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Tibetan (Citipati mask depicting Mahākāla

Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
is the form of Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhist
Buddhist
doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas
Himalayas
and much of Central Asia. It derives from the latest stages of Indian Buddhism
Buddhism
and preserves "the Tantric status quo of eighth-century India."[1] It has been spread outside of Tibet, especially due to the Mongol power of the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), founded by Kublai Khan, that also ruled China. Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
applies Tantric practices, especially deity yoga, and aspires to Buddhahood
Buddhahood
or the rainbow body.[2] Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
in Tibet
Tibet
has four major schools, namely Nyingma, Kagyu, Sakya
Sakya
and Gelug (developed out of Sakya). The Jonang
Jonang
is a smaller school, and the Rimé movement
Rimé movement
is an eclectic movement involving the Sakya, Kagyu
Kagyu
and Nyingma
Nyingma
schools. Among the prominent proponents of Tibetan Buddhism are the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
and Panchen Lama, the leaders of Gelug
Gelug
school in Tibet.

Contents

1 Nomenclature 2 History

2.1 Tibetan Empire
Tibetan Empire
- first dissemination (7th-9th century) 2.2 Era of fragmentation (9th-10th century) 2.3 Tibetan Renaissance - second dissemination (10th-12th century) 2.4 Mongol dominance (13th-14th century) 2.5 Tibetan autonomy (14th-18th century)

2.5.1 Family rule and establishment of Gelugpa school (14th-17th century) 2.5.2 Ganden Phodrang
Ganden Phodrang
government (17th-18th century)

2.6 Qing rule (18th-20th century) 2.7 Modern history - 20th-21st century

3 Doctrine

3.1 Buddhahood
Buddhahood
and Bodhisattvas 3.2 Lamrim 3.3 The Tantric view 3.4 Reincarnated lamas

4 Texts and study

4.1 Transmission and realization

5 Practices

5.1 Rites and rituals 5.2 Preliminary practices and approach to Vajrayāna 5.3 Paramita and Compassion 5.4 Samatha
Samatha
and Vipaśyanā 5.5 Guru 5.6 Esotericism 5.7 Mantra 5.8 Tantric Yoga

6 Schools

6.1 Nyingma 6.2 Kadampa 6.3 Sakya

6.3.1 Jonang

6.4 Kagyu 6.5 Gelug

6.5.1 New Kadampa
Kadampa
Tradition

6.6 Rimé movement 6.7 Old Translation, New Translation

7 Women in Tibetan Buddhism 8 Glossary of terms used 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Sources 13 Further reading 14 External links

Nomenclature[edit] Westerners unfamiliar with Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
initially turned to China for an understanding. There the term used was "lamaism" (literally, "doctrine of the lamas": lama jiao) to distinguish it from a then traditional Chinese form (fo jiao). The term was taken up by western scholars including Hegel, as early as 1822.[3] Insofar as it implies a discontinuity between Indian and Tibetan Buddhism, the term has been discredited.[4] Another term, "Vajrayāna" is occasionally used mistakenly for Tibetan Buddhism. More accurately, it signifies a certain subset of practices included in, not only Tibetan Buddhism, but other forms of Buddhism
Buddhism
as well. The native Tibetan term for all Buddhism
Buddhism
is "doctrine of the internalists" (nang-pa'i chos: …of those who emphasise introspection). There is a "close association between the religious and the secular the spiritual and the temporal" [5] in Tibet. The term for this relationship is chos srid zung 'brel. In the west the term "Indo-Tibetan Buddhism" has become current, in acknowledgement of its derivation from the latest stages of Buddhist development in northern India.[6] History[edit] Main article: History of Tibetan Buddhism Tibetan Empire
Tibetan Empire
- first dissemination (7th-9th century)[edit] Main article: Tibetan Empire Buddhism
Buddhism
was formally introduced into Tibet
Tibet
during the Tibetan Empire (7th-9th century CE). Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Buddhist
Buddhist
scriptures from India were first translated into Tibetan under the reign of the Tibetan king Songtsän Gampo
Songtsän Gampo
(618-649),[7] In the 8th century King Trisong Detsen (755-797) established it as the official religion of the state.[8] Trisong Detsen
Trisong Detsen
invited Indian Buddhist
Buddhist
scholars to his court, including Padmasambhāva (8th century) and Śāntarakṣita (725–788)), who founded the Nyingma, The Ancient Ones, the oldest school of Tibetan Buddhism.[9] There was also influence from the Sarvāstivādins from Kashmir to the southwest[10] and Khotan
Khotan
to the northwest.[11] Trisong Detsen
Trisong Detsen
also invited the Chan master Moheyan[note 1] to transmit the Dharma
Dharma
at Samye Monastery. According to Tibetan sources, Moheyan
Moheyan
lost the socalled council of Lhasa
Lhasa
(793), a debate sponsored by Trisong Detsen
Trisong Detsen
on the nature of emptiness with the Indian master Kamalaśīla, and the king declared Kamalaśīlas philosophy should form the basis for Tibetan Buddhism.[12][13][note 2][note 3] Era of fragmentation (9th-10th century)[edit] A reversal in Buddhist
Buddhist
influence began under King Langdarma (r. 836-842), and his death was followed by the socalled Era of Fragmentation, a period of Tibetan history in the 9th and 10th centuries. During this era, the political centralization of the earlier Tibetan Empire
Tibetan Empire
collapsed.[16] Tibetan Renaissance - second dissemination (10th-12th century)[edit]

Atiśa

The late 10th and 11th century saw a revival of Buddhism
Buddhism
in Tibet. Coinciding with the early discoveries of "hidden treasures" (terma),[17] the 11th century saw a revival of Buddhist
Buddhist
influence originating in the far east and far west of Tibet.[18] In the west, Rinchen Zangpo
Rinchen Zangpo
(958-1055) was active as a translator and founded temples and monasteries. Prominent scholars and teachers were again invited from India. In 1042 Atiśa
Atiśa
(982-1054 CE) arrived in Tibet
Tibet
at the invitation of a west Tibetan king. This renowned exponent of the Pāla form of Buddhism
Buddhism
from the Indian university of Vikramashila
Vikramashila
later moved to central Tibet. There his chief disciple, Dromtonpa founded the Kadampa school of Tibetan Buddhism, under whose influence the New Translation schools of today evolved. The Sakya, the Grey Earth school, was founded by Khön Könchok Gyelpo (Wylie: 'khon dkon mchog rgyal po, 1034–1102), a disciple of the great Lotsawa, Drogmi Shākya (Wylie: brog mi lo tsā wa ye shes). It is headed by the Sakya
Sakya
Trizin, traces its lineage to the mahasiddha Virūpa,[9] and represents the scholarly tradition. A renowned exponent, Sakya
Sakya
Pandita (1182–1251CE), was the great-grandson of Khön Könchok Gyelpo. Other seminal Indian teachers were Tilopa (988–1069) and his student Naropa
Naropa
(probably died ca. 1040 CE).The Kagyu, the Lineage of the (Buddha's) Word, is an oral tradition which is very much concerned with the experiential dimension of meditation. Its most famous exponent was Milarepa, an 11th-century mystic. It contains one major and one minor subsect. The first, the Dagpo Kagyu, encompasses those Kagyu
Kagyu
schools that trace back to the Indian master Naropa
Naropa
via Marpa Lotsawa, Milarepa
Milarepa
and Gampopa[9] Mongol dominance (13th-14th century)[edit] Main article: Yuan dynasty Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
exerted a strong influence from the 11th century CE among the peoples of Inner Asia, especially the Mongols. The Mongols invaded Tibet
Tibet
in 1240[19][20] and 1244.[21] The Mongols
Mongols
had annexed Amdo
Amdo
and Kham
Kham
to the east. Sakya
Sakya
Paṇḍita was appointed Viceroy of Central Tibet
Tibet
by the Mongol court in 1249.[22] Tibet
Tibet
was incorporated into the Mongol Empire, retaining nominal power over religious and regional political affairs, while the Mongols managed a structural and administrative[23][24] rule over the region, reinforced by the rare military intervention. Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
was adopted as the de facto state religion by the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), founded by Kublai Khan, whose capital is Xanadu (Beijing, China).[25] Tibetan autonomy (14th-18th century)[edit] With the decline of the Yuan dynansty and the loose administration of the following (Han-Chinese) Ming dynasty, Central Tibet
Tibet
was ruled by successive local families from the 14th to the 17th century, and Tibet would gain de facto a high autonomy after the 14th century.[26] Family rule and establishment of Gelugpa school (14th-17th century)[edit] Main articles: Phagmodrupa Dynasty, Rinpungpa, and Tsangpa Jangchub Gyaltsän (Byang chub rgyal mtshan, 1302–1364) became the strongest political family in the mid 14th century.[27] During this period the reformist scholar Je Tsongkhapa
Je Tsongkhapa
(1357–1419) founded the Gelug
Gelug
sect which would have a decisive influence on Tibet's history. Internal strife within the Phagmodrupa dynasty, and the strong localism of the various fiefs and political-religious factions, led to a long series of internal conflicts. The minister family Rinpungpa, based in Tsang (West Central Tibet), dominated politics after 1435. In 1565 the Rinpungpa
Rinpungpa
family was overthrown by the Tsangpa
Tsangpa
Dynasty of Shigatse
Shigatse
which expanded its power in different directions of Tibet
Tibet
in the following decades and favoured the Karma
Karma
Kagyu
Kagyu
sect. They would play a pivotal role in the events which led to the rise of power of the Dalai Lama's in the 1640s. Ganden Phodrang
Ganden Phodrang
government (17th-18th century)[edit] Main article: Ganden Phodrang The Ganden Phodrang
Ganden Phodrang
was the Tibetan regime that was established by the 5th Dalai Lama
5th Dalai Lama
with the help of the Güshi Khan of the Khoshut Mongols in 1642. After the civil war in the 17th century and the Mongol intervention, the Gelugpa school dominated Tibetan Buddhism, and successive Dalai Lamas and Panchans ruled Tibet
Tibet
as regional governance from the mid-17th to mid-20th centuries. Qing rule (18th-20th century)[edit] The Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
(1644-1912) established a Chinese full rule over Tibet
Tibet
after a Qing expedition force defeated the Dzungars (who controlled Tibet) in 1720, and lasted until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912.[28] The Manchu rulers of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
supported Tibetan Buddhism, especially the Gelug
Gelug
sect, for most times of their dynasty of China.[25] The Rimé movement
Rimé movement
was a 19th-century movement involving the Sakya, Kagyu
Kagyu
and Nyingma
Nyingma
schools of Tibetan Buddhism, along with some Bon scholars.[29] Having seen how the Gelug
Gelug
institutions pushed the other traditions into the corners of Tibet's cultural life, Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo (1820-1892) and Jamgön Kongtrül (1813-1899) compiled together the teachings of the Sakya, Kagyu
Kagyu
and Nyingma, including many near-extinct teachings.[30] Without Khyentse and Kongtrul's collecting and printing of rare works, the suppression of Buddhism
Buddhism
by the Communists would have been much more final.[31] The Rimé movement
Rimé movement
is responsible for a number of scriptural compilations, such as the Rinchen Terdzod and the Sheja Dzö. Modern history - 20th-21st century[edit]

