An order of magnitude of time is (usually) a decimal prefix or decimal
order-of-magnitude quantity together with a base unit of time, like a
microsecond or a million years. In some cases, the order of magnitude
may be implied (usually 1), like a "second" or "year". In other cases,
the quantity name implies the base unit, like "century". In most
cases, the base unit is seconds or years. Prefixes are not usually
used with a base unit of years, so we say "a million years", not "a
megayear".
Contents 1 Low orders of magnitude - below one second (s) 2 High orders of magnitude - 1 s and beyond 3 See also 4 Footnotes 5 External links Low orders of magnitude - below one second (s)[edit] Unit (s) Multiple Symbol Definition Comparative examples & common units 10−44
1 Planck time
tP
Presumed to be the shortest theoretically measurable time interval
(but not necessarily the shortest increment of time - see quantum
gravity)
6956099999999999999♠10−20 ys =
6956099999999999999♠10−44 s: One
ℏ G / c 5 displaystyle sqrt hbar G/c^ 5 ≈ 6956538999999999999♠5.39×10−44 s[1] is the briefest physically meaningful span of time. It is the unit of time in the natural units system known as Planck units. 10−24 1 yoctosecond ys[2] Yoctosecond, (yocto- + second), is one septillionth of a second 156 ys: mean lifetime for the decay of a Higgs Boson, the quantum of energy in the field which gives elementary particles their masses 10−21 1 zeptosecond zs Zeptosecond, (zepto- + second), is one sextillionth of one second 2 zs: representative cycle time of gamma ray radiation released in the decay of a radioactive atomic nucleus (here as 2 MeV per emitted photon) 10−18 1 attosecond as One quintillionth of one second 12 attoseconds: best timing control of laser pulses.[3] 10−15 1 femtosecond fs One quadrillionth of one second 1 fs: Cycle time for 300 nanometre light; ultraviolet light; light travels 0.3 micrometres (µm). 140 fs: Electrons have localized onto individual bromine atoms 6Å apart after laser dissociation of Br2.[4] 10−12
1 picosecond
ps
One trillionth of one second
1 ps: mean lifetime of a bottom quark; light travels 0.3 millimeters
(mm)
1 ps: lifetime of a transition state
4 ps:
10−9
1 nanosecond
ns
One billionth of one second
1 ns:
10−6
1 microsecond
µs
One millionth of one second
1 µs:
10−3 1 millisecond ms One thousandth of one second 1 ms: time for a neuron in human brain to fire one impulse and return to rest[5] 4–8 ms: typical seek time for a computer hard disk 10−2 1 centisecond cs One hundredth of one second 18–300 ms (=0.02–0.3 s): Human reflex response to visual stimuli 16.667 ms period of a frame at a frame rate of 60 Hz. 20 ms: cycle time for European 50 Hz AC electricity 10−1 1 decisecond ds One tenth of a second 100–400 ms (=0.1–0.4 s): Blink of an eye[6] High orders of magnitude - 1 s and beyond[edit] In this table, large intervals of time surpassing one second are catalogued in order of the SI multiples of the second as well as their equivalent in common time units of minutes, hours, days, and Julian years. Unit (s) Multiple Symbol Common units Comparative examples & common units 101 1 decasecond das single seconds 60 s: one minute (min), the time it takes a second hand to cycle around a clock face 102 1 hectosecond hs minutes (1 hs is 1 min 40 s) 260 s (4 min 20 s): average length of the most popular
103 1 kilosecond ks minutes, hours, days (1 ks is 16 min 40 s) 1 ks: record confinement time for antimatter, specifically
antihydrogen, in electrically neutral state as of 2011[8]
3.6 ks: one hour (h), time for the minute hand of a clock to cycle
once around the face, approximately 1/24 of one mean solar day
7.2 ks (2 h): typical length of feature films
86.399 ks (23 h 59 min 59 s): one day with a removed leap second on
