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TIFINAGH (Berber pronunciation: ; also written Tifinaɣ in the Berber Latin alphabet ; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⵉⴼⵉⵏⴰⵖ; Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⵉⴼⵉⵏⴰⵗ or ⵜⴼⵏⵗ) is an abjad used to write the Berber languages
Berber languages
.

A modern alphabetical derivative of the traditional script, known as NEO-TIFINAGH, was introduced in the 20th century. A slightly modified version of the traditional script, called Tifinagh
Tifinagh
Ircam , is used in a number of Moroccan elementary schools in teaching the Berber language to children as well as a number of publications.

The word tifinagh is thought to be a Berberised feminine plural cognate of Punic
Punic
, through the Berber feminine prefix ti- and Latin Punicus; thus tifinagh could possibly mean "the Phoenician (letters)" or "the Punic
Punic
letters".

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins

* 2 Tuareg Tifinagh
Tifinagh

* 2.1 Orthography

* 3 Neo-Tifinagh

* 4 Letters

* 4.1 Unicode
Unicode

* 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links

ORIGINS

Libyco-Berber

TYPE Abjad

TIME PERIOD 3rd century BC to the 3rd century AD

PARENT SYSTEMS Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs

* Proto-Sinaitic script
Proto-Sinaitic script

* Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet

* Libyco-Berber

CHILD SYSTEMS Tifinagh

Tifinagh
Tifinagh
is believed to have descended from the ancient Libyan (libyque) or LIBYCO-BERBER script, although its exact evolution is unclear. The latter writing system was widely used in antiquity by speakers of Berber languages
Berber languages
throughout Africa and on the Canary Islands . It is attested from the 3rd century BC to the 3rd century AD. The script's origin is uncertain, with some scholars suggesting it is related to the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
.

There are two known variants: eastern and western. The eastern variant was used in what is now Constantine and the Aurès regions of Algeria and in Tunisia
Tunisia
. It is the best-deciphered variant, due to the discovery of several Numidian bilingual inscriptions in Libyan and Punic
Punic
(notably at Dougga in Tunisia). 22 letters out of the 24 were deciphered. The western variant was more primitive (Février 1964–1965). It was used along the Mediterranean coast from Kabylie to the Canary Islands. It used 13 supplementary letters.

The Libyco-Berber script was a pure abjad ; it had no vowels. Gemination was not marked. The writing was usually from the bottom to the top, although right-to-left, and even other orders, were also found. The letters would take different forms when written vertically than when they were written horizontally.

TUAREG TIFINAGH

Tifinagh

Entrance to the town of Kidal
Kidal
. The name is written in Tifinagh (ⴾⴸⵍ) and Latin script
Latin script
.

TYPE Abjad

LANGUAGES Tuareg

TIME PERIOD ? to present

PARENT SYSTEMS Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs

* Proto-Sinaitic script
Proto-Sinaitic script

* Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet

* Libyco-Berber

* Tifinagh

CHILD SYSTEMS Neo-Tifinagh

The Libyco-Berber script is used today in the form of Tifinagh
Tifinagh
to write the Tuareg languages , which belong to the Berber branch of the Afro-Asiatic family. Early uses of the script have been found on rock art and in various sepulchres . Among these are the 1,500 year old monumental tomb of the Tuareg matriarch Tin Hinan , where vestiges of a Tifinagh
Tifinagh
inscription have been found on one of its walls.

According to M.C.A. MacDonald, the Tuareg are "an entirely oral society in which memory and oral communication perform all the functions which reading and writing have in a literate society… The Tifinagh
Tifinagh
are used primarily for games and puzzles, short graffiti and brief messages."

Occasionally, the script has been used to write other neighbouring languages such as Tagdal , a Songhay language , which belongs to the separate Nilo-Saharan family.

ORTHOGRAPHY

Traditional Tifinagh
Tifinagh

Common forms of the letters are illustrated at left, including various ligatures of t and n. Gemination , though phonemic, is not indicated in Tifinagh. The letter t, +, is often combined with a preceding letter to form a ligature . Most of the letters have more than one common form, including mirror-images of the forms shown here.