The 14th Dalai Lama
14th Dalai Lama
meeting with U.S. President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in 2014. Due to his widespread popularity, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
has become the modern international face of Tibetan Buddhism.[32]

In 1912, following the fall of the Qing Dynasty, Tibet
Tibet
became de facto independent under the 13th Dalai Lama
13th Dalai Lama
government based in Lhasa, maintaining the current territory of what is now called the Tibetan Autonomous Region.[33] After the Battle of Chamdo Tibet
Tibet
was annexed by the Chinese People's republic in 1950. In 1959 the 14th Dalai Lama
14th Dalai Lama
and a great number of clergy fled the country, to settle in India and other neighbouring countries. The events of the Cultural Revolution (1966–76) saw religion as one of the main political targets of the Chinese Communist Party and most of the several thousand temples and monasteries in Tibet
Tibet
were destroyed, with many monks and lamas imprisoned.[34] Outside of Tibet
Tibet
however there was a renewed interest in Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
in places such as Nepal
Nepal
and Bhutan, while the spread of Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
in the Western world was accomplished by many of the refugee Tibetan Lamas who escaped Tibet.[34] After the liberalization policies in China
China
during the 1980s, the religion began to recover with some temples and monasteries being reconstructed.[35] Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
is now an influential religion among educated Chinese and also in Taiwan.[35] Today, Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
is adhered to widely in the Tibetan Plateau, Mongolia, northern Nepal, Kalmykia
Kalmykia
(on the north-west shore of the Caspian), Siberia
Siberia
( Tuva
Tuva
and Buryatia), the Russian Far East
Russian Far East
and northeast China. It is the state religion of Bhutan.[36] The Indian regions of Sikkim
Sikkim
and Ladakh, both formerly independent kingdoms, are also home to significant Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
populations, as are the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
(which includes Dharamshala
Dharamshala
and the district of Lahaul-Spiti), West Bengal
West Bengal
(the hill stations of Darjeeling
Darjeeling
and Kalimpong) and Arunachal Pradesh. In the wake of the Tibetan diaspora, Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
has gained adherents in the West and throughout the world. Fully ordained Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
Monks now work in academia.[37] Geoffrey Samuel sees the character of Tibetan Buddhism in the West
Buddhism in the West
as

...that of a national or international network, generally centred around the teachings of a single individual lama. Among the larger ones are the FPMT, which I have already mentioned, now headed by Lama Zopa and the child-reincarnation of Lama
Lama
Yeshe; the New Kadampa, in origin a break-away from the FPMT; the Shambhala
Shambhala
network, deriving from Chögyam Trungpa
Chögyam Trungpa
's organization and now headed by his son; and the networks associated with Namkhai Norbu
Namkhai Norbu
Rinpoche
Rinpoche
(the Dzogchen Community) and Sogyal Rinpoche
Rinpoche
(Rigpa).[38]

Doctrine[edit] Main article: Buddhist_philosophy § Tibetan_Buddhist_philosophy

Monks debating in Drepung Monastery

Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
is the dominant Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
of Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
and is generally seen as the highest view, but is interpreted in various ways. Shunyata, the true nature of reality, or the emptiness of inherent existence of all things, is traditionally propounded according to a hierarchical classification of four classical Indian philosophical schools. While the classical tenets-system, as propagated by the Gelugpa, is limited to four tenets (Vaibhāṣika, Sautrāntika, Yogācāra, and Madhyamaka), more complicated systems include also the shentong-view of the Jonang
Jonang
and the Kagyu, and also differentiates between the radical emptiness of the Gelugpa-school, and the experiential emptiness of the Nyingma
Nyingma
and the Shakya.[39] Two belong to the path referred to as the Hinayana, but do not include Theravada, the only surviving of the 18 classical schools of Buddhism:[40]

Vaibhāṣika (Wylie: bye brag smra ba). The primary source for the Vaibhāṣika is the Abhidharma-kośa
Abhidharma-kośa
of Vasubandhu
Vasubandhu
and its commentaries. This system affirms an atomistic view of reality as well the view that perception directly experiences external objects.[41] Sautrāntika (Wylie: mdo sde pa). The Abhidharmakośa was also an important source for the Sautrāntikas. Dignāga
Dignāga
and Dharmakīrti are the most prominent exponents. As opposed to Vaibhāṣika, this view holds that we do not directly perceive the external world, only phenomenal forms caused by objects and our senses.[41]

The other two are Mahayana:

Yogācāra, also called Cittamātra "Mind-Only" (Wylie: sems-tsam-pa). Yogacārins base their views on texts from Maitreya, Asaṅga and Vasubandhu. Yogacara
Yogacara
is often interpreted as a form of Idealism.[41] The system is entirely rejected by the Gelugpa, but elements of it form part of the teachings of the other schools.[42] Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
(Wylie: dbu-ma-pa) - The philosophy of Nāgārjuna and Āryadeva, which affirms that everything is empty of essence (svabhava) and is ultimately beyond concepts.[41]

Rangtong, a term introduced by Dolpopa, which rejects any inherent existing self or nature.[43] This includes:

Svatantrika

Sautrantika Svātantrika Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
- Bhāviveka Yogācāra Svātantrika Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
- Śāntarakṣita
Śāntarakṣita
and Kamalaśīla, the oldest Buddhist
Buddhist
teachings to be introduced in Tibet[44]

Prasaṅgika, based on Buddhapālita
Buddhapālita
and Candrakīrti. Within prasangika, a further division can be made:

Intellectual emptiness, which is realized by absolute denial. This is the view of Tsong Khapa and the Gelugpa school, which rejects any statements on an absolute reality beyond mere emptiness.[45] Experiential emptiness, which is realized when the understanding of intellectual emptiness gives way to the recognition of the true nature of mind, c.q. rigpa. This is the view of Nyingma
Nyingma
(Dzogchen) and Sakya.[45]

Shentong, systematised by Dolpopa, and based on Buddha-nature teachings and influenced by Śāntarakṣita's Yogacara-Madhyamaka. It states that the nature of mind shines through when emptiness has been realized. This approach is dominant in the Jonang
Jonang
school, and can also be found in the Kagyu
Kagyu
(Mahamudra) tradition.[46][47][48]

The tenet systems are being used in the monasteries and colleges to teach Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
in a systematic and progressive fashion, each philosophical view being more subtle than its predecessor. Therefore, the four schools can be seen as a gradual path from a rather easy-to-grasp, "realistic" philosophical point of view, to more and more complex and subtle views on the ultimate nature of reality, that is on emptiness and dependent arising, culminating in the philosophy of the Mādhyamikas, which is widely believed to present the most sophisticated point of view.[49] Non-Tibetan scholars point out that historically, Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
predates Cittamātra, however.[50] Buddhahood
Buddhahood
and Bodhisattvas[edit]

Vajradhara
Vajradhara
(Holder of the Thunderbolt) or (Tibetan) Dorje Chang with his consort, Sino-Tibetan culture, early 19th century, copper alloy, black and red lacquer, gilt.

Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
comprises the teachings of the three vehicles of Buddhism: the Foundational Vehicle, Mahāyāna, and Vajrayāna. The Mahāyāna
Mahāyāna
goal of spiritual development is to achieve the enlightenment of buddhahood in order to most efficiently help all other sentient beings attain this state.[51] The motivation in it is the bodhicitta mind of enlightenment — an altruistic intention to become enlightened for the sake of all sentient beings.[52] Bodhisattvas are revered beings who have conceived the will and vow to dedicate their lives with bodhicitta for the sake of all beings. Widely revered Bodhisattvas in Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
include Avalokiteshvara, Manjushri, Vajrapani, and Tara. Buddhahood
Buddhahood
is defined as a state free of the obstructions to liberation as well as those to omniscience.[53] When one is freed from all mental obscurations,[54] one is said to attain a state of continuous bliss mixed with a simultaneous cognition of emptiness,[55] the true nature of reality.[56] In this state, all limitations on one's ability to help other living beings are removed.[57] Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
claims to teach methods for achieving Buddhahood
Buddhahood
more quickly (known as the Vajrayāna
Vajrayāna
path).[58] It is said that there are countless beings who have attained buddhahood.[59] Buddhas spontaneously, naturally and continuously perform activities to benefit all sentient beings.[60] However it is believed that one's karma could limit the ability of the Buddhas to help them. Thus, although Buddhas possess no limitation from their side on their ability to help others, sentient beings continue to experience suffering as a result of the limitations of their own former negative actions.[61] Lamrim[edit] Main article: Lamrim Lamrim
Lamrim
(Tibetan: "stages of the path") is a Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
textual form for presenting the stages in the complete path to liberation as taught by Buddha. In Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
history there have been many different versions of lamrim, presented by different teachers of the Nyingma, Kagyu
Kagyu
and Gelug
Gelug
schools.[62] However, all versions of the lamrim are elaborations of Atiśa's 11th-century root text A Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment (Bodhipathapradīpa).[63] Atisha's lamrim system generally divides practitioners into those of lesser, middling and superior scopes or attitudes:

The lesser person is to focus on the preciousness of human birth as well as contemplation of death and impermanence. The middling person is taught to contemplate karma, dukkha (suffering) and the benefits of liberation and refuge. The superior scope is said to encompass the four Brahmaviharas, the bodhisattva vow, the six paramitas as well as Tantric practices.[64]

Although lamrim texts cover much the same subject areas, subjects within them may be arranged in different ways and with different emphasis depending on the school and tradition it belongs to. Gampopa and Tsongkhapa
Tsongkhapa
expanded the short root-text of Atiśa
Atiśa
into an extensive system to understand the entire Buddhist
Buddhist
philosophy. In this way, subjects like karma, rebirth, Buddhist cosmology
Buddhist cosmology
and the practice of meditation are gradually explained in logical order. The Tantric view[edit] Being a form of Vajrayana
Vajrayana
( Vajra
Vajra
vehicle) or Buddhist
Buddhist
Tantra, Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
doctrine also differs from non-Tantric forms of Buddhism
Buddhism
in that it affirms the views espoused in the texts known as the Buddhist Tantras (dating from around the 7th century CE onwards).[65] Tantra (Tibetan: rgyud) generally refers to forms of religious practice which emphasize the use of unique visualizations, ideas, symbols and rituals for inner transformation.[66] The Vajrayana
Vajrayana
is seen by its adherents as the fastest and most powerful vehicle for enlightenment because it contains many special techniques and because it takes the effect ( Buddhahood
Buddhahood
itself, or Buddha nature) as the path (and hence is sometimes known as the "effect vehicle").[67] These texts also generally affirm the use of sense pleasures in Tantric ritual as a path to enlightenment, as opposed to non-Tantric Buddhism
Buddhism
which affirms that one must renounce all sense pleasures.[68] These practices are based on the theory of transformation which states that negative or sensual mental factors and physical actions can be cultivated and transformed in a ritual setting, the Hevajra tantra states:

Those things by which evil men are bound, others turn into means and gain thereby release from the bonds of existence. By passion the world is bound, by passion too it is released, but by heretical Buddhists this practice of reversals is not known.[69]

Another element of the Tantras is their use of transgressive practices, such as drinking alcohol or sexual yoga. While in many cases these transgressions were interpreted only symbolically, in other cases they are practiced literally.[70] Reincarnated lamas[edit] Significant genuine innovations in Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
have been few.[71] Although the system of incarnate lamas[note 4] is popularly held to be an innovation, it is disputable that this is a distinctly Tibetan development. Two centuries before Buddhism
Buddhism
was introduced to Tibet, in the fifth century CE, the Abhidharma
Abhidharma
teacher Buddhaghoṣa
Buddhaghoṣa
was declared by Sri Lankan elders to be a reincarnation of the bodhisattva Maitreya.[72] Texts and study[edit]

Buddhist
Buddhist
monk Geshe
Geshe
Konchog Wangdu reads Mahayana sutras
Mahayana sutras
from an old woodblock copy of the Tibetan Kangyur

Main article: Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
canon Study of major Buddhist
Buddhist
Indian texts is central to the monastic curriculum in all four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. Memorization of classic texts as well as other ritual texts is expected as part of traditional monastic education.[73] The main liturgical language is classical Tibetan. Another important part of higher religious education was the practice of formalized debate. Since the late 11th century, traditional Tibetan monastic colleges generally organized the exoteric study of Buddhism
Buddhism
into "five great textual traditions" (zhungchen-nga).[74]

Abhidharma

Asanga's Abhidharma-samuccaya Vasubandhu's Abhidharma-kośa

Prajnaparamita

Abhisamayalankara Shantideva's Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra

Madhyamaka

Nagarjuna's Mūlamadhyamakakārikā Aryadeva's Four Hundred Verses (Catuhsataka) Candrakīrti's Madhyamakāvatāra Śāntarakṣita's Madhyamākalaṃkāra Shantideva's Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra

Pramana

Dharmakirti's Pramāṇavarttika Dignāga's Pramāṇa-samuccaya

Vinaya

Gunaprabha's Vinayamula Sutra

Also of great importance are the "Five Treatises of Maitreya" including the influential Ratnagotravibhāga and the Mahayanasutralankara which are often attributed to Asanga
Asanga
and focus on Yogacara
Yogacara
topics such as Buddha nature. Practiced focused texts such as the Yogacarabhumi and Kamalaśīla's Bhāvanākrama
Bhāvanākrama
are the major sources for meditation. The Buddhist
Buddhist
Tantras are another class of texts which form a whole other corpus of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition focusing on Tantra
Tantra
practices. While the Indian texts are often central, newer Tibetan material is also widely studied. The commentaries and interpretations that are used to shed light on these texts differ according to tradition. The Gelug
Gelug
school for example, use the works of Tsongkhapa, while other schools may use the more recent work of Rimé movement
Rimé movement
scholars like Jamgon Kongtrul
Jamgon Kongtrul
and Jamgon Ju Mipham Gyatso. A corpus of extra-canonical scripture, the treasure texts (terma) literature is acknowledged by Nyingma
Nyingma
practitioners, but the bulk of the canon that is not commentary was translated from Indian sources. True to its roots in the Pāla system of North India, however, Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
carries on a tradition of eclectic accumulation and systematisation of diverse Buddhist
Buddhist
elements, and pursues their synthesis. Prominent among these achievements have been the Stages of the Path and mind training, both stemming from teachings by the Indian pandit, Atiśa. Transmission and realization[edit] There is a long history of oral transmission of teachings in Tibetan Buddhism. Oral transmissions by lineage holders traditionally can take place in small groups or mass gatherings of listeners and may last for seconds (in the case of a mantra, for example) or months (as in the case of a section of the Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
canon). It is held that a transmission can even occur without actually hearing, as in Asanga's visions of Maitreya. An emphasis on oral transmission as more important than the printed word derives from the earliest period of Indian Buddhism, when it allowed teachings to be kept from those who should not hear them.[75] Hearing a teaching (transmission) readies the hearer for realization based on it. The person from whom one hears the teaching should have heard it as one link in a succession of listeners going back to the original speaker: the Buddha in the case of a sutra or the author in the case of a book. Then the hearing constitutes an authentic lineage of transmission. Authenticity of the oral lineage is a prerequisite for realization, hence the importance of lineages. Practices[edit] See also: Tantra
Tantra
techniques (Vajrayana)

Ritual musical instruments from Tibet; MIM Brussels.

Rites and rituals[edit]

The reading of the text - the 'lung' - during an empowerment for Chenrezig.

A common feature of Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
is the various rites and rituals used for various ends, such as purifying one's karma, avoiding harm from demonic forces and enemies, promoting successful harvest, and other worldly ends.[76] Traditionally, Tibetan lamas tended to the lay populace by helping them with spiritual and worldly issues such as protection and prosperity. The use of divination and exorcisms are some examples of the sorts of practices a lama might use for this.[77] Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
ritual is generally more elaborate than in other forms of Buddhism, with complex altar arrangements and works of art, many ritual objects, hand gestures (mudra), chants, and musical instruments.[68] A special kind of ritual called an initiation or empowerment (Sanskrit: Abhiseka, Tibetan: Wangkur) is central to Tantric practice. These rituals consecrate a practitioner into a particular Tantric practice associated with individual mandalas of deities and mantras. Without having gone through initiation, one is generally not allowed to practice the higher Tantras.[78] Another important ritual occasion in Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
is that of mortuary rituals which are supposed to assure that one has a positive rebirth and a good spiritual path in the future.[79] Of central importance to Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
Ars moriendi
Ars moriendi
is the idea of the Bardo (Sanskrit: antarābhava), the intermediate or liminal state between life and death.[79] Rituals and the readings of texts such as the Bardo
Bardo
Thodol are done to ensure that the dying person can navigate this intermediate state skillfully. Cremation
Cremation
and sky burial are traditionally the main funeral rites used to dispose of the body.[80] Preliminary practices and approach to Vajrayāna[edit] See also: Ngöndro

Buddhists performing prostrations in front of Jokhang
Jokhang
Monastery.

Vajrayāna
Vajrayāna
is believed by Tibetan Buddhists to be the fastest method for attaining Buddhahood
Buddhahood
but for unqualified practitioners it can be dangerous.[81] To engage in it one must receive an appropriate initiation (also known as an "empowerment") from a lama who is fully qualified to give it. From the time one has resolved to accept such an initiation, the utmost sustained effort in guru devotion is essential. The aim of preliminary practices (ngöndro) is to start the student on the correct path for such higher teachings.[82] Just as Sutrayāna preceded Vajrayāna
Vajrayāna
historically in India, so sutra practices constitute those that are preliminary to tantric ones. Preliminary practices include all Sutrayāna activities that yield merit like hearing teachings, prostrations, offerings, prayers and acts of kindness and compassion, but chief among the preliminary practices are realizations through meditation on the three principle stages of the path: renunciation, the altruistic bodhicitta wish to attain enlightenment and the wisdom realizing emptiness. For a person without the basis of these three in particular to practice Vajrayāna
Vajrayāna
can be like a small child trying to ride an unbroken horse.[83] While the practices of Vajrayāna
Vajrayāna
are not known in Sutrayāna, all Sutrayāna practices are common to Vajrayāna. Without training in the preliminary practices, the ubiquity of allusions to them in Vajrayāna is meaningless and even successful Vajrayāna
Vajrayāna
initiation becomes impossible. The merit acquired in the preliminary practices facilitates progress in Vajrayāna. While many Buddhists may spend a lifetime exclusively on sutra practices, however, an amalgam of the two to some degree is common. For example, in order to train in calm abiding, one might use a tantric visualisation as the meditation object. Paramita and Compassion[edit] Main article: Paramitas The paramitas (perfections) is a key set of virtues practiced in this tradition.

Dāna
Dāna
pāramitā: generosity, giving of oneself (Tibetan, སབྱིན་པ sbyin-pa) Śīla
Śīla
pāramitā : virtue, morality, discipline, proper conduct (ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས tshul-khrims) Kṣānti pāramitā : patience, tolerance, forbearance, acceptance, endurance (བཟོད་པ bzod-pa) Vīrya
Vīrya
pāramitā : energy, diligence, vigor, effort (བརྩོན་འགྲུས brtson-’grus) Dhyāna pāramitā : one-pointed concentration, contemplation (བསམ་གཏན bsam-gtan) Prajñā pāramitā : wisdom, insight (ཤེས་རབ shes-rab)

The practice of Dāna
Dāna
(giving) while traditionally referring to offerings of food to the monastics can also refer to the ritual offering of bowls of water, incense, butter lamps and flowers to the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas on an shrine or household altar.[84] Similar offerings are also given to other beings such as hungry ghosts, dakinis, protector deities, local divinities etc. Like other forms of Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism, the practice of the five precepts and Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
vows is part of Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
moral (sila) practice. In addition to these, there are also numerous sets of Tantric vows, termed Samaya, which are given as part of Tantric initiations. Compassion (Karuṇā) practices are also particularly important in Tibetan Buddhism. One of the foremost authoritative texts on the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
path is the Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra
Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra
by Shantideva. In the eighth section entitled Meditative Concentration, Shantideva
Shantideva
describes meditation on Karunā as thus:

Strive at first to meditate upon the sameness of yourself and others. In joy and sorrow all are equal; Thus be guardian of all, as of yourself. The hand and other limbs are many and distinct, But all are one--the body to kept and guarded. Likewise, different beings, in their joys and sorrows, are, like me, all one in wanting happiness. This pain of mine does not afflict or cause discomfort to another's body, and yet this pain is hard for me to bear because I cling and take it for my own. And other beings' pain I do not feel, and yet, because I take them for myself, their suffering is mine and therefore hard to bear. And therefore I'll dispel the pain of others, for it is simply pain, just like my own. And others I will aid and benefit, for they are living beings, like my body. Since I and other beings both, in wanting happiness, are equal and alike, what difference is there to distinguish us, that I should strive to have my bliss alone?"[85]

A popular compassion meditation in Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
is Tonglen (sending and taking love and suffering respectively). Samatha
Samatha
and Vipaśyanā[edit]