106 1 megasecond Ms weeks to years (1 Ms is 11 d 13 h 46 min 40 s) 1.641 6 Ms (19 d): length of a "month" of the Baha'i calendar 2.360 Ms (27.32 d): length of the true month, the orbital period of the Moon 2.419 2 Ms (28 d): length of February, the shortest month of the Gregorian calendar 2.592 Ms (30 d): 30 days, a common interval used in legal agreements and contracts as a proxy for a month 2.678 4 Ms (31 d): - length of the longest months of the Gregorian calendar 23 Ms (270 d): approximate length of typical human gestational period 31.557 6 Ms (365.25 d): length of the Julian year, also called the annum, symbol a. 31.558 150 Ms (365 d 6 h 9 min 10 s): length of the true year, the orbital period of the Earth 109 1 gigasecond Gs decades, centuries, millennia (1 Gs is over 31 years and 287 days) 1.5 Gs: approximate
1012 1 terasecond Ts millennia to geological epochs (1 Ts is over 31,600 years) 3.1 Ts (100 ka): approximate length of a glacial period of the current
1015
1 petasecond
Ps
geological eras, history of
1018
1 exasecond
Es
future cosmological time
All times of this length and beyond are currently theoretical as they
surpass the elapsed lifetime of the known universe.
1.08 Es (+34 Ga): time to the
1021 1 zettasecond Zs 3 Zs (+100 000 Ga): The remaining time until the end of Stelliferous
Era of the universe under the heat death scenario for the ultimate
fate of the
1024 and onward 1 yottasecond and beyond Ys and on 600 Ys (9 × 1018 a): The radioactive half-life of bismuth-209 by
alpha decay, one of the slowest-observed radioactive decay processes.
1.310 019 × 1012 Ys (4.134 105 × 1028 years) – The time period
equivalent to the value of
13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.0.0.0.0 in
the Mesoamerican Long Count, a date discovered on a stela at the Coba
Maya site, believed by archaeologist
10 10 10 76.66 displaystyle 10^ 10^ 10^ 76.66 Ys ( 10 10 10 76.66 displaystyle 10^ 10^ 10^ 76.66 years) – Scale of an estimated Poincaré recurrence time for the quantum state of a hypothetical box containing an isolated black hole of stellar mass[14] This time assumes a statistical model subject to Poincaré recurrence. A much simplified way of thinking about this time is that in a model in which history repeats itself arbitrarily many times due to properties of statistical mechanics, this is the time scale when it will first be somewhat similar (for a reasonable choice of "similar") to its current state again. 10 10 10 120 displaystyle 10^ 10^ 10^ 120 Ys ( 10 10 10 120 displaystyle 10^ 10^ 10^ 120 years) – Scale of an estimated Poincaré recurrence time for the quantum state of a hypothetical box containing a black hole with the mass of the observable Universe.[14] 10 10 10 10 13 displaystyle 10^ 10^ 10^ 10^ 13 Ys ( 10 10 10 10 13 displaystyle 10^ 10^ 10^ 10^ 13 years) – Scale of an estimated Poincaré recurrence time for the quantum state of a hypothetical box containing a black hole with the estimated mass of the entire Universe, observable or not, assuming Linde's chaotic inflationary model with an inflaton whose mass is 10−6 Planck masses.[14] See also[edit] Orders of magnitude (frequency) Annum Geologic timescale Logarithmic timeline Planck units Second SI unit Temporal resolution Terasecond and longer Footnotes[edit] Notes References ^ "CODATA Value: Planck time". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. Retrieved October 1, 2011. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000. Available at: http://www.bartleby.com/61/21/Y0022100.html. Accessed December 19, 2007. note: abbr. ys or ysec ^ "12 attoseconds is the world record for shortest controllable time". ^ Li, Wen; et al. (November 23, 2010). "Visualizing electron rearrangement in space and timeduring the transition from a molecule to atoms". PNAS. 107 (47): 20219–20222. doi:10.1073/pnas.1014723107. PMC 2996685 . PMID 21059945. Retrieved 12 July 2015. ^ http://www.noteaccess.com/APPROACHES/ArtEd/ChildDev/1cNeurons.htm ^ Eric H. Chudler. "Brain Facts and Figures: Sensory Apparatus: Vision". Retrieved October 10, 2011. ^ https://www.minimatters.com/youtube-best-video-length/ ^ "Confinement of antihydrogen for 1,000 seconds". Nature Physics. 