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Timothy Walter Burton (born August 25, 1958) is an American
film director A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay (or script) while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that Goal, vision. The director has a key role in choosing the Casting (perf ...
,
film producer A film producer is a person who oversees film production. Either employed by a production company or working Independent film, independently, producers plan and coordinate various aspects of film production, such as selecting the script; coordinati ...
,
writer A writer is a person who uses written words in different styles and techniques to communicate ideas. Writers produce different forms of literary art and creative writing such as novels, short stories, books, poetry, plays, screenplays, telepl ...
and
artist An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art, practicing the arts, or demonstrating an art. The common usage in both everyday speech and academic discourse refers to a practitioner in the visual arts only. However, the ter ...
. Known for his gothic fantasy and horror films such as '' Beetlejuice'' (1988), '' Edward Scissorhands'' (1990), '' The Nightmare Before Christmas'' (1993), '' Ed Wood'' (1994), '' Sleepy Hollow'' (1999), ''Corpse Bride'' (2005), ''Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street (2007 film), Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street'' (2007), and ''Frankenweenie (2012 film), Frankenweenie'' (2012). Burton also directed the superhero films ''Batman (1989 film), Batman'' (1989) and ''Batman Returns'' (1992), the sci-fi film ''Planet of the Apes (2001 film), Planet of the Apes'' (2001), the fantasy-drama ''Big Fish'' (2003), the musical adventure film ''Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (film), Charlie and the Chocolate Factory'' (2005), and the fantasy films ''Alice in Wonderland (2010 film), Alice in Wonderland'' (2010) and ''Miss Peregrine's Home for Peculiar Children (film), Miss Peregrine's Home for Peculiar Children'' (2016). Burton has often worked with actor Johnny Depp and composer Danny Elfman, who has composed scores for all but three of the films Burton has directed. Helena Bonham Carter, Burton's former domestic partnership, domestic partner, has appeared in many of his films. He wrote and illustrated the poetry book ''The Melancholy Death of Oyster Boy & Other Stories'', published in 1997 by British publishing house Faber and Faber, and a compilation of his drawings, sketches, and other artwork, entitled ''The Art of Tim Burton'', was released in 2009. A follow-up to that book, entitled ''The Napkin Art of Tim Burton: Things You Think About in a Bar'', containing sketches made by Burton on napkins at bars and restaurants he visited, was released in 2015. His accolades include nominations for two Academy Awards and three British Academy Film Awards, BAFTA Awards, and wins for an Emmy Award and a Golden Globe Awards, Golden Globe Award.


Early life

Burton was born in 1958, in Burbank, California, the son of Jean Burton (née Erickson) (1933–2002), later the owner of a cat-themed gift shop, and William "Bill" Burton (1930–2000), a former minor league baseball player who was working for the Burbank Parks and Recreation Department. As a Preadolescence, preteen, Burton would make short films in his backyard on Evergreen Street using crude stop motion animation techniques or shooting on 8 mm film, 8 mm film without sound (one of his oldest known juvenile films is ''The Island of Doctor Agor'', which he made when he was 13 years old). Burton attended Providencia Elementary School in Burbank, and afterward to Burbank High School (Burbank, California), Burbank High School but was not a particularly good student. He played on the water polo team at Burbank High. Burton was an introspective person and found pleasure in painting, drawing, and watching movies. His future work would be heavily influenced by the works of such childhood heroes as Dr. Seuss and Roald Dahl. After graduating from Burbank High School, Burton attended the California Institute of the Arts in Valencia, Santa Clarita, California, Valencia, Santa Clarita, to study character animation. As a student at CalArts, Burton made the shorts ''Stalk of the Celery Monster'' and ''King and Octopus''.


