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Tihamah
Tihamah
or Tihama (Arabic: تهامة‎ Tihāmah) refers to Red Sea coastal plain of Arabia
Arabia
from the Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
to the Bab el Mandeb Strait.[1]

Contents

1 History

1.1 During Muhammad's era

2 Geography 3 Flora 4 Archaeology 5 See also 6 Notes

History[edit] During Muhammad's era[edit]

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Campaigns of Muhammad

Ghazwah (expeditions where he took part)

Abwa Buwat Safwan Dul 1st Badr Kudr Sawiq Qaynuqa Thi Bahran Uhud Asad Nadir 2nd Nejd 2nd Badr Jandal Trench Qurayza Lahyan Mustaliq Treaty Khaybar Fadak Qura Dhat Baqra Mecca Hunayn Autas Ta'if Tabouk

Main article: List of battles of Muhammad During the Islamic prophet Muhammad's era, many military expeditions took place here including the Invasion of Hamra al-Asad and the Caravan raids. Beginning in January 623, some of the Muslims resorted to the tradition of raiding the Meccan caravans that traveled along the eastern coast of the Red Sea
Red Sea
from Mecca to Syria.[citation needed] Communal life was essential for survival in desert conditions, as people needed support against the harsh environment and lifestyle. The tribal grouping was thus encouraged by the need to act as a unit. This unity was based on the bond of kinship by blood.[clarification needed][2] People of Arabia
Arabia
were either nomadic or sedentary, the former constantly traveling from one place to another seeking water and pasture for their flocks, while the latter settled and focused on trade and agriculture. The survival of nomads (or Bedouins) was also partially dependent on raiding caravans or oases, thus they saw this as no crime.[3] While at Hamra al-Asad, Muhammad made an agreement with Mabad al-Khuzaah at Tihamah, in which Mabad pledged not to conceal anything from him. Mabad was then sent to Mecca to spread false information.[4] In Mecca, Mabad met with Abu Sufyan
Abu Sufyan
and spread disinformation that Muhammad had gathered a great force to fight Abu Sufyan. Abu Sufyan and his companions were planning a massive and decisive attack on Medina
Medina
to finish off the Muslims once and for all. Hearing Mabad’s talk of the great military strength of Muhammad, Abu Sufyan
Abu Sufyan
retreated from his plan of an immediate attack on the Muslims. In this fashion Muhammad successfully managed to prevent the massive onslaught the Meccans were planning.[5][5][6] Geography[edit] The region is sometimes subdivided into two parts, Tihamat Al-Hejaz (northern part) and Tihamat ʿ Asir
Asir
(southern part).[1] The Yemeni part (Tihamat Al-Yaman) is an extension of Tihamat ʿAsir.[7] The plain is constricted and attains its greatest widths (60 to 80 km) south of Medina
Medina
and south of Mecca.[1] The cities of Yanbu, Jeddah
Jeddah
and Al Qunfudhah
Al Qunfudhah
are located in the Hejazi part of Tihamah. The Asiri -Yemeni part of the Tihamah
Tihamah
plain includes the cities of Jizan
Jizan
and Al Hudaydah.

The Tihamah
Tihamah
coastal plain in the south of Yemen, 1931

The temperatures in Tihamah
Tihamah
are probably some of the hottest on earth. Tihamah
Tihamah
in Arabic
Arabic
means severe heat and lack of wind.[8] Flora[edit] The extensive sandy coastal plain (the Tihamah) is a hot and inhospitable area parallel to the Red Sea, and most of it north of Zabid
Zabid
(Yemen) is devoid of trees. However, in a few places there is dense shrub composed almost exclusively of Acacia ehrenbergiana
Acacia ehrenbergiana
and it may be assumed that this was originally the dominant natural vegetation of the Tihamah. Salvadora persica
Salvadora persica
occurs in thickets, and there are odd trees of Balanites aegyptiaca
Balanites aegyptiaca
and colonies of wild doum palm (Hyphaene thebaica) and planted date palms (Phoenix dactylifera).[9] Archaeology[edit] Over sixteen megalithic standing stones were discovered by Edward Keall, director of the Royal Ontario Museum's Canadian Archaeological Mission near the village of al-Mutaynah in the Tihamah
Tihamah
area. The stones were made of granite and weighted up to 20 tonnes (20,000 kg). Three of the upright stones measured around 8 feet (2.4 m) tall with one fallen being over 20 metres (66 ft) in length. Copper
Copper
tools suggested to date to the same era as the construction of the stones were dated to around 2400 to 1800 BCE. An even more archaic lithic industry was found along with pottery sherds that were dated between 1200 to 800 BCE.[10] See also[edit]

Archaeology portal Ancient Near East portal Saudi Arabia
Arabia
portal Middle East portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tihamah.

This article contains Arabic
Arabic
text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols.

Kingdom of Hejaz Idrisid Emirate of Asir Sulaymanids Rasulids Najahids Najd List of battles of Muhammad

Notes[edit]

^ a b c "Arabia", on Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 20 March 2013 :

The Red Sea
Red Sea
coastal plain is constricted throughout its length, attaining its greatest widths, 40 to 50 miles, south of Medina
Medina
and south of Mecca. The name Tihāmah, used for the whole plain, is sometimes subdivided into Tihāmat Al-Ḥijāz and Tihāmat ʿAsīr.

^ Watt (1953), pp. 16-18 ^ Loyal Rue, Religion Is Not about God: How Spiritual Traditions Nurture Our Biological,2005, p.224 ^ Al-Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman (2002), Sealed Nectar, Dar us Salam, p. 341  ^ a b Habriel, Richard A (2005), Muhammad, Islams first Great general, Blackwell, p. 124, ISBN 978-0-8061-3860-2  ^ Al-Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman (2002), Sealed Nectar, Dar us Salam, p. 342  ^ "Yemen", on Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 20 March 2013 :

Yemen
Yemen
may be divided into five major regions: a coastal plain running north-south known as the Tihāmah (an extension of the Tihāmat ʿAsīr), the western highlands, the central mountains (the Yemen Highlands), the eastern highlands, and finally the eastern and northeastern desert regions.

^ Dr. Shawqi Abu Khalil (2004). Atlas on the prophet's Biography. Darussalam. p. 31. ISBN 9960897710. Retrieved 20 March 2013.  :

It is so called because of its severe heat and lack of wind, from the word At-Taham which refers to extreme heat and lack of wind.

^ Hepper, F.N. (July 1978). "Were There Forests in the Yemen?". Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies. 9 (1979): 65–71. JSTOR 41223217. (Registration required (help)).  ^ Harrington, Spencer., Yemeni Megaliths, Archaeology, the Archaeological Institute of America, December 10, 1997

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