Time signature
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The time signature (also known as meter signature, metre signature, or measure signature) is a notational convention used in
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to specify how many
beat Beat, beats or beating may refer to: Common meanings Assigned activity or area * Patrol, an area (usually geographic) that one is responsible to monitor, including: ** Beat (police), the territory and time that a police officer patrols ** Beat ...
s (pulses) are contained in each measure (
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), and which
note value In music notation, a note value indicates the relative duration of a note, using the texture or shape of the ''notehead Natural harmonics on the cello notated first as sounded (more common), then as fingered (easier to sightread). In musi ...
is equivalent to a beat. In a music score, the time signature appears at the beginning as a time symbol or stacked numerals, such as or (read ''common time'' or ''three-four time'', respectively), immediately following the
key signature In Western musical notation Music notation or musical notation is any system used to visually represent wikt:aurally, aurally perceived music played with instrument (music), instruments or singing, sung by the human voice through the use of ...

key signature
(or immediately following the
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symbol if the key signature is empty). A mid-score time signature, usually immediately following a
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, indicates a change of
meter The metre ( Commonwealth spelling) or meter ( American spelling; see spelling differences) (from the French unit , from the Greek noun , "measure", and cognate with Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, no ...
. There are various types of time signatures, depending on whether the music follows regular (or symmetrical) beat patterns, including
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simple
(e.g., and ), and
compound Compound may refer to: Architecture and built environments * Compound (enclosure), a cluster of buildings having a shared purpose, usually inside a fence or wall ** Compound (fortification), a version of the above fortified with defensive structu ...

compound
(e.g., and ); or involves shifting beat patterns, including
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(e.g., or ), #Mixed meters, mixed (e.g., & or & ), #Additive meters, additive (e.g., ), #Variants, fractional (e.g., ), and #Irrational meters, irrational meters (e.g., or ).


Frequently used time signatures


Simple vs. compound


Simple

Simple time signatures consist of two numerals, one stacked above the other: * The ''lower'' numeral indicates the note value that represents one beat (the ''beat unit''). This number is typically a Power of two, power of 2. * The ''upper'' numeral indicates how many such beats constitute a
bar Bar or BAR may refer to: Food *Bar (establishment) A bar is a long raised narrow table or bench designed for dispensing beer or other alcoholic beverage, alcoholic drinks. They were originally chest high, and a bar, often brass, ran the lengt ...
. For instance, means two quarter-note (crotchet) beats per bar, while means three eighth-notes (quavers) per bar, which are beats at slower tempos (but at faster tempos, becomes compound time, with one beat per bar). The most common simple time signatures are , , and . By convention, two special symbols are sometimes used for and : * The symbol is sometimes used for time, also called ''common time'' or ''imperfect time''. The symbol is derived from a #Early music usage, broken circle used in music notation from the 14th through 16th centuries, where a full circle represented what today would be written in or time and was called ''tempus perfectum'' (perfect time). See Time signature#Mensural time signatures, Mensural time signatures below. * The symbol is also a legacy from the notational practice of late-Medieval and Renaissance music, where it signified ''tempus imperfectum diminutum'' (diminished imperfect time)—more precisely, a doubling of the speed, or ''proportio dupla'', in duple meter. In modern notation, it is used in place of and is called ''alla breve'' or, colloquially, ''cut time'' or ''cut common time''.


Compound

In Compound meter (music), compound meter, subdivisions (which are what the upper number represents in these meters) of the beat are in three equal parts, so that a dotted note (half again longer than a regular note) becomes the beat. The upper numeral of compound time signatures is commonly 6, 9, or 12 (multiples of 3 in each beat). The lower number is most commonly an 8 (an eighth-note or quaver): as in or .


Examples

In the examples below, bold denotes a more-stressed beat, and ''italics'' denotes a less-stressed beat. ''Simple'': is a simple triple meter time signature that represents three quarter notes (crotchets). It is felt as ::: one and ''two'' and ''three'' and ... ''Compound'': In principle, comprises not three groups of two eighth notes (quavers) but two groups of three eighth-note (quaver) subdivisions. It is felt as ::: one two three ''four'' five six ... These examples assume, for simplicity, that continuous eighth notes are the prevailing note values. The rhythm of actual music is typically not as regular.


Duple, triple, etc.

Time signatures indicating ''two'' beats per bar (whether in simple or compound meter) are called duple time, ''duple meter'', while those with ''three'' beats to the bar are triple time, ''triple meter''. Terms such as ''Quadruple meter, quadruple'' (4), ''Quintuple meter, quintuple'' (5), and so on, are also occasionally used.