Young monk in meditation retreat, Yerpa, Tibet
Tibet
in 1993

Traditionally, Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
follows the two main approaches to meditation as taught in all forms of Buddhism, śamatha (Tib. Shine) and vipaśyanā (Tib. lhaktong). The practice of śamatha (calm abiding) is one of focusing one's mind on a single object such as a Buddha figure or the breath. Through repeated practice one's mind gradually becomes more stable, calm and happy. The nine stages of training the mind is the main progressive framework used for śamatha in Tibetan Buddhism. The other form of Buddhist meditation
Buddhist meditation
is vipaśyanā (clear seeing, insight). This is generally seen as having two aspects, one of which is analytic meditation, thinking rationally about ideas and concepts in a scholarly or philosophical manner. As part of this process, entertaining doubts and engaging in internal debate over them is encouraged in some traditions.[86] The other type of vipaśyanā is a non-analytical, "simple" yogic style called trömeh in Tibetan, which means "without complication".[87] A meditation routine may involve alternating sessions of vipaśyanā to achieve deeper levels of realization, and samatha to consolidate them.[56] Guru[edit] See also: Guru
Guru
in Buddhism As in other Buddhist
Buddhist
traditions, an attitude of reverence for the teacher, or guru, is also highly prized.[88] At the beginning of a public teaching, a lama will do prostrations to the throne on which he will teach due to its symbolism, or to an image of the Buddha behind that throne, then students will do prostrations to the lama after he is seated. Merit accrues when one's interactions with the teacher are imbued with such reverence in the form of guru devotion, a code of practices governing them that derives from Indian sources.[89] By such things as avoiding disturbance to the peace of mind of one's teacher, and wholeheartedly following his prescriptions, much merit accrues and this can significantly help improve one's practice. There is a general sense in which any Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
teacher is called a lama. A student may have taken teachings from many authorities and revere them all as lamas in this general sense. However, he will typically have one held in special esteem as his own root guru and is encouraged to view the other teachers who are less dear to him, however more exalted their status, as embodied in and subsumed by the root guru.[90] One particular feature of the Tantric view of teacher student relationship is that in Tibetan Buddhist Tantra, one is instructed to regard one's guru as an awakened Buddha.[91] Esotericism[edit]

A sand mandala

In Vajrayāna
Vajrayāna
particularly, Tibetan Buddhists subscribe to a voluntary code of self-censorship, whereby the uninitiated do not seek and are not provided with information about it. This self-censorship may be applied more or less strictly depending on circumstances such as the material involved. A depiction of a mandala may be less public than that of a deity. That of a higher tantric deity may be less public than that of a lower. The degree to which information on Vajrayāna
Vajrayāna
is now public in western languages is controversial among Tibetan Buddhists. Buddhism
Buddhism
has always had a taste for esotericism since its earliest period in India.[92] Tibetans today maintain greater or lesser degrees of confidentiality also with information on the vinaya and emptiness specifically. In Buddhist
Buddhist
teachings generally, too, there is caution about revealing information to people who may be unready for it. Mantra[edit]

An elderly Tibetan woman with a prayer wheel inscribed with mantras

The use of (mainly Sanskrit) prayer formulas, incantations or phrases called mantras (Tibetan: sngags) is another widespread feature of Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
practice.[91] So common is the use of mantras that Vajrayana
Vajrayana
is also sometimes called "Mantrayana" (the mantra vehicle). Mantras
Mantras
are widely recited, chanted, written or inscribed, and visualized as part of different forms of meditation. Each mantra has symbolic meaning and will often have a connection to a particular Buddha or Bodhisattva.[93] Each deity's mantra is seen as symbolizing the function, speech and power of the deity.[94] Tibetan Buddhist practitioners repeat mantras in order to train the mind, and transform their thoughts in line with the divine qualities of the mantra's deity and special power.[95] Tibetan Buddhists see the etymology of the term mantra as meaning "mind protector", and mantras is seen as a way to guard the mind against negativity.[96] According to Lama
Lama
Zopa Rinpoche:

Mantras
Mantras
are effective because they help keep your mind quiet and peaceful, automatically integrating it into one-pointedness. They make your mind receptive to very subtle vibrations and thereby heighten your perception. Their recitation eradicates gross negativities and the true nature of things can then be reflected in your mind’s resulting clarity. By practising a transcendental mantra, you can in fact purify all the defiled energy of your body, speech, and mind.[97]

Mantras
Mantras
also serve to focus the mind as a samatha (calming) practice as well as a way to transform the mind through the symbolic meaning of the mantra. In Buddhism, it is important to have the proper intention, focus and faith when practicing mantras, if one does not, they will not work. Unlike in Hinduism, mantras are not believed to have inherent power of their own, and thus without the proper faith, intention and mental focus, they are just mere sounds.[98] Thus according to the Tibetan philosopher Jamgon Ju Mipham:

if a mantra is thought to be something ordinary and not seen for what it is, it will not be able to perform its intended function. Mantras are like non-conceptual wish-fulfilling jewels. Infusing one's being with the blessings of mantra, like the form of a moon reflected on a body of water, necessitates the presence of faith and other conditions that set the stage for the spiritual attainments of mantra. Just as the moon's reflection cannot appear without water, mantras cannot function without the presence of faith and other such factors in one's being.[99]

Mantras
Mantras
are part of the highest tantric practices in Tibetan Buddhism, such as Deity Yoga
Yoga
and are recited and visualized during tantric sadhanas. Thus, Tsongkhapa
Tsongkhapa
says that mantra "protects the mind from ordinary appearances and conceptions".[100] This is because in Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
Tantric praxis, one must develop a sense that everything is divine (divine pride). Tantric Yoga[edit] See also: Deity yoga

Chöd
Chöd
ritual, note the use of Damaru
Damaru
drum and hand-bell, as well as the Kangling
Kangling
(thighbone trumpet).

In what is called higher yoga tantra the emphasis is on various yoga practices which allow the practitioner to realize the true nature of reality.[70] Deity Yoga
Yoga
(Tibetan: lha'i rnal 'byor; Sanskrit: Devata-yoga) is the fundamental, defining practice of Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
involving visualization of mental images. According to the Tibetan scholar Tsongkhapa, deity yoga is what separates Buddhist
Buddhist
Tantra
Tantra
practice from the practice of other Buddhist
Buddhist
schools.[101] Deity yoga
Deity yoga
involves two stages, the generation stage and the completion stage. In the generation stage, one dissolves the mundane world and visualizes one's chosen deity (yidam), its mandala and companion deities, resulting in identification with this divine reality.[102] In the completion stage, one dissolves the visualization of and identification with the yidam in the realization of sunyata or emptiness. Completion stage
Completion stage
practices can also include subtle body energy practices,[103] as well as other practices such as the Six Yogas of Naropa. The views and practices associated with Dzogchen
Dzogchen
and Mahamudra
Mahamudra
are often seen as the culmination of the tantric path.[104] These practices focus on the very nature of reality and experience, termed dharmakaya. Schools[edit]

(Adapted, with modifications, from yogi Milarepa, by W. Y. Evans-Wentz (1928), p. 14)

The diagram to the right shows the growth of Tibetan Buddhist traditions. The four main ones overlap markedly, such that "about eighty percent or more of the features of the Tibetan schools are the same".[105] Differences include the use of apparently, but not actually, contradictory terminology, opening dedications of texts to different deities and whether phenomena are described from the viewpoint of an unenlightened practitioner or of a Buddha.[105] On questions of philosophy the inclusion (Nyingma, Sakya, Jonang, Kagyu) or exclusion (Gelugpa) of Yogacara
Yogacara
and Buddha-nature
Buddha-nature
teachings has been a historical divide between schools, which still colours the approaches to sunyata and ultimate reality.[106][47][48] The 19th century Rimé movement
Rimé movement
downplayed these differences, as still reflected in the stance of the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, who states that there are no fundamental differences between these schools.[107] The Tibetan adjectival suffix -pa meaning "man" or "person" is translatable as English "-ist", e.g., "Nyingmapa" is "person who practises Nyingma". Nyingma[edit] Main article: Nyingma "The Ancient Ones" is the oldest school of Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
and the original order founded by Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
(8th century) and Śāntarakṣita
Śāntarakṣita
(725–788).[9] Whereas other schools categorize their teachings into the three yānas or "vehicles", Hīnayāna, Mahāyāna
Mahāyāna
and Vajrayāna, the Nyingma
Nyingma
tradition classifies its teachings into Nine Yānas, among the highest of which is Dzogchen.[108] Terma "treasures" (revealed texts) are of particular significance to the Nyingma
Nyingma
school. Kadampa[edit] Main article: Kadampa The Kadam school (Tibetan: བཀའ་གདམས་པ་, Wylie: bka' gdams pa) of Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
was founded by Dromtön
Dromtön
(1005–1064), a Tibetan lay master and the foremost disciple of the great Bengali master Atiśa (982-1054). The Kadampa
Kadampa
were quite famous and respected for their proper and earnest Dharma
Dharma
practice. The most evident teachings of that tradition were the teachings on bodhicitta. Later, these special presentations became known as lojong and lamrim by Atiś. adam instructional influence lingered long after the school disappeared. Sakya[edit] Main article: Sakya