Career


1980s

''Stalk of the Celery Monster'' attracted the attention of The Walt Disney Company, Walt Disney Productions' Walt Disney Animation Studios, animation division, which offered Burton an animator's apprenticeship at the studio. He worked as an animator, storyboard artist, graphic designer, art director, and concept artist on films such as ''The Fox and the Hound'' (1981), ''Tron'' (1982), and ''The Black Cauldron (film), The Black Cauldron'' (1985). His concept art never made it into the finished films. While at Disney in 1982, Burton made his first short, ''Vincent (1982 film), Vincent'', a six-minute black-and-white stop motion film based on a poem written by Burton, which depicts a young boy who fantasizes that he is his hero Vincent Price, with Price himself providing narration. The film was produced by Rick Heinrichs, whom Burton had befriended while working in the concept art department at Disney. The film was shown at the Chicago International Film Festival, Chicago Film Festival and released, alongside the teen drama ''Tex (film), Tex'', for two weeks in one Los Angeles cinema. This was followed by Burton's first live-action production, ''Hansel and Gretel (1983 film), Hansel and Gretel'', a Japanese-themed adaptation of the Brothers Grimm Hansel and Gretel, fairy tale for the Disney Channel, which climaxes in a kung fu fight between Hansel and Gretel and the witch. Having aired once in 1983 at 10:30 pm on Halloween and promptly shelved, prints of the film are extremely difficult to locate, fueling rumors that the project did not exist. The short would finally go on public display in 2009 at the Museum of Modern Art, and again in 2011 as part of the Tim Burton art exhibit at Los Angeles County Museum of Art, LACMA. It was again shown at the Seoul Museum of Art in 2012. Burton's next live-action short film, ''Frankenweenie (1984 film), Frankenweenie'', was released in 1984. It tells the story of a young boy who tries to revive his dog after it is run over by a car. Filmed in black-and-white, it stars Barret Oliver, Shelley Duvall (with whom he would work again in 1986, directing an episode of her television series ''Faerie Tale Theatre''), and Daniel Stern (actor), Daniel Stern. After ''Frankenweenie'' was completed, Disney fired Burton, under the pretext of him spending the company's resources on a film that would be too dark and scary for children to see. Actor Paul Reubens saw ''Frankenweenie'' and chose Burton to direct the cinematic spin-off of his popular character Pee-wee Herman, stating on the audio commentary of 2000 DVD release of ''Pee-wee's Big Adventure'' that as soon as the short began, he was sold on Burton's style. Pee-wee Herman gained mainstream popularity with a successful stage show at The Groundlings and The Roxy (London), the Roxy which was later turned into an The Pee-wee Herman Show, HBO special. The film, ''Pee-wee's Big Adventure'', was made on a budget of $8 million and grossed more than $40 million at the North American box office. Burton, a fan of the eccentric musical group Oingo Boingo, asked songwriter Danny Elfman to provide the music for the film. Since then, Elfman has scored every film that Tim Burton has directed, except for '' Ed Wood'', ''Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street (2007 film), Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street'', and ''Miss Peregrine's Home for Peculiar Children (film), Miss Peregrine's Home for Peculiar Children''. After directing episodes for the Alfred Hitchcock Presents (1985 TV series), revitalized version of '50s/'60s anthology horror series ''Alfred Hitchcock Presents'' and Shelley Duvall's ''Faerie Tale Theatre'', Burton directed his next big project: '' Beetlejuice'' (1988), a supernatural comedy horror about a young couple forced to cope with life after death and the family of pretentious yuppies who invade their treasured New England home. Their teenage daughter, Lydia (Winona Ryder), has an obsession with death which allows her to see the deceased couple. Starring Alec Baldwin and Geena Davis, and featuring Michael Keaton as the obnoxious bio-exorcist Beetlejuice, the film grossed $80 million on a relatively low budget and won an Academy Award for Academy Award for Best Makeup, Best Makeup. It would be converted into a Beetlejuice (TV series), cartoon of the same name, with Burton playing a role as executive producer, that ran on American Broadcasting Company, ABC and later Fox Broadcasting Company, Fox. Burton's ability to produce hits with low budgets impressed studio executives, and he received his first big budget film, ''Batman (1989 film), Batman''. The production was plagued with problems. Burton repeatedly clashed with the film's producers, Jon Peters and Peter Guber, but the most notable debacle involved casting. For the title role, Burton chose to cast Michael Keaton as Batman following their previous collaboration in ''Beetlejuice'', despite Keaton's average physique, inexperience with action films, and reputation as a comic actor. Although Burton won in the end, the furor over the casting provoked enormous fan animosity, to the extent that Warner Brothers' share price slumped. Burton had considered it ridiculous to cast a "bulked-up" ultra-masculine man as Batman, insisting that Batman should be an ordinary man who dressed up in an elaborate bat costume to frighten criminals. Burton cast Jack Nicholson as Joker (character), The Joker (Tim Curry being his second choice) in a move that helped assuage fans' fears, as well as attracting older audiences not as interested in a superhero film. When the film opened in June 1989, it was backed by the biggest marketing and merchandising campaign in film history at the time, and became one of the biggest box office hits of all time, grossing over $250 million in the U.S. and $400 million worldwide (numbers not adjusted for inflation) and earning critical acclaim for the performances of both Keaton and Nicholson, as well as the film's production aspects, which won the Academy Awards, Academy Award for Academy Award for Best Production Design, Best Art Direction. The success of the film helped establish Burton as a profitable director, and it proved to be a huge influence on future superhero films, which eschewed the bright, all-American heroism of Richard Donner's ''Superman (1978 film), Superman'' for a grimmer, more realistic look and characters with more psychological depth. It also became a major inspiration for the successful 1990s cartoon ''Batman: The Animated Series'', as the darkness of Burton's film and its sequel allowed for a darker Batman on television. Burton claimed that the graphic novel ''Batman: The Killing Joke'' was a major influence on his film adaptation of ''Batman'':
"I was never a giant comic book fan, but I've always loved the image of Batman and the Joker. The reason I've never been a comic book fan – and I think it started when I was a child – is because I could never tell which box I was supposed to read. I don't know if it was dyslexia or whatever, but that's why I loved ''The Killing Joke'', because for the first time I could tell which one to read. It's my favorite. It's the first comic I've ever loved. And the success of those graphic novels made our ideas more acceptable."