7: 558–564. 5 June 2011. doi:10.1038/nphys2025. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2012. ^ Cite error: The named reference Falk was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ G. Jeffrey MacDonald "Does Maya calendar predict 2012 apocalypse?" USA Today 3/27/2007. ^ Nishino, H. et al. (Super-K Collaboration) (2009). "Search for Proton Decay via p+ → e+π0 and p+ → μ+π0 in a Large Water Cherenkov Detector". Physical Review Letters. 102 (14): 141801. Bibcode:2009PhRvL.102n1801N. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.141801. PMID 19392425. ^ A Dying Universe: the Long-term Fate and Evolution of Astrophysical Objects, Adams, Fred C. and Laughlin, Gregory, Reviews of Modern Physics 69, #2 (April 1997), pp. 337–372. Bibcode: 1997RvMP...69..337A. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.69.337. ^ a b Particle emission rates from a black hole: Massless particles from an uncharged, nonrotating hole, Don N. Page, Physical Review D 13 (1976), pp. 198–206. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.13.198. See in particular equation (27). ^ a b c Page, Don N. (1995). "Information Loss in Black Holes and/or Conscious Beings?". In Fulling, S.A. Heat Kernel Techniques and Quantum Gravity. Discourses in Mathematics and its Applications. Texas A&M University. p. 461. arXiv:hep-th/9411193 . ISBN 978-0-9630728-3-2. External links[edit] Exploring
v t e Orders of magnitude Quantity Acceleration Angular velocity Area Bit rate Capacitance Charge Computing Currency Current Data Density Energy / Energy density / Energy flow density Entropy Force Frequency Inductance Illuminance Length Luminance / Luminous flux Magnetic field Mass Molarity Numbers Power Pressure Probability Radiation Resistance Sound pressure Specific energy Specific heat capacity Speed Temperature Time Viscosity Voltage Volume See also Back-of-the-envelope calculation Fermi problem Powers of 10 Metric (SI) prefix Macroscopic scale Microscopic scale Quantum realm Related Earth's location in the Universe
"Cosmic View" (1957 essay)
To the
Book Category Science portal v t e
Chronometry Orders of magnitude Metrology International standards Coordinated Universal Time offset UT
ΔT
DUT1
International
Obsolete standards Ephemeris time Greenwich Mean Time Prime meridian
Absolute time and space
Spacetime
Chronon
Continuous signal
Coordinate time
Cosmological decade
Discrete time and continuous time
Planck time
Proper time
Theory of relativity
Horology Clock
Astrarium
Atomic clock
Complication
History of timekeeping devices
Hourglass
Marine chronometer
Marine sandglass
Radio clock
Watch
Water clock
Sundial
Dialing scales
Equation of time
History of sundials
Calendar Astronomical Dominical letter Epact Equinox Gregorian Hebrew Hindu Intercalation Islamic Julian Leap year Lunar Lunisolar Solar Solstice Tropical year Weekday determination Weekday names Archaeology and geology Chronological dating Geologic time scale International Commission on Stratigraphy Astronomical chronology Galactic year Nuclear timescale Precession Sidereal time Other units of time Flick Shake Jiffy Second Minute Moment Hour Day Week Fortnight Month Year Olympiad Lustrum Decade Century Saeculum Millennium Related topics Chronology Duration music Mental chronometry
Metric time
System time
v t e Orders of magnitude of time by powers of seconds Negative powers Planck time <1 attosecond Attosecond Femtosecond Picosecond Nanosecond Microsecond Millisecond Positive powers Second Kilosecond Megasecond Gigasecond Ter |