Beating time signatures

To the ear, a bar may seem like one singular beat. For example, a fast waltz, notated in time, may be described as being ''one in a bar''. Correspondingly, at slow tempos, the beat indicated by the time signature could in actual performance be divided into smaller units. On a formal mathematical level, the time signatures of, e.g., and are interchangeable. In a sense, ''all'' simple triple time signatures, such as , , , etc.—and all compound duple times, such as , and so on, are equivalent. A piece in can be easily rewritten in , simply by halving the length of the notes. : \new Staff << \new voice \relative c' \new voice \relative c'' >> Other time signature rewritings are possible: most commonly a simple time signature with triplets translates into a compound meter. : \new Staff << \new voice \relative c' \new voice \relative c'' >> Though formally interchangeable, for a composer or performing musician, by convention, different time signatures often have different connotations. First, a smaller note value in the beat unit implies a more complex notation, which can affect ease of performance. Second, beaming affects the choice of actual beat divisions. It is, for example, more natural to use the quarter note/crotchet as a beat unit in or than the eight/quaver in or . Third, time signatures are traditionally associated with different music styles—it might seem strange to notate a rock tune in or .


Characteristics

The table below shows the characteristics of the most frequently-used time signatures.


Complex time signatures

Signatures that do not fit the usual duple or triple categories are called ''complex'', ''asymmetric'', ''irregular'', ''unusual'', or ''odd''—though these are broad terms, and usually a more specific description is appropriate. The term ''odd meter'', however, sometimes describes time signatures in which the upper number is simply odd rather than even, including and .Tim Emmons, ''Odd Meter Bass: Playing Odd Time Signatures Made Easy'' (Van Nuys: Alfred Publishing, 2008): 4. . "What is an 'odd meter'?...A complete definition would begin with the idea of music organized in repeating rhythmic groups of three, five, seven, nine, eleven, thirteen, fifteen, etc." The irregular meters (not fitting duple or triple categories) are common in some non-Western music, but rarely appeared in formal written Western music until the 19th century. Early anomalous examples appeared in Spain between 1516 and 1520, but the Delphic Hymns to Apollo (one by Athenaeus (musician), Athenaeus is entirely in quintuple meter, the other by Limenius predominantly so), carved on the exterior walls of the Athenian Treasury at Delphi in 128 BC are in the relatively common cretic meter, with five beats to a foot. The third movement of Frédéric Chopin's Piano Sonata No. 1 (Chopin), Piano Sonata No. 1 (1828) is an early, but by no means the earliest, example of time in solo piano music. Anton Reicha's Fugue No. 20 from his ''36 Fugues (Reicha), Thirty-six Fugues'', published in 1803, is also for piano and is in . The waltz-like second movement of Tchaikovsky's Symphony No. 6 (Tchaikovsky), ''Pathétique'' Symphony (shown below), often described as a "limping waltz", is a notable example of time in orchestral music. : \relative c Examples from 20th-century classical music include: * Gustav Holst's "Mars, the Bringer of War" and "Neptune, the Mystic" from ''The Planets'' (both in ) * Paul Hindemith's "Fuga secunda" in G from ''Ludus Tonalis'' () * the ending of Igor Stravinsky, Stravinsky's ''The Firebird'' () * the fugue from Heitor Villa-Lobos's ''Bachianas Brasileiras#Bachianas Brasileiras No. 9, Bachianas Brasileiras No. 9'' () * the themes for the ''Mission: Impossible (1966 TV series), Mission: Impossible'' television series by Lalo Schifrin (in ) and for ''Room 222'' by Jerry Goldsmith (in ) In the Western popular music tradition, unusual time signatures occur as well, with progressive rock in particular making frequent use of them. The use of shifting meters in The Beatles' "Strawberry Fields Forever" and the use of quintuple meter in their "Within You, Without You" are well-known examples,Edward Macan, ''Rocking the Classics: English Progressive Rock and the Counterculture'' (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997): 48. . as is Radiohead's "Paranoid Android" (includes ). Paul Desmond's jazz composition "Take Five", in time, was one of a number of irregular-meter compositions that The Dave Brubeck Quartet played. They played other compositions in ("Eleven Four"), ("Unsquare Dance"), and ("Blue Rondo à la Turk"), expressed as . This last is an example of a work in a signature that, despite appearing merely compound triple, is actually more complex. Brubeck's title refers to the characteristic ''aksak'' meter of the Turkish ''karşılama'' dance. However, such time signatures are only unusual in most Western music. Traditional music of the Balkans uses such meters extensively. Bulgarian dances, for example, include forms with 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 22, 25 and other numbers of beats per measure. These rhythms are notated as ''additive rhythms'' based on simple units, usually 2, 3 and 4 beats, though the notation fails to describe the meter (music), metric "time bending" taking place, or compound meter (music), compound meters. See #Additive meters, Additive meters below. Some video samples are shown below.