1990s

In 1990, Burton co-wrote (with Caroline Thompson) and directed '' Edward Scissorhands'', re-uniting with Winona Ryder from ''Beetlejuice''. His friend Johnny Depp, a teen idol at the end of the 1980s due primarily to his work on the hit TV series ''21 Jump Street'', was cast in the title role of Edward, who was the creation of an eccentric and old-fashioned inventor (played by Vincent Price in one of his last screen appearances). Edward looked human, but was left with scissors in the place of hands due to the untimely death of his creator. Set in suburbia (and shot in Land o' Lakes, Florida), the film is largely seen as Burton's autobiography of his childhood in Burbank. Burton's idea for the character of Edward Scissorhands came from a drawing he created in high school. Depp wrote a similar comment in the foreword to Mark Salisbury's book, ''Burton on Burton'', regarding his first meeting with Burton over the casting of the film. ''Edward Scissorhands'' is considered one of Burton's best movies by some critics. Burton has stated that this is his most personal and meaningful film because it's a representation of him not being able to communicate effectively with others as a teenager. After the success of ''Batman'', Burton agreed to direct the sequel for Warner Bros. on the condition that he would be granted total control. The result was ''Batman Returns'', which featured Michael Keaton returning as Batman, and a new triad of villains: Danny DeVito (as Penguin (character), the Penguin), Michelle Pfeiffer (as Catwoman) and Christopher Walken (as Max Shreck, an evil corporate tycoon and original character created for the film). Darker and considerably more personal than its predecessor, concerns were raised that the film was too scary for children. Audiences were more uncomfortable at the film's overt sexuality, personified by the sleek, fetish-inspired styling of Catwoman's costume. Burton made many changes to the Penguin which would subsequently be applied to the character in both comics and television. While in the comics, he was an ordinary man, Burton created a freak of nature resembling a penguin with webbed, flipper-like fingers, a hooked, beak-like nose, and a penguin-like body (resulting in a rotund, obese man). Released in 1992, ''Batman Returns'' grossed $282.8 million worldwide, making it a financial success, though not to the extent of its predecessor. Due to schedule constraints on ''Batman Returns'', Burton produced, but did not direct, '' The Nightmare Before Christmas'' (1993) for Disney, originally meant to be a children's book in rhyme. The film was directed by Henry Selick and written by Caroline Thompson, based on Burton's original story, world, and characters. The film received positive reviews for the stop motion animation, musical score, and original storyline. It was a box office success, grossing $50 million. Because of the nature of the film, it was not produced under Disney's name, but rather Disney owned Touchstone Pictures. Disney wanted the protagonist to have eyes, but the final iteration did not. Over 100 people worked on this motion picture just to create the characters, and it took three years of work to produce the film. Burton collaborated with Selick again for ''James and the Giant Peach (film), James and the Giant Peach'' (1996), which Burton co-produced. In 1994, Burton and frequent co-producer Denise Di Novi produced the 1994 fantasy-comedy ''Cabin Boy'', starring comedian Chris Elliott and directed/written by Adam Resnick. Burton was originally supposed to direct the film after seeing Elliott perform on ''Get a Life (American TV series), Get a Life'', but he handed the directing responsibility to Resnick once he was offered '' Ed Wood''. Burton's next film, '' Ed Wood'' (1994), was of a much smaller scale, depicting the life of infamous director Ed Wood. Starring Johnny Depp in the title role, the film is an homage to the low-budget science fiction and horror films of Burton's childhood and handles its comical protagonist and his motley band of collaborators with surprising fondness and sensitivity. Owing to creative squabbles during the making of ''The Nightmare Before Christmas'', Danny Elfman declined to score ''Ed Wood'', and the assignment went to Howard Shore. While a commercial failure at the time of its release, ''Ed Wood'' was well received