Tiger Force was the nickname of a long-range reconnaissance patrol unit[1] of the 1st Battalion (Airborne), 327th Infantry Regiment, 1st Brigade (Separate), 101st Airborne Division, which fought in the Vietnam War and allegedly committed numerous war crimes.[2]


The platoon-sized unit, approximately 45 paratroopers, was founded by Colonel David Hackworth in November 1965 to "outguerrilla the guerrillas".[3] Tiger Force (Recon) 1/327th was a highly decorated small unit in Vietnam, and paid for its reputation with heavy casualties.[4] In October 1968, Tiger Force's parent battalion was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation by President Lyndon B. Johnson, which included a mention of Tiger Force's service at Đắk Tô in June 1966.[5]

Investigations of war crimes

On October 19, 2003, Michael D. Sallah, a reporter at The Blade (Toledo) newspaper, obtained unreleased, confidential records of U.S. Army commander Henry Tufts. One file in these records referred to a previously unpublished war crimes investigation known as the Coy Allegation. To investigate this further, Sallah gained access to a large collection of documents produced by the investigation held at the National Archives in College Park, MD.[6]

Sallah found that between 1971 and 1975, the Army's Criminal Investigation Command had investigated the Tiger Force unit for alleged war crimes committed between May and November 1967.[7] The documents included sworn statements from many Tiger Force veterans, which detailed war crimes allegedly committed by Tiger Force members during the Song Ve Valley and Operation Wheeler military campaigns. The statements, from both individuals who allegedly participated in the war crimes and those that did not, described war crimes such as the following:

  • the routine torture and execution of prisoners[8]
  • the routine practice of intentionally killing unarmed Vietnamese villagers including men, women, children, and elderly people[9]
  • the routine practice of cutting off and collecting the ears of victims[10]
  • the practice of wearing necklaces composed of human ears[11]
  • the practice of cutting off and collecting the scalps of victims[12]
  • incidents where soldiers would plant weapons on murdered Vietnamese villagers[13]
  • an incident where a young mother was drugged, raped, and then executed[14]
  • an incident where a soldier killed a baby and cut off his or her head after the baby's mother was killed[15]

The investigators concluded that many of the war crimes indeed took place.[16] Despite this, the Army decided not to pursue any prosecutions.[17]

Their high bodycounts were recognized and encouraged by military officials. Col. Morse ordered troops to rack up a body count of 327 casualties in order to match the battalion's infantry designation, 327th; however by the end of the campaign soldiers were congratulated for their 1000th kill.[18]

After studying the documents, Sallah and fellow reporter Mitch Weiss located and interviewed dozens of veterans who served in Tiger Force during the period in question as well as the CID investigators who later carried out the Army's inquiry. The reporters also traveled to Vietnam and tracked down numerous residents of Song Ve Valley who identified themselves as witnesses. Sallah and Weiss reported that the war crimes were corroborated by both veterans[19] and Song Ve Valley residents.[20] The reporters also managed to track down dozens of additional investigative records not included in the National Archives.

In October 2003, the reporters published their findings in a series of articles in The Toledo Blade.[21] Subsequently, The New York Times performed their own investigation, contacting a few Tiger Force veterans and corroborating The Toledo Blade's findings.[22]

Since The Blade's story, the United States Army has opened a review of the former Tiger Force investigation, but has not yet provided much additional information. On May 11, 2004, Lt. Col. Pamela Hart informed The Blade reporters that she had been too busy responding to prisoner abuse by U.S. soldiers in Iraq to check on the status of the Tiger Force case.[23] The Blade has not reported on any more recent updates from the U.S. Army.

Reporters Michael D. Sallah, Mitch Weiss, and Joe Mahr received multiple awards for their series:

In 2006, Sallah, now an investigative reporter with The Washington Post, and Weiss, an investigative reporter with the Associated Press, co-authored a book chronicling their findings: Tiger Force: A True Story of Men and War (2006). He is currently on the national investigations team for Gannett/USA Today Network. [28]

Partial list of members 1965–1969

In popular culture

  • In the 2014 book Edge of Eternity by Ken Follett, character Jasper Murray is enlisted in the military and assigned to Tiger Force in Vietnam. He witnesses and is forced to participate in several war crimes, such as rape and murder of Vietnamese family and using Vietnamese peasant as "mine dog" to detect mines and traps laid by Viet Cong.
  • Although not mentioned by name, Tiger Force's actions are referenced in the season 6 episode of Mad Men "The Doorway", set in late December, 1967. Copywriter Peggy Olson is forced to come up with a new ad for Koss headphones after their old one is forced to be pulled thanks to a comedian on the Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson making jokes about Tiger Force members cutting off ears and wearing them as a necklace.

See also

Vietnam War
Broader, related topics
World War II


  1. ^ p. 33 Rottman, Gordon L. US Army Long-Range Patrol Scout in Vietnam 1965-71 Osprey Publishing, 2008
  2. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 22–23.
  3. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 13–14, 23, 224.
  4. ^ Mahr, "Unit's founder".
  5. ^ U.S. Army, "101st Airborne Division".
  6. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 309–311.
  7. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 264–306.
  8. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 337, 344–345, 349, 353, 370–372.
  9. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 335, 339–346, 350–352, 354–355, 359, 361–362, 367–369, 374–375, 376.
  10. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 335–336, 371.
  11. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 371.
  12. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 346, 374.
  13. ^ "The Vietnam War Crimes You Never Heard Of". hnn.us. Retrieved 4 October 2017. 
  14. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 361–362, 377–378.
  15. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 360, 363–364, 372–373.
  16. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 383.
  17. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 306.
  18. ^ "Vietnam war crimes". socialistworker.org. Retrieved 4 October 2017. 
  19. ^ a b c Sallah and Weiss, "DAY 1."
  20. ^ Sallah and Weiss, "DAY 3."
  21. ^ Sallah, Michael D.; Weiss, Mitch; Mahr, Joe (2003). "Tiger Force columns in order of appearance in the original entry". Toledo Blade. Retrieved 30 September 2017. 
  22. ^ Kifner (December 28, 2003). "Report on Brutal Vietnam Campaign Stirs Memories". The New York Times. 
  23. ^ Mahr, Joe. "Tiger Force answers". Toledo Blade. 
  24. ^ http://www.ire.org/contest/past/03winners.html
  25. ^ "SPJ Announces Recipients of 2003 Sigma Delta Chi Awards - Society of Professional Journalists". www.spj.org. Retrieved 4 October 2017. 
  26. ^ http://www.nieman.harvard.edu/pageone/taylor2004.html
  27. ^ http://www.pulitzer.org/citation/2004,Investigative+Reporting
  28. ^ Sallah, Michael; Weiss, Mitch (May 15, 2006). Tiger Force: A True Story of Men and War. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0316159972. 
  29. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 13.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, vii-xi.
  31. ^ Sallah and Weiss, Tiger Force, 330, 331, 333.


External links