Mixed meters

While time signatures usually express a regular pattern of beat stresses continuing through a piece (or at least a section), sometimes composers place a different time signature at the beginning of each bar, resulting in music with an extremely irregular rhythmic feel. In this case, the time signatures are an aid to the performers and not ''necessarily'' an indication of meter. The Promenade from Modest Mussorgsky's ''Pictures at an Exhibition'' (1874) is a good example. The opening measures are shown below: : : Igor Stravinsky's ''The Rite of Spring'' (1913) is famous for its "savage" rhythms. Five measures from "Sacrificial Dance" are shown below: : In such cases, a convention that some composers follow (e.g., Olivier Messiaen, in his ''La Nativité du Seigneur'' and ''Quatuor pour la fin du temps'') is to simply omit the time signature. Charles Ives's ''Concord Sonata'' has measure bars for select passages, but the majority of the work is unbarred. Some pieces have no time signature, as there is no discernible meter. This is sometimes known as free time (music), ''free time''. Sometimes one is provided (usually ) so that the performer finds the piece easier to read, and simply has "free time" written as a direction. Sometimes the word ''FREE'' is written downwards on the staff to indicate the piece is in free time. Erik Satie wrote many compositions that are ostensibly in free time but actually follow an unstated and unchanging simple time signature. Later composers used this device more effectively, writing music almost devoid of a discernibly regular pulse. If two time signatures alternate repeatedly, sometimes the two signatures are placed together at the beginning of the piece or section, as shown below: :, showing a multiple time signature


Additive meters

To indicate more complex patterns of stresses, such as additive rhythms, more complex time signatures can be used. Additive meters have a pattern of Beat (music), beats that subdivide into smaller, irregular groups. Such meters are sometimes called ''imperfect'', in contrast to ''perfect meters'', in which the Bar (music), bar is first divided into equal units. For example, the time signature means that there are 8 quaver beats in the bar, divided as the first of a group of three eighth notes (quavers) that are stressed, then the first of a group of two, then first of a group of three again. The stress pattern is usually counted as :: : one two three ''one'' two ''one'' two three ... This kind of time signature is commonly used to notate folk and non-Western types of music. In classical music, Béla Bartók and Olivier Messiaen have used such time signatures in their works. The first movement of Maurice Ravel's Piano Trio (Ravel), Piano Trio in A Minor is written in , in which the beats are likewise subdivided into to reflect Basque music, Basque dance rhythms. Romanian musicologist Constantin Brăiloiu had a special interest in compound time signatures, developed while studying the Traditional music of Romania, traditional music of certain regions in his country. While investigating the origins of such unusual meters, he learned that they were even more characteristic of the traditional music of neighboring peoples (e.g., the Bulgarian Folk Music, Bulgarians). He suggested that such timings can be regarded as compounds of simple two-beat and three-beat meters, where an accent falls on every first beat, even though, for example in Bulgarian dances, Bulgarian music, beat lengths of 1, 2, 3, 4 are used in the metric description. In addition, when focused only on stressed beats, simple time signatures can count as beats in a slower, compound time. However, there are two different-length beats in this resulting compound time, a one half-again longer than the short beat (or conversely, the short beat is the value of the long). This type of meter is called ''aksak'' (the Turkish word for "limping"), ''impeded'', ''jolting'', or ''shaking'', and is described as an ''irregular bichronic rhythm''. A certain amount of confusion for Western musicians is inevitable, since a measure they would likely regard as , for example, is a three-beat measure in ''aksak'', with one long and two short beats (with subdivisions of , , or ). Folk music may make use of metric time bends, so that the proportions of the performed metric beat time lengths differ from the exact proportions indicated by the metric. Depending on playing style of the same meter, the time bend can vary from non-existent to considerable; in the latter case, some musicologists may want to assign a different meter. For example, the Bulgarian tune "Bulgarian dances, Eleno Mome" is written in one of three forms: (1) , (2) , or (3) , but an actual performance (e.g., "Eleno Mome") may be closer to . The Macedonian meter is even more complicated, with heavier time bends, and use of quadruples on the threes. The metric beat time proportions may vary with the speed that the tune is played. The Swedish Polska (dance), Boda Polska (Polska from the parish Boda) has a typical elongated second beat. In Western classical music, metric time bend is used in the performance of the Viennese waltz. Most Western music uses metric ratios of 2:1, 3:1, or 4:1 (two-, three- or four-beat time signatures)—in other words, integer ratios that make all beats equal in time length. So, relative to that, 3:2 and 4:3 ratios correspond to very distinctive metric rhythm profiles. Complex accentuation occurs in Western music, but as syncopation rather than as part of the metric accentuation. Brăiloiu borrowed a term from Music of Turkey, Turkish medieval music theory: ''aksak''. Such compound time signatures fall under the "aksak rhythm" category that he introduced along with a couple more that should describe the rhythm figures in traditional music.Gheorghe Oprea, ''Folclorul muzical românesc'' (Bucharest: Ed. Muzicala, 2002), The term Brăiloiu revived had moderate success worldwide, but in Eastern Europe it is still frequently used. However, aksak rhythm figures occur not only in a few European countries, but on all continents, featuring various combinations of the two and three sequences. The longest are in Bulgaria. The shortest aksak rhythm figures follow the five-beat timing, comprising a two and a three (or three and two). Some video samples are shown below. A method to create meters of lengths of any length has been published in the Journal of Anaphoria Music Theory and Xenharmonikon 16 using both those based on the Horograms of Erv Wilson and Viggo Brun's algorithm written by Kraig Grady.