by critics. Martin Landau received the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his portrayal of Bela Lugosi, and the film received the Academy Award for Best Makeup and Hairstyling, Academy Award for Best Makeup. Despite Burton's intention to still lead the ''Batman'' franchise, Warner Bros. considered ''Batman Returns'' too dark and unsafe for children. To attract the young audience, it was decided that Joel Schumacher, who had directed films like ''The Client (1994 film), The Client'', would lead Batman Forever, the third film, while Burton would only produce it in conjunction with Peter MacGregor-Scott. Following this change and the changes made by the new director, Michael Keaton resigned from the lead role and was replaced by Val Kilmer. Filming for ''Batman Forever'' began in late 1994 with new actors: Tommy Lee Jones as Harvey Dent/Two-Face, Nicole Kidman as Dr. Chase Meridian, Chris O'Donnell as Dick Grayson/Robin and Jim Carrey as Edward Nygma/The Riddler; the only two actors who returned after ''Batman Returns'' were Pat Hingle as Commissioner Gordon and Michael Gough as Alfred Pennyworth. The film, a combination of the darkness that characterized the saga and colors and neon signs proposed by Schumacher, was a huge box office success, earning $336 million. Warner Bros. demanded that Schumacher delete some scenes so the film did not have the same tone as its predecessor, ''Batman Returns'' (later they were added as deleted scenes on the 2005 DVD release). In 1996, Burton and Selick reunited for the musical fantasy ''James and the Giant Peach (film), James and the Giant Peach'', based on James and the Giant Peach, the book by Roald Dahl which contains magical elements and references to drugs and alcohol. The film, a combination of live action and stop motion footage, starred Richard Dreyfuss, Susan Sarandon, David Thewlis, Simon Callow and Jane Leeves among others, with Burton producing and Selick directing. The film was mostly praised by critics and was nominated for the Academy Awards, Academy Award for Academy Award for Best Original Score, Best Original Musical or Comedy Score (by Randy Newman). Elfman and Burton reunited for ''Mars Attacks!'' (1996). Based on a popular science-fiction trading card series, the film was a hybrid of 1950s science fiction and 1970s all-star disaster films. Coincidence made it an inadvertent spoof of the blockbuster ''Independence Day (1996 film), Independence Day'', which had been released five months earlier. The film boasted an all-star cast, including Jack Nicholson, Glenn Close, Annette Bening, Danny DeVito, Pierce Brosnan, Michael J. Fox, Sarah Jessica Parker, Natalie Portman, Lukas Haas, Martin Short, Rod Steiger, Christina Applegate, and Jack Black. '' Sleepy Hollow'', released in late 1999, had a supernatural setting and starred Johnny Depp as Ichabod Crane, a detective with an interest in forensic science rather than the schoolteacher of Washington Irving's The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, original tale. With ''Sleepy Hollow'', Burton paid homage to the horror films of the English company Hammer Film Productions, Hammer Films. Christopher Lee, one of Hammer's stars, was given a cameo role. A host of Burton regulars appeared in supporting roles (Michael Gough, Jeffrey Jones, and Christopher Walken, among others), and Christina Ricci was cast as Katrina van Tassel. A well-regarded supporting cast was headed by Miranda Richardson, Michael Gambon, Richard Griffiths and Ian McDiarmid. Mostly well received by critics, and with a special mention to Elfman's gothic score, the film won an Academy Awards, Academy Award for Academy Award for Best Production Design, Best Art Direction, as well as two British Academy of Film and Television Arts, BAFTAs for BAFTA Award for Best Costume Design, Best Costume Design and BAFTA Award for Best Production Design, Best Production Design. A box office success, ''Sleepy Hollow'' was also a turning point for Burton. Along with change in his personal life (separation from actress Lisa Marie (actress), Lisa Marie), Burton changed radically in style for his next project, leaving the haunted forests and colorful outcasts behind to go on to directing ''Planet of the Apes (2001 film), Planet of the Apes'' which, as Burton had repeatedly noted, was "not a remake" of the earlier film.