When the letters l and n are adjacent to themselves or to each other, the second is offset, either by inclining, lowering, raising, or shortening it. For example, since the letter l is a double line, , and n a single line, , the sequence nn may be written / to differentiate it from l. Similarly, ln is /, nl //, ll //, nnn /, etc.

Traditionally, the Tifinagh
Tifinagh
script does not indicate vowels except word-finally, where a single dot stands for any vowel. In some areas, Arabic vowel diacritics are combined with Tifinagh
Tifinagh
letters to transcribe vowels, or y, w may be used for long ī and ū.

NEO-TIFINAGH

Neo-Tifinagh

TYPE Alphabet
Alphabet

LANGUAGES Standard Moroccan Berber and other Northern Berber languages
Berber languages

TIME PERIOD 1980 to present

PARENT SYSTEMS Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs

* Proto-Sinaitic script
Proto-Sinaitic script

* Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet

* Libyco-Berber

* Tifinagh
Tifinagh

* Neo-Tifinagh

DIRECTION Left-to-right

ISO 15924 Tfng, 120

UNICODE ALIAS Tifinagh

UNICODE RANGE U+2D30–U+2D7F

THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters.

Neo-Tifinagh is the modern fully alphabetic script developed from earlier forms of Tifinagh. It is written left-to-right.

Until recently, virtually no books or websites were published in this alphabet, with activists favouring the Latin (or, more rarely, Arabic) scripts for serious usage; however, it is extremely popular for symbolic use, with many books and websites written in a different script featuring logos or title pages using Neo-Tifinagh. In Morocco, the king took a "neutral" position between the claims of Latin script and Arabic script
Arabic script
by adopting Neo-Tifinagh in 2003; as a result, books are beginning to be published in this script, and it is taught in some schools. However, many independent Berber-language publications are still published using the Berber Latin alphabet. Outside Morocco, it has no official status. The Moroccan state arrested and imprisoned people using this script during the 1980s and 1990s. The Algerian Black Spring was also partly caused by this repression of Berber languages .

In Algeria, almost all Berber publications use the Berber Latin Alphabet.

In Libya, the government of Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Gaddafi
consistently banned Tifinagh
Tifinagh
from being used in public contexts such as store displays and banners.

After the Libyan Civil War , the National Transitional Council
National Transitional Council
has shown an openness towards the Berber languages. The rebel Libya TV , based in Qatar
Qatar
, has included the Berber language and the Tifinagh alphabet in some of its programming.

LETTERS

An IRCAM version of Neo-Tifinagh

The following are the letters and a few ligatures of traditional Tifinagh
Tifinagh
and Neo-Tifinagh:

UNICODE IMAGE FONT TRANSLITERATION NAME

LATIN ARABIC IPA

U+2D30

ⴰ a ا æ ya

U+2D31

ⴱ b ب b yab

U+2D32

ⴲ b ٻ β yab fricative

U+2D33

ⴳ g گ ɡ yag

U+2D34

ⴴ g ڲ ɣ yag fricative

U+2D35

ⴵ dj ج d͡ʒ Berber Academy yadj

U+2D36

ⴶ dj ج d͡ʒ yadj

U+2D37

ⴷ d د d yad

U+2D38

ⴸ d ذ ð yad fricative

U+2D39

ⴹ ḍ ض dˤ yaḍ

U+2D3A

ⴺ ḍ ظ ðˤ yaḍ fricative

U+2D3B

ⴻ e ه ə yey

U+2D3C

ⴼ f ف f yaf

U+2D3D

ⴽ k ک k yak

U+2D3E

ⴾ k ک k Tuareg yak

U+2D3F

ⴿ k ک x yak fricative

U+2D40

ⵀ h b ھ ب h b yah = Tuareg yab

U+2D41

ⵁ h ھ h Berber Academy yah

U+2D42

ⵂ h ھ h Tuareg yah

U+2D43

ⵃ ḥ ح ħ yaḥ

U+2D44

ⵄ ʕ (ɛ) ع ʕ yaʕ (yaɛ)