Irrational meters

Irrational time signatures (rarely, "non-dyadic time signatures") are used for so-called ''irrational bar lengths'',"Brian Ferneyhough"
''The Ensemble Sospeso''
that have a denominator that is not a power of two (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, etc.). These are based on beats expressed in terms of fractions of full beats in the prevailing tempo—for example or . For example, where implies a bar construction of four quarter-parts of a whole note (i.e., four quarter notes), implies a bar construction of four third-parts of it. These signatures are of utility only when juxtaposed with other signatures with varying denominators; a piece written entirely in , say, could be more legibly written out in . According to Brian Ferneyhough, metric modulation is "a somewhat distant analogy" to his own use of "irrational time signatures" as a sort of rhythmic dissonance. It is disputed whether the use of these signatures makes metric relationships clearer or more obscure to the musician; it is always possible to write a passage using non-irrational signatures by specifying a relationship between some note length in the previous bar and some other in the succeeding one. Sometimes, successive metric relationships between bars are so convoluted that the pure use of irrational signatures would quickly render the notation extremely hard to penetrate. Good examples, written entirely in conventional signatures with the aid of between-bar specified metric relationships, occur a number of times in John Adams (composer), John Adams' opera ''Nixon in China'' (1987), where the sole use of irrational signatures would quickly produce massive numerators and denominators. Historically, this device has been prefigured wherever composers wrote tuplets. For example, a bar of 3 triplet quarter notes could be written as a bar of . Henry Cowell's piano piece ''Fabric'' (1920) employs separate divisions of the bar (1 to 9) for the three contrapuntal parts, using a scheme of shaped Notehead, noteheads to visually clarify the differences, but the pioneering of these signatures is largely due to Brian Ferneyhough, who says that he finds that "such 'irrational' measures serve as a useful buffer between local changes of event density and actual changes of base tempo". Thomas Adès has also used them extensively—for example in ''Traced Overhead'' (1996), the second movement of which contains, among more conventional meters, bars in such signatures as , and . A gradual process of diffusion into less rarefied musical circles seems underway. For example, John Pickard (composer), John Pickard's ''Eden'', commissioned for the 2005 finals of the National Brass Band Championships of Great Britain contains bars of and . Notationally, rather than using Cowell's elaborate series of notehead shapes, the same convention has been invoked as when normal tuplets are written; for example, one beat in is written as a normal quarter note, four quarter notes complete the bar, but the whole bar lasts only of a reference whole note, and a beat of one (or of a normal quarter note). This is notated in exactly the same way that one would write if one were writing the first four quarter notes of five quintuplet quarter notes. Some video samples are shown below. These video samples show two time signatures combined to make a polymeter, since , say, in isolation, is identical to .