2000s

''Planet of the Apes'' was a commercial success, grossing $68 million in its opening weekend. The film has received mixed reviews and is widely considered inferior to Planet of the Apes (1968 film), the first adaptation of Planet of the Apes (novel), the novel. In 2003, Burton directed ''Big Fish'', based on the novel ''Big Fish: A Novel of Mythic Proportions'' by Daniel Wallace (author), Daniel Wallace. The film is about a father telling the story of his life to his son using exaggeration and color. Starring Ewan McGregor as young Edward Bloom and Albert Finney as an older Edward Bloom, the film also stars Jessica Lange, Billy Crudup, Danny DeVito, Alison Lohman and Marion Cotillard. ''Big Fish'' received four Golden Globe Award, Golden Globe nominations as well as an Academy Award nomination for Elfman's score. The film was also the second collaboration between Burton and Helena Bonham Carter, who played the characters of Jenny and the Witch. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (film), ''Charlie and the Chocolate Factory'' (2005) is an adaptation of the Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, book of the same name by Roald Dahl. Starring Johnny Depp as Willy Wonka, Freddie Highmore as Charlie Bucket, and Deep Roy as the Oompa-Loompas, the film generally took a more faithful approach to the source material than the 1971 adaptation, ''Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory'', although some liberties were taken, such as adding Wonka's issue with his father (played by Christopher Lee). ''Charlie and the Chocolate Factory'' was later nominated for the Academy Award for Academy Award for Best Costume Design, Best Costume Design. The film made over $207 million domestically. Filming proved difficult as Burton, Depp, and Danny Elfman had to work on this and Burton's ''Corpse Bride'' (2005) at the same time, which was Burton's first full-length stop motion film as a director, featuring the voices of Johnny Depp as Victor and Helena Bonham Carter as Emily . Burton directed his first music video, "Bones (The Killers song), Bones", in 2006. "Bones" is the sixth overall single by American indie rock band The Killers and the second released from their second studio album, ''Sam's Town''. Starring in this video were actors Michael Steger and Devon Aoki. Burton went to direct a second music video for The Killers, "Here with Me (The Killers song), Here with Me", starring Winona Ryder, released in 2012. The DreamWorks/Warner Bros. production ''Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street (2007 film), Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street'', based on Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street, the 1979 Broadway musical, was released on December 21, 2007. Burton's work on ''Sweeney Todd'' won the National Board of Review Award for Best Director, received a Golden Globe nomination for Golden Globe Award for Best Director, Best Director, and won an Academy Awards, Academy Award for Academy Award for Best Production Design, Best Art Direction. The film blends explicit gore and Broadway tunes, and was well received by critics. Johnny Depp's performance as Sweeney Todd was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor. In 2005, filmmaker Shane Acker released his short film ''9 (short film), 9'', a story about a sentient rag doll living in a post-apocalyptic world who tries to stop machines from destroying the rest of his eight fellow rag dolls. The film won numerous awards and was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film. After seeing the short film, Tim Burton and Timur Bekmambetov, director of ''Wanted (2008 film), Wanted'', showed interest in producing a 9 (2009 animated film), feature-length adaptation of the film. Directed by Acker, the full-length film was produced by Burton, written by Acker (story) and Pamela Pettler (screenplay, co-writer of ''Corpse Bride''), and featured the voice work of Elijah Wood, John C. Reilly, Jennifer Connelly, Christopher Plummer, Martin Landau, and Crispin Glover, among others.