Sakya
Sakya
Pandita

The "Grey Earth" school represents the scholarly tradition. Headed by the Sakya
Sakya
Trizin, this tradition was founded by Khön Könchok Gyelpo (Wylie: 'khon dkon mchog rgyal po, 1034–1102), a disciple of the great Lotsawa, Drogmi Shākya (Wylie: brog mi lo tsā wa ye shes) and traces its lineage to the mahasiddha Virūpa.[9] A renowned exponent, Sakya
Sakya
Pandita (1182–1251CE), was the great-grandson of Khön Könchok Gyelpo. Jonang[edit] Main article: Jonang The Jonang
Jonang
is a minor school that branched off from Sakya
Sakya
traditions; it was suppressed in 1650 in Gelug-controlled regions and subsequently banned and its monks and nuns converted to the Gelug
Gelug
school in 1658. The Jonang
Jonang
re-established their religio-political center in Golok, Nakhi and Mongol areas in Kham
Kham
and Amdo
Amdo
centered at Dzamthang Monastery and have continued practicing uninterrupted to this day. An estimated 5,000 monks and nuns of the Jonang
Jonang
tradition practice today in these areas and at the edges of historic Gelug
Gelug
influence. However, their teachings were limited to these regions until the Rimé movement of the 19th century encouraged the study of non- Gelug
Gelug
schools of thought and practice.[109] In modern times it has been encouraged to grow by the 14th Dalai Lama, who installed the 9th Jebtsundamba Khutughtu as its head. Kagyu[edit] Main article: Kagyu

Kalu Rinpoche
Rinpoche
(right) and Lama
Lama
Denys at Karma
Karma
Ling Institute, Savoy

"Lineage of the (Buddha's) Word". This is an oral tradition which is very much concerned with the experiential dimension of meditation. Its most famous exponent was Milarepa, an 11th-century mystic. It contains one major and one minor subsect. The first, the Dagpo Kagyu, encompasses those Kagyu
Kagyu
schools that trace back to the Indian master Naropa
Naropa
via Marpa Lotsawa, Milarepa
Milarepa
and Gampopa[9] and consists of four major sub-sects: the Karma
Karma
Kagyu, headed by a Karmapa, the Tsalpa Kagyu, the Barom Kagyu, and Pagtru Kagyu. There are a further eight minor sub-sects, all of which trace their root to Pagtru Kagyu
Kagyu
and the most notable of which are the Drikung and Drukpa Lineages. The once-obscure Shangpa Kagyu, which was famously represented by the 20th century teacher Kalu Rinpoche, traces its history back to the Indian master Naropa
Naropa
via Niguma, Sukhasiddhi and Khyungpo Naljor.[9] Gelug[edit] Main article: Gelug The "Way of Virtue" school was originally a reformist movement and is known for its emphasis on logic and debate. The order was founded in the 14th to 15th century by Je Tsongkhapa, renowned for both his scholarship and virtue. He was a prominent supporter of the Madhyamika philosophy and formalized the Svatantrika- Prasaṅgika
Prasaṅgika
distinction. Its spiritual head is the Ganden Tripa
Ganden Tripa
and its temporal one the Dalai Lama. The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
is regarded as the embodiment of Avalokiteśvara. After the civil war in the 17th century and the Mongol intervention, the Gelugpa school dominated Tibetan Buddhism, and successive Dalai Lamas ruled Tibet
Tibet
from the mid-17th to mid-20th centuries. New Kadampa
Kadampa
Tradition[edit] Main articles: New Kadampa Tradition
New Kadampa Tradition
and Kelsang Gyatso The New Kadampa Tradition
New Kadampa Tradition
is a Buddhist
Buddhist
new religious movement founded by Kelsang Gyatso
Kelsang Gyatso
in England in 1991, which branched-off from the Gelugpa school. Rimé movement[edit] In the 19th century the Sakya, Kagyu
Kagyu
and Nyingma
Nyingma
schools of Tibetan Buddhism, along with some Bon
Bon
scholars, cooperated the Rimé movement to prevent the loss of many of their teachings and revive their traditions, in response to the dominance of the Gelugpa school.[29] Old Translation, New Translation[edit] The four major schools are sometimes said to constitute the Nyingma "Old Translation," and Sarma "New Translation" traditions, the latter following from the historical Kadam lineage of translations and tantric lineages. Another common but trivial differentiation is into the Yellow Hat (Gelug) and Red Hat (non-Gelug) sects, a division that mirrors the distinction between the schools involved in the Rimé movement versus the one that did not, the Gelug.[citation needed] The correspondences are as follows:

Nyingma Kagyu Sakya Gelug

Old Translation New Translation New Translation New Translation

Red Hat Red Hat Red Hat Yellow Hat

Rimé Rimé Rimé non-Rimé

Women in Tibetan Buddhism[edit] Further information: Women in Buddhism
Buddhism
and Ordination of women in Buddhism Under the Mulasarvastivadin Vinaya, as with the two other extant Vinaya
Vinaya
lineages today ( Theravada
Theravada
and Dharmaguptaka), in order to ordain bhikṣuṇīs, there must be quorums of both bhikṣuṇīs and bhikṣus; without both, a woman cannot be ordained as a nun (Tibetan: དགེ་སློང་མ་, THL: gélongma). When Buddhism
Buddhism
traveled from India to Tibet, apparently the quorum of bhikṣuṇīs required for bestowing full ordination never reached Tibet.[110] Despite an absence of ordination there, bhikṣuṇīs did travel to Tibet. A notable example was the Sri Lankan nun Candramāla, whose work with Śrījñāna (Wylie: dpal ye shes) resulted in the tantric text Śrīcandramāla Tantrarāja (Tibetan: དཔལ་ཟླ་བའི་ཕྲེང་བའི་རྒྱུད་ཀྱི་རྒྱལ་པོ, Chinese: 吉祥月鬘本續王).[111] There are singular accounts of fully ordained Tibetan women, such as the Samding Dorje Phagmo
Samding Dorje Phagmo
(1422-1455), who was once ranked the highest female master in Tibet, but very little is known about the exact circumstances of their ordination.[112] Buddhist
Buddhist
author Michaela Haas notes that Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
is undergoing a sea change in the West. "Of all these changes that we are watching Buddhism
Buddhism
undergo in the West, the most momentous may be that women are playing an equal role."[113] The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
has authorized followers of the Tibetan tradition to be ordained as nuns in traditions that have such ordination. According to Thubten Chodron, the current Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
has said on this issue:[114]

In 2005, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
repeatedly spoke about the bhikṣuṇī ordination in public gatherings. In Dharamsala, he encouraged, "We need to bring this to a conclusion. We Tibetans alone can't decide this. Rather, it should be decided in collaboration with Buddhists from all over the world. Speaking in general terms, were the Buddha to come to this 21st century world, I feel that most likely, seeing the actual situation in the world now, he might change the rules somewhat...." Later, in Zürich
Zürich
during a 2005 conference of Tibetan Buddhist Centers, he said, "Now I think the time has come; we should start a working group or committee" to meet with monks from other Buddhist traditions. Looking at the German bhikṣuṇī Jampa Tsedroen, he instructed, "I prefer that Western Buddhist
Buddhist
nuns carry out this work… Go to different places for further research and discuss with senior monks (from various Buddhist
Buddhist
countries). I think, first, senior bhikshunis need to correct the monks' way of thinking. "This is the 21st century. Everywhere we are talking about equality….Basically Buddhism
Buddhism
needs equality. There are some really minor things to remember as a Buddhist--a bhikshu always goes first, then a bhikshuni….The key thing is the restoration of the bhikshuni vow."

