent two large armies to regain Kandahar Province but suffered defeat by the Afghans.[1]
1715 November Mirwais died of a natural cause and his brother Abdul Aziz inherited the throne until he was killed by Mahmud Hotaki, son of Mirwais.[1]
1722 Battle of Gulnabad: Led by Mahmud, the Afghan army captured the Safavid capital of Isfahan and Mahmad was declared Shah of Persia.[2]
1725 22 April Mahmud was murdered by his cousin Ashraf, son of Abdul Aziz, and succeeded him as Shah of Persia.[3]
1729 29 September Battle of Damghan: Afsharid forces led by Nader Shah defeated Ashraf and his forces.
1738 Nader invaded and destroyed Kandahar, and restored the Abdali ethnic Pashtus to political prominence.
1747 19 June Ahmad Shah Durrani of the Abdali Pashtun confederacy declared the establishment of an independent Afghanistan, with its capital at Kandahar.[4]

19th century

Year Date Event
1809 Durrani signed a treaty of alliance with the United Kingdom.
1826 Dost Mohammad Khan took the throne in Kabul, where he proclaimed himself emir.
1837 November Siege of Herat: A Persian force attempts to capture Herat but are defeated and leave in 1838.
1839 March First Anglo-Afghan War: A British expeditionary force captured Quetta
1841 November First Anglo-Afghan War: A mob killed the British envoy to Afghanistan.
1842 January Massacre of Elphinstone's army: A retreating British force of sixteen thousand was massacred by the Afghans.
1857 Afghanistan declared war on Persia.
Afghan forces re-captured Herat.
1878 January Second Anglo-Afghan War: Afghanistan refused a British diplomatic mission, provoking a second Anglo-Afghan war.
1879 May Second Anglo-Afghan War: To prevent British occupation of a large part of the country, the Afghan government ceded much power to the United Kingdom in the Treaty of Gandamak.
1880 22 July Abdur Rahman Khan was officially recognized as emir of Afghanistan.
1893 12 November Abdur Rahman and British Raj representative Mortimer Durand signed an agreement establishing the Durand Line.

Twentieth century

Year Date Event
1901 1 October Habibullah Khan, son of Abdur Rahman, became emir of Afghanistan.
20 February 1919 Habibullah was assassinated. His son Amanullah Khan declared himself King of Afghanistan.
1919 May Third Anglo-Afghan War: Amanullah led a surprise attack against the British.
19 August Afghan Foreign Minister Mahmud Tarzi negotiated the Treaty of Rawalpindi with the British at Rawalpindi.
1922 Solar Hijri calendar officially adopted in Afghanistan.[5]
1929 Amanullah was forced to abdicate in favor of Habibullah Kalakani in the face of a popular uprising.
Former General Mohammed Nadir Shah took control of Afghanistan.
1933 8 November Nadir was assassinated. His son, Mohammed Zahir Shah, was proclaimed King.
1964 A new constitution was ratified which instituted a democratic legislature.
1965 1 January The Marxist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) held its first congress.
1973 17 July Mohammed Daoud Khan declares himself President in a coup against the king, Mohammed Zahir Shah.
1978 27 April Saur Revolution: Military units loyal to the PDPA assaulted the Afghan Presidential Palace, killing President Mohammed Daoud Khan and his family.
1 May Saur Revolution: The PDPA installed its leader, Nur Muhammad Taraki, as President of Afghanistan.
July A rebellion against the new Afghan government began with an uprising in Nuristan Province.
5 December A treaty was signed which permitted deployment of the Soviet military at the Afghan government's request.
1979 14 September Taraki was murdered by supporters of Prime Minister Hafizullah Amin.
24 December Soviet war in Afghanistan: Fearing the collapse of the Amin regime, the Soviet army invaded Afghanistan.
27 December Operation Storm-333: Soviet troops occupied major governmental, military and media buildings in Kabul, including the Tajbeg Palace, and executed Prime Minister Amin.
1988 14 April Soviet war in Afghanistan: The Soviet government signed the Geneva Accords, which included a timetable for withdrawing their armed forces.
1989 15 February Soviet war in Afghanistan: The last Soviet troops left the country.
1992 24 April Civil war in Afghanistan (1989-1992): Afghan political parties signed the Peshawar Accord which created the Islamic State of Afghanistan and proclaimed Sibghatullah Mojaddedi its interim President.
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar's Hezbi Islami, with the support of neighboring Pakistan, began a massive bombardment against the Islamic State in the capital Kabul.
28 June As agreed upon in the Peshawar Accord, Jamiat-e Islami leader Burhanuddin Rabbani took over as President.
1994 August The Taliban government began to form in a small village between Lashkar Gah and Kandahar.
1995 January The Taliban, with Pakistani support, initiated a military campaign against the Islamic State of Afghanistan and its capital Kabul.
1995 13 March Taliban, tortured and killed Abdul Ali Mazari leader of the Hazara people.
1996 26 September Civil war in Afghanistan (1996-2001): The forces of the Islamic State retreated to northern Afghanistan.
27 September Civil war in Afghanistan (1996-2001): The Taliban conquered Kabul and declared the establishment of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. Former President Mohammad Najibullah, who had been living under United Nations protection in Kabul, was tortured, castrated and executed by Taliban forces.
1998 August Civil war in Afghanistan (1996-2001): The Taliban captured Mazar-e Sharif, forcing Abdul Rashid Dostum into exile.
20 August Operation Infinite Reach: Cruise missiles were fired by the United States Navy into four militant training camps in the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.