U+2D45

ⵅ kh (x) خ χ yax

U+2D46

ⵆ kh (x) خ χ Tuareg yax

U+2D47

ⵇ q ق q yaq

U+2D48

ⵈ q ق q Tuareg yaq

U+2D49

ⵉ i ي i yi

U+2D4A

ⵊ j ج ʒ yaj

U+2D4B

ⵋ j ج ʒ Ahaggar yaj

U+2D4C

ⵌ j ج ʒ Tuareg yaj

U+2D4D

ⵍ l ل l yal

UNICODE IMAGE FONT TRANSLITERATION NAME

LATIN ARABIC IPA

U+2D4E

ⵎ m م m yam

U+2D4F

ⵏ n ن n yan

U+2D50

ⵐ ny ني nj Tuareg yagn

U+2D51

ⵑ ng ڭ ŋ Tuareg yang

U+2D52

ⵒ p پ p yap

U+2D53

ⵓ u w و ۉ w yu = Tuareg yaw

U+2D54

ⵔ r ر r yar

U+2D55

ⵕ ṛ ڕ rˤ yaṛ

U+2D56

ⵖ gh (ɣ) غ ɣ yaɣ

U+2D57

ⵗ gh (ɣ) غ ɣ Tuareg yaɣ

U+2D58

ⵘ gh (ɣ) j غ ج ɣ ʒ Aïr yaɣ = Adrar yaj

U+2D59

ⵙ s س s yas

U+2D5A

ⵚ ṣ ص sˤ yaṣ

U+2D5B

ⵛ sh (š) ش ʃ yaš

U+2D5C

ⵜ t ت t yat

U+2D5D

ⵝ t ت θ̱ yat fricative

U+2D5E

ⵞ ch (tš) تش t͡ʃ yatš

U+2D5F

ⵟ ṭ ط tˤ yaṭ

U+2D60

ⵠ v ۋ v yav

U+2D61

ⵡ w ۉ w yaw

U+2D62

ⵢ y ي j yay

U+2D63

ⵣ z ز z yaz

U+2D64

ⵤ z ز z Tawellemet yaz = Harpoon yaz

U+2D65

ⵥ ẓ ژ zˤ yaẓ

U+2D66

ⵦ e

e ye (APT)

U+2D67

ⵧ o

o yo (APT)

U+2D6F

ⵯ +ʷ + ٗ ʷ Labio-velarization mark = Tamatart ≈ 2D61

DIGRAPHS (FOR WHICH LIGATURES ARE POSSIBLE)

UNICODE IMAGE FONT TRANSLITERATION NAME

LATIN ARABIC IPA

U+2D5C U+2D59

ⵜⵙ ts تس t͡s yats

U+2D37 U+2D63

ⴷⵣ dz دز d͡z yadz

UNICODE IMAGE FONT TRANSLITERATION NAME

LATIN ARABIC IPA

U+2D5C U+2D5B

ⵜⵛ ch (tš) تش t͡ʃ yatš

U+2D37 U+2D4A

ⴷⵊ dj دج d͡ʒ yadj

COLOR KEY Basic Tifinagh
Tifinagh
(IRCAM ) Extended Tifinagh
Tifinagh
(IRCAM) Other Tifinagh
Tifinagh
letters Modern Tuareg letters

UNICODE

Main article: Tifinagh
Tifinagh
( Unicode
Unicode
block)

Tifinagh
Tifinagh
was added to the Unicode
Unicode
Standard in March, 2005 with the release of version 4.1.