2010s

Tim Burton appeared at the 2009 San Diego Comic-Con, Comic-Con in San Diego, California, to promote both ''9'' and ''Alice in Wonderland (2010 film), Alice in Wonderland''; the latter won two Academy Awards, for Academy Award for Best Production Design, Best Art Direction and Academy Award for Best Costume Design, Best Costume Design. In Burton's version of ''Alice in Wonderland'', the story is set 13 years after the Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, original Lewis Carroll tales. Mia Wasikowska was cast as Alice (Alice's Adventures in Wonderland), Alice. The original start date for filming was May 2008. Torpoint and Plymouth were the locations used for filming from September 1 – October 14, and the film remains set in the Victorian era. During this time, filming took place in Antony House in Torpoint. 250 local Extra (actor), extras were chosen in early August. Other production work took place in London. The film was originally to be released in 2009, but was pushed to March 5, 2010. The film starred Johnny Depp as the The Hatter, Mad Hatter; Matt Lucas as both Tweedledee and Tweedledum; Helena Bonham Carter as the Red Queen (Through the Looking-Glass), Red Queen; Stephen Fry as the Cheshire Cat; Anne Hathaway as the White Queen (Through the Looking-Glass), White Queen; Alan Rickman as Absolem the Caterpillar; Michael Sheen as The White Rabbit, McTwisp the White Rabbit; and Crispin Glover's as the Knave of Hearts (Alice's Adventures in Wonderland), Knave of Hearts, with his face and voice added onto a CGI body. Burton produced the film's sequel, ''Alice Through the Looking Glass (2016 film), Alice Through the Looking Glass'' (2016). ''Dark Shadows (film), Dark Shadows'' once again saw the collaboration of Burton with actors Johnny Depp and Helena Bonham Carter, composer Danny Elfman, and costume designer Colleen Atwood. The film was released on May 11, 2012, and received mixed reviews from critics. Burton co-produced ''Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter'' with Timur Bekmambetov, who also served as director (they previously worked together in ''9 (2009 animated film), 9''). The film, released on June 22, 2012, was based on the Abraham Lincoln, Vampire Hunter (novel), novel by Seth Grahame-Smith, who wrote the film's screenplay and also authored ''Pride and Prejudice and Zombies''. The film starred Benjamin Walker (actor), Benjamin Walker as Abraham Lincoln, Anthony Mackie as William Henry Johnson (valet), William H. Johnson, Joseph Mawle as Lincoln's father Thomas Lincoln, Thomas, Robin McLeavy as Lincoln's mother, Nancy Lincoln, Nancy, and Mary Elizabeth Winstead as Lincoln's love interest (and later wife), Mary Todd Lincoln, Mary Ann Todd. The film received mixed reviews. He then Frankenweenie (2012 film), remade his 1984 short film ''Frankenweenie (1984 film), Frankenweenie'' as a feature-length stop motion film, distributed by Walt Disney Pictures. Burton has said, "The film is based on a memory that I had when I was growing up and with my relationship with a dog that I had." The film was released on October 5, 2012, and met with positive reviews. Burton directed the 2014 biographical drama film ''Big Eyes'' about American artist Margaret Keane (Amy Adams), whose work was fraudulently claimed in the 1950s and 1960s by her then-husband, Walter Keane (Christoph Waltz), and their heated divorce trial after Margaret accused Walter of stealing credit for her paintings. The script was written by the screenwriters behind Burton's ''Ed Wood'', Scott Alexander and Larry Karaszewski. Filming began in Vancouver, British Columbia, in mid-2013. The film was distributed by The Weinstein Company and released in U.S. theaters on December 25, 2014. It received generally positive reviews from critics. In September 2016, an Miss Peregrine's Home for Peculiar Children (film), adaptation of Ransom Riggs's novel ''Miss Peregrine's Home for Peculiar Children'', directed by Burton, was released, starring Asa Butterfield and Eva Green. Burton also directed a live-action Dumbo (2019 film), adaptation of ''Dumbo'', released in 2019, with Colin Farrell, Danny DeVito, Eva Green, and Michael Keaton starring.


2020s


Unrealized projects

After Kevin Smith had been hired to write Superman in film#Superman Lives, a new ''Superman'' film, he suggested Burton to direct. Burton came on and Warner Bros. set a theatrical release date for the summer of 1998, the 60th anniversary of the character's debut in ''Action Comics''. Nicolas Cage was signed on to play Superman, Burton hired Wesley Strick to rewrite Smith's script, and the film entered pre-production in June 1997. For budgetary reasons, Warner Bros. ordered another rewrite from Dan Gilroy, delayed the film, and ultimately put it on hold in April 1998. Burton then left to direct '' Sleepy Hollow''. Burton has depicted the experience as a difficult one, citing differences with producer Jon Peters and the studio, stating, "I basically wasted a year. A year is a long time to be working with somebody that you don't really want to be working with." In 2001, The Walt Disney Company began to consider producing a sequel to '' The Nightmare Before Christmas'', but rather than using stop motion, Disney wanted to use computer animation. Burton convinced Disney to drop the idea. "I was always very protective of ['Nightmare'], not to do sequels or things of that kind," Burton explained. "You know, 'Jack visits Thanksgiving world' or other kinds of things, just because I felt the movie had a purity to it and the people that like it... Because it's a mass-market kind of thing, it was important to kind of keep that purity of it." Regardless, in 2009, Henry Selick stated that he could make a sequel to ''Nightmare'' if he and Burton could create a good story for it. In 2012, Shane Acker confirmed that Burton would work with Valve Corporation, Valve to create his next animated feature film, ''Deep''. Like ''9 (2009 animated film), 9'', the film would take place in a post-apocalyptic world (although set in a different universe). ''Deep'' would be another darker animated film, as Shane Acker has expressed his interest in creating more PG-13 animated films. Since then, there have been no further mentions of ''Deep'', with Acker focusing on another project announced in 2013 (''Beasts of Burden#Film, Beasts of Burden''). On January 19, 2010, it was announced that after ''Dark Shadows'', Burton's next project would be ''Maleficent (film), Maleficent'', a ''Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West, Wicked''-like film that showed the origin and the past of ''Sleeping Beauty (1959 film), Sleeping Beauty''s antagonist Maleficent. In an interview with Fandango (ticket service), Fandango published February 23, 2010, however, Burton denied he was directing any upcoming ''Sleeping Beauty'' film. However, on November 23, 2010, in an interview with MTV, Burton confirmed that he was indeed putting together a script for ''Maleficent''. It was announced by ''The Hollywood Reporter'' on May 16, 2011, that Burton was no longer attached to ''Maleficent''. It was reported that Burton would direct a 3D stop motion animation adaptation of ''The Addams Family#Cancelled film, The Addams Family'', which was confirmed by Christopher Meledandri, but the project was scrapped on July 17, 2013. On July 19, 2010, Burton was announced as the director of the upcoming film adaptation of ''Monsterpocalypse#Film adaptation, Monsterpocalypse''. In 2011, it was reported that Burton was working on a live-action adaptation of ''The Hunchback of Notre-Dame'' starring Josh Brolin, who would also be co-producing. The project did not move forward. In July 2012, following the release of both ''Dark Shadows'' and ''Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter'', it was announced that screenwriter and novelist Seth Grahame-Smith was working alongside Burton on a potential ''Beetlejuice#Cancelled sequel, Beetlejuice'' sequel. Actor Michael Keaton has also expressed interest in reprising his role as the title character along with Winona Ryder. In October 2017, ''Deadline Hollywood'' reported that Mike Vukadinovich was hired to write a script in time for the film's 30th anniversary. In April 2019, Warner Bros. stated the sequel had been shelved.