Alexander Berzin referred to the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
having said on occasion of the 2007 Hamburg congress:

Sometimes in religion there has been an emphasis on male importance. In Buddhism, however, the highest vows, namely the bhikshu and bhikshuni ones, are equal and entail the same rights. This is the case despite the fact that in some ritual areas, due to social custom, bhikshus go first. But Buddha gave the basic rights equally to both sangha groups. There is no point in discussing whether or not to revive the bhikshuni ordination; the question is merely how to do so properly within the context of the Vinaya.[115]

Freda Bedi
Freda Bedi
(sometimes spelled Frida Bedi, also named Sister Palmo, or Gelongma Karma
Karma
Kechog Palmo) was a British woman who was the first Western woman to take ordination in Tibetan Buddhism, which occurred in 1966.[116] Pema Chödrön
Pema Chödrön
is an American woman who was ordained as a bhikṣuṇī in a lineage of Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
in 1981. Pema Chödrön was the first American woman to be ordained as a Buddhist
Buddhist
nun in the Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
tradition.[117][118] In 2010 the first Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
nunnery in America, Vajra
Vajra
Dakini Nunnery in Vermont, was officially consecrated. It offers novice ordination and follows the Drikung Kagyu
Kagyu
lineage of Buddhism. The abbot of the Vajra
Vajra
Dakini nunnery is Khenmo Drolma, an American woman, who is the first bhikṣuṇī in the Drikung lineage of Buddhism, having been ordained in Taiwan in 2002.[119][120] She is also the first westerner, male or female, to be installed as an abbot in the Drikung Kagyu
Kagyu
lineage of Buddhism, having been installed as the abbot of the Vajra
Vajra
Dakini Nunnery in 2004.[119] The Vajra
Vajra
Dakini Nunnery does not follow The Eight Garudhammas.[121] In April 2011, the Institute for Buddhist
Buddhist
Dialectical Studies (IBD) in Dharamsala, India, conferred the degree of geshe, a Tibetan Buddhist academic degree for monastics, on Kelsang Wangmo, a German nun, thus making her the world's first female geshe.[122][123] In 2013 Tibetan women were able to take the geshe exams for the first time.[124] In 2016 twenty Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
nuns became the first Tibetan women to earn geshe degrees.[125][126] Jetsunma Ahkon Lhamo
Jetsunma Ahkon Lhamo
gained international attention in the late 1980s as the first Western woman to be a His Holininess Penor Rinpoche enthroned tulku within the Nyingma
Nyingma
Palyul.[127] Glossary of terms used[edit]

English spoken Tibetan Wylie Tibetan Sanskrit
Sanskrit
transliteration

affliction nyönmong nyon-mongs kleśa

analytic meditation jegom dpyad-sgom yauktika dhyāna

calm abiding shiné zhi-gnas śamatha

devotion to the guru lama-la tenpa bla-ma-la bsten-pa guruparyupāsati

fixation meditation joggom 'jog-sgom nibandhita dhyāna

foundational vehicle t’ek män theg sman hīnayāna

incarnate lama tülku sprul-sku nirmānakāya

inherent existence rangzhingi drubpa rang-bzhin-gyi grub-pa svabhāvasiddha

mind of enlightenment changchub sem byang-chhub sems bodhicitta

motivational training lojong blo-sbyong autsukya dhyāna

omniscience t’amcé k’yempa thams-cad mkhyen-pa sarvajña

preliminary practices ngöndro sngon-'gro prārambhika kriyāni

root guru zawé lama rtsa-ba'i bla-ma mūlaguru

stages of the path lamrim lam-rim pātheya

transmission and realisation lungtok lung-rtogs āgamādhigama

See also[edit]

Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
portal

Karma
Karma
in Tibetan Buddhism History of Tibetan Buddhism Derge Parkhang Mahamudra Milarepa Nagarjuna Ngagpa Padmasambhava Pure Land Buddhism
Pure Land Buddhism
(Tibetan) Samaya Schools of Buddhism Shambhala
Shambhala
Buddhism Songs of realization Tibetan art Tibetan prayer wheel Tibetan prayer flag Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
teachers (category) Traditional Tibetan medicine Fierce deities

Notes[edit]

^ 和尚摩訶衍; his name consists of the same Chinese characters used to transliterate “Mahayana”) (Tibetan: Hwa shang Mahayana) ^ Kamalaśīla
Kamalaśīla
wrote the three Bhāvanākrama
Bhāvanākrama
texts (修習次第三篇) after that. ^ However, a Chinese source found in Dunhuang
Dunhuang
written by Mo-ho-yen says their side won, and some scholars conclude that the entire episode is fictitious.[14][15] ^ Tib.: tulku, Wylie: sprul-ku

References[edit]