The Unicode
Unicode
block for Tifinagh
Tifinagh
is U+2D30–U+2D7F:

TIFINAGH Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+2D3x ⴰ ⴱ ⴲ ⴳ ⴴ ⴵ ⴶ ⴷ ⴸ ⴹ ⴺ ⴻ ⴼ ⴽ ⴾ ⴿ

U+2D4x ⵀ ⵁ ⵂ ⵃ ⵄ ⵅ ⵆ ⵇ ⵈ ⵉ ⵊ ⵋ ⵌ ⵍ ⵎ ⵏ

U+2D5x ⵐ ⵑ ⵒ ⵓ ⵔ ⵕ ⵖ ⵗ ⵘ ⵙ ⵚ ⵛ ⵜ ⵝ ⵞ ⵟ

U+2D6x ⵠ ⵡ ⵢ ⵣ ⵤ ⵥ ⵦ ⵧ

U+2D7x ⵰

⵿

NOTES 1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

REFERENCES

* ^ To a limited extent: See Interview with Karl-G. Prasse and Penchoen (1973 :3) * ^ "Institut Royal de la Culture Amazighe". Ircam.ma. Retrieved 2015-07-14. * ^ "Institut Royal de la Culture Amazighe". Ircam.ma. Retrieved 2015-07-14. * ^ Penchoen (1973 :3) * ^ O\'Connor (2006 :115) * ^ A B M.C.A. MacDonald (2005). Elizabeth A. Slater, C.B. Mee and Piotr Bienkowski, ed. Writing and Ancient Near East Society: Essays in Honor of Alan Millard. T.& T.Clark Ltd. p. 60. ISBN 9780567026910 . * ^ Suleiman, Yasir (1996). Language and Identity in the Middle East and North Africa. Psychology Press. p. 173. ISBN 978-0-7007-0410-1 . * ^ "Berber". Ancient Scripts. Retrieved 2013-04-30. * ^ Briggs, L. Cabot (February 1957). "A Review of the Physical Anthropology of the Sahara and Its Prehistoric Implications". Man. 56: 20–23. JSTOR
JSTOR
2793877 . * ^ "Rapport sur le calvaire de l’écriture en Tifinagh
Tifinagh
au Maroc". Amazighworld.org. Retrieved 2015-07-14. * ^ سلطات الامن الليبية تمنع نشر الملصق الرسمي لمهرجان الزي التقليدي بكباو (IN ARABIC). TAWALT. 2007. * ^ " Libya TV – News in Berber". Blip.tv. Retrieved 2015-07-14. * ^ "Polices et Claviers Unicode" (in French). IRCAM . Retrieved August 20, 2012.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Aghali-Zakara, Mohamed (1994). Graphèmes berbères et dilemme de diffusion: Interaction des alphabets latin, ajami et tifinagh. Etudes et Documents Berbères 11, 107-121. * Aghali-Zakara, Mohamed; and Drouin, Jeanine (1977). Recherches sur les Tifinaghs- Eléments graphiques et sociolinguistiques. Comptes-rendus du Groupe Linguistique des Etudes Chamito-Sémitiques (GLECS). * Ameur, Meftaha (1994). Diversité des transcriptions : pour une notation usuelle et normalisée de la langue berbère. Etudes et Documents Berbères 11, 25–28. * Boukous, Ahmed (1997). Situation sociolinguistique de l’Amazigh. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 123, 41–60. * Chaker, Salem (1994). Pour une notation usuelle à base Tifinagh. Etudes et Documents Berbères 11, 31–42. * Chaker, Salem (1996). Propositions pour la notation usuelle à base latine du berbère. Etudes et Documents Berbères 14, 239–253. * Chaker, Salem (1997). La Kabylie: un processus de développement linguistique autonome. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 123, 81–99. * Durand, O. (1994). Promotion du berbère : problèmes de standardisation et d’orthographe. Expériences européennes. Etudes et Documents Berbères 11, 7–11. * O’Connor, Michael (1996). The Berber scripts. The World’s Writing Systems, ed. by William Bright and Peter Daniels, 112–116. New York: Oxford University Press. * Penchoen, Thomas G. (1973). Tamazight of the Ayt Ndhir. Los Angeles: Undena Publications. * Savage, Andrew. 2008. Writing Tuareg – the three script options. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 192: 5–14 * Souag, Lameen (2004). "Writing Berber Languages: a quick summary". L. Souag. Archived from the original on 2004-12-05. Retrieved 28 June 2014. * Encyclopaedia of Islam
Encyclopaedia of Islam
, s.v. Tifinagh.

EXTERNAL LINKS