Frequent collaborators

Burton regularly casts the same actors in his film projects. Johnny Depp has been in eight of his films, while ex-partner Helena Bonham Carter has been in seven, Christopher Lee and Michael Gough in five.


Personal life

Burton was married to Lena Gieseke, a German-born artist. Their marriage ended in 1991 after four years. He went on to live with model and actress Lisa Marie (actress), Lisa Marie; she acted in the films he made during their relationship from 1992 to 2001, most notably in '' Sleepy Hollow'', '' Ed Wood'', and ''Mars Attacks!''. Burton developed a romantic relationship with English actress Helena Bonham Carter, whom he met while filming ''Planet of the Apes (2001 film), Planet of the Apes''. Marie responded in 2005 by holding an auction of personal belongings that Burton had left behind, much to his dismay. Burton and Bonham Carter have two children: a son, William Raymond, named after his and Bonham Carter's fathers, born in 2003; and a daughter, Nell, born in 2007. Bonham Carter's representative said in December 2014 that she and Burton had broken up amicably earlier that year. It is unclear whether or not they were married; Bonham Carter has used the word divorce when discussing the end of their relationship while other news outlets state that they common law marriage, never married. On March 15, 2010, Burton received the insignia of Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, Chevalier of Arts and Letters from then-Ministry of Culture (France), Minister of Culture Frédéric Mitterrand. The same year, Burton was the President of the Jury for the 2010 Cannes Film Festival, 63rd annual Cannes Film Festival, held from May 12 to 24 in Cannes, France. In a 2005 interview with the ''Evening Standard'', Bonham Carter speculated that Burton might have traits of Asperger syndrome.


Exhibitions

From November 22, 2009, to April 26, 2010, Burton had a retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art, MoMA in New York with over 700 "drawings, paintings, photographs, storyboards, moving-image works, puppets, maquettes, costumes and cinematic ephemera", including many from the filmmaker's personal collection. From MoMA, the "Tim Burton" exhibition traveled directly to Australian Centre for the Moving Image in Melbourne. Running from June 24 to October 10, 2010, the ACMI exhibition incorporated additional material from Burton's ''Alice in Wonderland (2010 film), Alice in Wonderland'', which was released in March 2010. "The Art of Tim Burton" was exhibited at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art from May 29 to October 31, 2011, in the Museum's Resnick Pavilion. LACMA also featured six films of Tim Burton's idol, Vincent Price. "Tim Burton, the exhibition/Tim Burton, l'exposition" was exhibited at the Cinémathèque Française from March 7 to August 5, 2012, in Paris, France. All of Tim Burton's movies were shown during the exhibition. "Tim Burton at Seoul Museum of Art" was exhibited as a promotion of Hyundai Card at Seoul Museum of Art from December 12, 2012, to April 15, 2013, in Seoul, South Korea. This exhibition featured 862 of Burton's works including drawings, paintings, short films, sculptures, music, and costumes that have been used in the making of his feature-length movies. The exhibition was divided into three parts: the first part, "Surviving Burbank", covered his younger years, from 1958 to 1976. The second, "Beautifying Burbank", covers 1977 to 1984, including his time with CalArts and Walt Disney. The last segment, "Beyond Burbank", covers 1985 onward. "Tim Burton and His World" was exhibited at the Stone Bell House from March 3 to August 8, 2014, in Prague, Czech Republic. The exhibition later premiered at the São Paulo Museum of Image and Sound, Museu da Imagem e do Som in São Paulo, Brazil, on February 4, 2016, and lasted until June 5. The exhibition was later held in Artis Tree in Taikoo Place, Hong Kong, from November 5, 2016, to January 23, 2017. The exhibition returned to Brazil from May 28 to August 11, 2019, being held at the Centro Cultural Banco do Brasil in Brasília. Burton's first exhibition in the United States in nearly a decade, ''Lost Vegas: Tim Burton'', opened in October 2019 at The Neon Museum in Las Vegas.