21st century

Year Date Event
2001 9 September Resistance leader Ahmad Shah Massoud was killed in a suicide bomb attack by two Arabs who were disguised as French news reporters.
20 September After the September 11 attacks in the United States, U.S. President George W. Bush demanded the Taliban government to hand over al-Qaeda head Osama bin Laden and close all terrorist training camps in the country.
21 September The Taliban refused Bush's ultimatum for lack of evidence connecting bin Laden to 9/11 attacks.[6]
7 October Operation Enduring Freedom: The United States and the United Kingdom began an aerial bombing campaign against al-Qaeda and the Taliban.
5 December The United Nations Security Council authorized the creation of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to help maintain security in Afghanistan and assist the Karzai administration.[7]
20 December International Conference on Afghanistan in Germany: Hamid Karzai chosen as head of the Afghan Interim Administration.
2002 July 2002 loya jirga: Hamid Karzai appointed as President of the Afghan Transitional Administration in Kabul, Afghanistan.
2003 14 December 2003 loya jirga: A 502-delegate loya jirga was held to consider a new Afghan constitution.
2004 9 October Hamid Karzai was elected President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan after winning the Afghan presidential election.
2005 Taliban insurgency: An insurgency began after a Pakistani decision to station around 80,000 soldiers next to the porous Durand Line border with Afghanistan.
2006 1 March Bush and wife visited Afghanistan to inaugurate the renovated Embassy of the United States in Kabul.
2007 13 May Afghanistan–Pakistan Skirmishes: Skirmishes began with Pakistan.
2010 U.S. President Barack Obama sent additional 33,000 U.S. soldiers to Afghanistan, with the total international troops reaching 150,000.
2011 After the death of Osama bin Laden in Pakistan, many high-profile Afghan officials were assassinated, including among them were Mohammed Daud Daud, Ahmed Wali Karzai, Jan Mohammad Khan, Ghulam Haider Hamidi, and Burhanuddin Rabbani.
2011 Afghanistan National Front was created by Tajik leader Ahmad Zia Massoud, Hazara leader Mohammad Mohaqiq and Uzbek leader Abdul Rashid Dostum.

See also

Cities in Afghanistan:


  1. ^ a b c "AN OUTLINE OF THE HISTORY OF PERSIA DURING THE LAST TWO CENTURIES (A.D. 1722-1922)". Edward G. Browne. London: Packard Humanities Institute. p. 29. Retrieved February 10, 2012. 
  2. ^ "AN OUTLINE OF THE HISTORY OF PERSIA DURING THE LAST TWO CENTURIES (A.D. 1722-1922)". Edward G. Browne. London: Packard Humanities Institute. p. 30. Retrieved February 10, 2012. 
  3. ^ "AN OUTLINE OF THE HISTORY OF PERSIA DURING THE LAST TWO CENTURIES (A.D. 1722-1922)". Edward G. Browne. London: Packard Humanities Institute. p. 31. Retrieved February 10, 2012. 
  4. ^ "AN OUTLINE OF THE HISTORY OF PERSIA DURING THE LAST TWO CENTURIES (A.D. 1722-1922)". Edward G. Browne. London: Packard Humanities Institute. p. 33. Retrieved February 10, 2012. 
  5. ^ "Calendars". Encyclopædia Iranica. 1990. 
  6. ^ "Why Did the United States Invade Afghanistan?". fff.org. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  7. ^ "United Nations Security Council" (PDF). UN. Naval Postgraduate School. December 5, 2001. Retrieved October 6, 2010. 

Further reading

External links