Variants

Some composers have used fractional beats: for example, the time signature appears in Carlos Chávez's Piano Sonata No. 3 (1928) IV, m. 1. Both and appear in the fifth movement of Percy Grainger, Percy Grainger's Lincolnshire Posy. Music educator Carl Orff proposed replacing the lower number of the time signature with an actual note image, as shown at right. This system eliminates the need for compound time signatures, which are confusing to beginners. While this notation has not been adopted by music publishers generally (except in Orff's own compositions), it is used extensively in music education textbooks. Similarly, American composers George Crumb and Joseph Schwantner, among others, have used this system in many of their works. Émile Jaques-Dalcroze proposed this in his 1920 collection, ''Le Rythme, la musique et l'éducation''. Another possibility is to extend the barline where a time change is to take place above the top instrument's line in a score and to write the time signature there, and there only, saving the ink and effort that would have been spent writing it in each instrument's staff. Henryk Górecki's ''Beatus Vir'' is an example of this. Alternatively, music in a large score sometimes has time signatures written as very long, thin numbers covering the whole height of the score rather than replicating it on each staff; this is an aid to the conductor, who can see signature changes more easily.


Early music usage


Mensural time signatures

In the mensural notation of the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries there are no
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lines, and the four basic ''mensuration signs'' indicate the normal ratio of duration (music), duration between different
note value In music notation, a note value indicates the relative duration of a note, using the texture or shape of the ''notehead Natural harmonics on the cello notated first as sounded (more common), then as fingered (easier to sightread). In musi ...
s. Unlike modern notation, the subdivisions could be either 2:1 or 3:1. The relation between the ''Breve (music), breve'' and the '' Semibreve, semibreve'' was called tempus, and could be perfect (meter (music)#Triple meter, triple 3:1 indicated by circle) or imperfect(meter (music)#Duple meter, duple 2:1, with broken circle), while the relation between the ''semibreve'' and the ''minim (music), minim'' File:White mensural minim.svg, x30px was called prolatio and could be major (3:1 or meter (music)#Compound meter, compound, indicated by dot) or minor (2:1 or meter (music)#Simple meter, simple meter). Modern transcriptions often reduce note values 4:1, such that * corresponds to meter; * corresponds to meter; * corresponds to meter; * corresponds to meter. N.B.: In mensural notation actual note values depend not only on the prevailing mensuration, but on rules for Mensural_notation#imperfection and alteration, imperfection and alteration, with ambiguous cases using a dot of separation, similar in appearance but not always in effect to the modern Dotted note, dot of augmentation.


Proportions

Besides showing the organization of beats with musical meter, the mensuration signs discussed above have a second function, which is showing tempo relationships between one section to another, which modern notation can only specify with tuplets or metric modulations. This is a fraught subject, because the usage has varied with both time and place: Charles Hamm was even able to establish a rough chronology of works based on three distinct usages of mensural signs over the career of Guillaume Dufay (1397(?) – 1474). By the end of the sixteenth century Thomas Morley was able to satirize the confusion in an imagined dialogue:
it was a world to hear them wrangle, every one defending his own for the best. "What? You keep not time in your proportions." "You sing them false. What proportion is this?" "Sesquipaltry." "Nay, you sing you know not what; it would seem you came lately from a barber's shop where you had "Gregory Walker" or a Courante, Curranta played in the new Proportions by them lately found out, called "Sesquiblinda" and "Sesquihearkenafter". ::''Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practicall Musicke'' (1597)
In general though, a slash or the numeral 2 shows a doubling of tempo, and paired numbers (either side by side or one atop another) show ratios instead of beats per measure over note value: in early music contexts for example is unrelated to 'third-notes'. A few common signs are shown: * ''tempus imperfectum diminutum'', 1:2 proportion (twice as fast); * ''tempus perfectum diminutum'', 1:2 proportion (twice as fast); * or just ''proportio tripla'', 1:3 proportion (three times as fast, similar to triplets). In particular, when the sign Image:Allabreve.svg, 11px was encountered, the Pulse (music), tactus (beat) changed from the usual whole note (semibreve) to the double whole note (breve), a circumstance called ''alla breve''. This term has been sustained to the present day, and though now it means the beat is a minim (music), half note (minim), in contradiction to the literal meaning of the phrase, it still indicates that the ''Pulse (music), tactus'' has changed from a short to a doubled value. Certain composers delighted in creating mensuration canons, "Puzzle canon, puzzle" compositions that were intentionally difficult to decipher.Ernst Friedrich Richter,
A Treatise on Canon and Fugue: Including the Study of Imitation
', translated from third German edition by Arthur W. Foote (Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1888): 38. .


See also

*Schaffel, a kind of swing in rock and techno music *Tala (music), Tala, meter in Indian music *Colotomy, a coinage by Jap Kunst to describe the metric structure of gamelan music.


References

Sources * {{DEFAULTSORT:Time Signature Musical notation Time signatures, * Articles containing video clips Music theory