Filmography

Films directed


Awards


Academy Awards


BAFTA Awards


Daytime Emmy Award, Emmy Awards (Daytime)


Golden Globe Awards


Saturn Awards


Other awards

Cannes Film Festival * (1994) Nominated—Palme d'Or / '' Ed Wood'' National Board of Review Awards * (2008) Won—Best Director / ''Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street (2007 film), Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street'' Chicago Film Critics Association Awards * (2004) Nominated—Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Director, Best Director / ''Big Fish'' Producers Guild of America Awards * (2006) Nominated—Animated Motion Picture / ''Corpse Bride'' * (2008) Honored—Scream Awards: Scream Immortal Award, for his unique interpretation of horror and fantasy * (2009) Won—Producers Guild of America Awards, Best Producer / ''9 (2009 animated film), 9'' 64th Venice International Film Festival * (2007) Honored—Golden Lion for Lifetime Achievement Inkpot Award * (2009) Lacanian Psychoanalysis Prize * (2010) Won—''Alice in Wonderland (2010 film), Alice in Wonderland'' The Order of the Arts and Letters * (2010) Knighted by Culture Minister of France Moscow International Film Festival * (2012) "Golden George" for his contribution to world cinema. David di Donatello, David di Donatello Awards * (2019) "Honorary David di Donatello"


Awards received by Burton films


Reception

Critical, public and commercial reception to films Burton has directed as of August 2020.


Books

* ''Burton on Burton'', edited by Mark Salisbury (1995, revised editions 2000, 2006) * ''The Melancholy Death of Oyster Boy & Other Stories'' (1997) * ''The Art of Tim Burton'', written by Leah Gallo (2009) * ''The Napkin Art of Tim Burton: Things You Think About in a Bar'', edited by Holly Kempf and Leah Gallo (2015)


Notes


References


Further reading

* Bassil-Morozow, Helena (2010): ''Tim Burton: The Monster and the Crowd''. Routledge, London,
Read Introduction at JungArena.com
* Heger, Christian (2010): ''Mondbeglänzte Zaubernächte. Das Kino von Tim Burton''. Schüren, Marburg,
Read Excerpts at Libreka.de
* Gallo, Leah (2009): ''The Art of Tim Burton''. Steeles Publishing, Los Angeles, * Magliozzi, Ron; He, Jenny (2009): ''Tim Burton''. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, * Lynette, Rachel (2006): ''Tim Burton, Filmmaker''. KidHaven Press, San Diego, CA, * Page, Edwin (2006): ''Gothic Fantasy: The Films of Tim Burton''. Marion Boyars Publishers, London, * Salisbury, Mark (2006): ''Burton on Burton''. Revised Edition. Faber and Faber, London, * Fraga, Kristian (2005): ''Tim Burton – Interviews''. University Press of Mississippi, Jackson, MS, * Odell, Colin; Le Blanc, Michelle (2005): ''Tim Burton''. The Pocket Essentials, Harpenden 2005, * McMahan, Alison (2005): ''The Films of Tim Burton: Animating Live Action in Contemporary Hollywood''. Continuum, New York,

* Smith, Jim; Matthews, J. Clive (2002): ''Tim Burton''. Virgin, London, * Weinstock, Jeffrey Andrew, ed (2013). The Works of Tim Burton: Margins to Mainstream. New York: Palgrave. * Woods, Paul A. (2002): ''Tim Burton: A Child's Garden of Nightmares''. Plexus, London, * Merschmann, Helmut (2000): ''Tim Burton: The Life and Films of a Visionary Director'' (translated by Michael Kane). Titan Books, London, * Hanke, Ken (1999): ''Tim Burton: An Unauthorized Biography of the Filmmaker''. Renaissance Books, Los Angeles,


External links

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