^ White, David Gordon (ed.) (2000). Tantra
Tantra
in Practice. Princeton University Press. p. 21. ISBN 0-691-05779-6. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Powers, John (2007). Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
(Rev. ed.). Ithaca, New York: Snow Lion Publications. pp. 392–3, 415. ISBN 978-1-55939-282-2.  ^ Lopez, Donald S. Jr. (1999). Prisoners of Shangri-La: Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
and the West. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 6, 19f. ISBN 0-226-49311-3.  ^ Conze, 1993 ^ Cueppers, Christoph. "The Relationship Between Religion and State (chos srid zung 'brel) In Traditional Tibet".  ^ Snellgrove, David (1987). Indo-Tibetan Buddhism. Indian Buddhists & Their Tibetan Successors, Vol.2. Boston: Shambala Publications. ISBN 0-87773-379-1.  ^ Berzin, Alexander, A Survey of Tibetan History ^ Beckwith, C.I.: The revolt of 755 in Tibet, in: The History of Tibet, ed. Alex McKay, Vol. 1, London 2003, p. 273-285 (discusses the political background and the motives of the ruler). ^ a b c d e f g Berzin. Alexander (2000). How Did Tibetan Buddhism Develop?: StudyBuddhism.com ^ Conze, 1993, 106 ^ Berzin, Alexander (2000). How Did Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
Develop?; Berzin, Alexander (1996). The Spread of Buddhism
Buddhism
in Asia ^ 定解宝灯论新月释 Archived 2013-11-02 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Yamaguchi, Zuihō (undated). The Core Elements of Indian Buddhism Introduced into Tibet: A Contrast with Japanese Buddhism. Source: Thezensite.com (accessed: October 20, 2007) ^ 敦煌唐代写本顿悟大乘正理决 Archived 2013-11-01 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism
Buddhism
(Volume One), page 70 ^ Shakabpa. p.173. ^ Berzin, Alexander. The Four Traditions of Tibetan Buddhism: Personal Experience, History, and Comparisons ^ Conze, 1993, 104ff ^ Shakabpa. p.61: 'thirty thousand troops, under the command of Leje and Dorta, reached Phanpo, north of Lhasa.' ^ Sanders. p. 309, his grandson Godan Khan invaded Tibet
Tibet
with 30000 men and destroyed several Buddhist
Buddhist
monasteries north of Lhasa ^ Buell, ibid. p.194: Shakabpa, 1967 pp.61-2. ^ "How Tibet
Tibet
Emerged Within the Wider Chinese Power-Political Zone". Long Revolution. 2015-04-18. Retrieved 2018-03-23.  ^ Wylie 1990, p. 104. ^ "To counterbalance the political power of the lama, Khubilai appointed civil administrators at the Sa-skya to supervise the mongol regency." ^ a b The Circle of Bliss: Buddhist
Buddhist
Meditational Art, by John C. Huntington, Dina Bangdel, Robert A. F. Thurman, p48 ^ Rossabi 1983, p. 194 ^ Petech, L. Central Tibet
Tibet
and The Mongols. (Serie Orientale Roma 65). Rome: Instituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente 1990: 85–143 ^ Emblems of Empire: Selections from the Mactaggart Art Collection, by John E. Vollmer, Jacqueline Simcox, p154 ^ a b Lopez, Donald S. (1998). Prisoners of Shangri-La: Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
and the West. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, p. 190 ^ Schaik, Sam van. Tibet: A History. Yale University Press 2011, page 165-9. ^ Schaik, Sam van. Tibet: A History. Yale University Press 2011, page 169. ^ Kapstein, Matthew T. Tibetan Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 109. ^ Kapstein, Matthew T. Tibetan Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 100. ^ a b Kapstein, Matthew T. Tibetan Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 108. ^ a b Kapstein, Matthew T. Tibetan Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 110. ^ The 2007 U.S. State Department report on religious freedom in Bhutan notes that " Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
is the state religion..." and that the Bhutanese government supports both the Kagyu
Kagyu
and Nyingma
Nyingma
sects. State.gov ^ Bruce A (ed). One World – Many Paths to Peace ANU E-Press 2009 (launched by the 14th Dalai Lama) http://eview.anu.edu.au/one_world/index.php (accessed 11 May 2013) ^ Samuel, Geoffrey; Tantric Revisionings: New Understandings of Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
and Indian Religion, page 303 - 304 ^ Cornu 2001, p. 145, 150. ^ Cornu 2001, p. 135. ^ a b c d Kapstein, Matthew T. Tibetan Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 67. ^ Cornu 2001, p. 136. ^ Cornu 2001, p. 146-147. ^ Cornu 2001, p. 138. ^ a b Cornu 2001, p. 145. ^ Hookam 1991. ^ a b Brunnhölzl 2004. ^ a b Cornu 2001. ^ Sopa & Hopkins (1977), 67-69; Hopkins (1996). ^ Cf. Conze (1993). ^ Cf. Dhargyey (1978), 111; Pabongkhapa Déchen Nyingpo, 533f; Tsong-kha-pa II: 48-9 ^ Thurman, Robert (1997). Essential Tibetan Buddhism. Castle Books: 291 ^ Cf. Dhargyey (1978), 64f; Dhargyey (1982), 257f, etc; Pabongkhapa Déchen Nyingpo, 364f; Tsong-kha-pa II: 183f. The former are the afflictions, negative states of mind, and the three poisons – desire, anger, and ignorance. The latter are subtle imprints, traces or "stains" of delusion that involves the imagination of inherent existence. ^ Pabongkhapa Déchen Nyingpo, 152f ^ Pabongkhapa Déchen Nyingpo, 243, 258 ^ a b Hopkins (1996) ^ Dhargyey (1978), 61f; Dhargyey (1982), 242-266; Pabongkhapa Déchen Nyingpo, 365 ^ Thurman, Robert (1997): 2-3 ^ Pabongkhapa Déchen Nyingpo, 252f ^ Pabongkhapa Déchen Nyingpo, 367 ^ Dhargyey (1978), 74; Dhargyey (1982), 3, 303f; Pabongkhapa Déchen Nyingpo, 13f, 280f; Berzin, Alexander (2002). Hinayana
Hinayana
and Mahayana: Comparison ^ The Sakya
Sakya
school, too, has a somewhat similar textual form, the lamdré. ^ Lamrim: the Gradual Path to Enlightenment ^ Kapstein, Matthew T. Tibetan Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 52-53. ^ Powers, 2007, p. 250. ^ Powers, 2007, p. 250. ^ Powers, 2007, p. 250. ^ a b Kapstein, Matthew T. Tibetan Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 82. ^ Snellgrove, David. (1987) Indo-Tibetan Buddhism: Indian Buddhists and their Tibetan successors. pp 125-126. ^ a b Kapstein, Matthew T. Tibetan Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 83. ^ Conze (1993). ^ Berzin, Alexander (2002). Hinayana
Hinayana
and Mahayana: Comparison ^ Kapstein, Matthew T. Tibetan Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 63. ^ Kapstein, Matthew T. Tibetan Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 64. ^ Conze (1993): 26 ^ Kapstein, Matthew T. Tibetan Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 2. ^ Kapstein, Matthew T. Tibetan Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 5. ^ Kapstein, Matthew T. Tibetan Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 81. ^ a b Kapstein, Matthew T. Tibetan Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 94. ^ Kapstein, Matthew T. Tibetan Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 100. ^ Pabonka, p.649 ^ Kalu Rinpoche
Rinpoche
(1986), The Gem Ornament of Manifold Instructions. Snow Lion, p. 21. ^ Pabongkhapa Déchen Nyingpo, 649 ^ Kapstein, Matthew T. Tibetan Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 45-46. ^ The Way of the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
by Shantideva. Shambhala
Shambhala
Publications. Page 122-123 ^ khri byang blo bzang ye shes bstan ʼdzin rgya mtsho 2006, p. 66, 212f. ^ The Practice of Tranquillity & Insight: A Guide to Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
Meditation
Meditation
by Khenchen Thrangu Rinpoche. Shambhala Publications: 1994. ISBN 0-87773-943-9 pg 91-93 ^ Lama
Lama
is the literal Tibetan translation of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
guru. For a traditional perspective on devotion to the guru, see Tsong-ka-pa I, 77-87. For a current perspective on the guru-disciple relationship in Tibetan Buddhism, see Berzin, Alexander. Relating to a Spiritual Teacher: Building a Healthy Relationship ^ notably, Gurupancasika, Tib.: Lama
Lama
Ngachupa, Wylie: bla-ma lnga-bcu-pa, "Fifty Verses of Guru-Devotion" by Aśvaghoṣa ^ Indian tradition (Cf. Saddharmapundarika Sutra
Sutra
II, 124) encourages the student to view the guru as representative of the Buddha himself. ^ a b Kapstein, Matthew T. Tibetan Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 80. ^ Cf. Conze (1993), 26 and 52f. ^ Powers, John; Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism, page 23-24 ^ Samuel, Geoffrey. Introducing Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
(World Religions), 2012, p. 74 ^ Powers, John; Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism, page 265 ^ Robert E. Buswell Jr., Donald S. Lopez Jr. The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism ^ Powers, John; Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism, page 266-67 ^ Powers, John; Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism, page 267 ^ Jamgon Mipham, Luminous Essence: A Guide to the Guhyagarbha Tantra, page 147. ^ Tsoṅ-kha-pa Blo-bzaṅ-grags-pa. Tantra
Tantra
in Tibet: The Great Exposition of Secret Mantra, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1987, page 47. ^ Power, John; Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism, page 271 ^ Garson, Nathaniel DeWitt; Penetrating the Secret Essence Tantra: Context and Philosophy in the Mahayoga System of rNying-ma Tantra, 2004, p. 52 ^ Garson, Nathaniel DeWitt; Penetrating the Secret Essence Tantra: Context and Philosophy in the Mahayoga System of rNying-ma Tantra, 2004, p. 45 ^ Kapstein, Matthew T. Tibetan Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 87. ^ a b How Do the Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
Traditions Differ?, Retrieved 04.06.2016 ^ Hookham 1991. ^ http://www.rigpawiki.org/index.php?title=The_four_main_schools_of_Tibetan_Buddhism, retrieved 31.07.2013 ^ Kagyuoffice.org Archived 2013-05-11 at the Wayback Machine. See section: The Nine Yana Journey ^ Gruschke 2001, p.72; and A. Gruschke, "Der Jonang-Orden: Gründe für seinen Niedergang, Voraussetzungen für das Überdauern und aktuelle Lage", in: Henk Blezer (ed.), Tibet, Past and Present. Tibetan Studies I (Proceedings of the Ninth Seminar of The IATS, 2000), Brill Academic Publishers, Leiden 2002, pp. 183-214 ^ Tsomo 1999, p. 22. ^ Tsomo 1999, p. 76. ^ Haas, Michaela. "Dakini Power: Twelve Extraordinary Women Shaping the Transmission of Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West." Shambhala Publications, 2013. ISBN 1559394072, p. 6 ^ "A Female Dalai Lama? Why It Matters". The Huffington Post. Retrieved May 4, 2013.  ^ A New Possibility: Introducing Full Ordination for Women into the Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
Tradition ^ Human Rights and the Status of Women in Buddhism ^ "Nonfiction Book Review: The Revolutionary Life of Freda Bedi: British Feminist, Indian Nationalist, Buddhist
Buddhist
Nun by Vicki Mackenzie. Shambhala, $16.95 trade paper (208p) ISBN978-1-61180-425-6". Publishersweekly.com. Retrieved 2017-06-10.  ^ "Works by Chögyam Trungpa
Chögyam Trungpa
and His Students". Dharma
Dharma
Haven. Dharma Haven. June 23, 1999. Retrieved 2013-10-14.  ^ "Ani Pema Chödrön". Gampoabbey.org. Archived from the original on 2010-11-17. Retrieved 2010-11-19.  ^ a b "Women Making History". Vajradakininunnery.org. Archived from the original on 2010-06-01. Retrieved 2010-11-19.  ^ "Khenmo Drolma". Vajradakininunnery.org. Archived from the original on 2010-06-01. Retrieved 2010-11-19.  ^ " Vajra
Vajra
Dakini Nunnery". Vajra
Vajra
Dakini Nunnery. Retrieved 2010-11-19.  ^ Haas, Michaela (2011-05-18). "2,500 Years After The Buddha, Tibetan Buddhists Acknowledge Women". Huffington Post.  ^ " Geshe
Geshe
Kelsang Wangmo, An Interview with the World's First Female Geshe
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nun professors or none? – OnFaith". The Washington Post.  ^ Nuns, Tibetan (2016-07-14). "Tibetan Buddhist
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Nuns Make History: Congratulations Geshema Nuns! - The Tibetan Nuns Project". Tnp.org. Retrieved 2016-10-04.  ^ July 15, 2016 (2016-07-15). "Twenty Tibetan Buddhist
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nuns are first ever to earn Geshema degrees - Lion's Roar". Lionsroar.com. Retrieved 2016-10-04.  ^ Stevens, William K. (1988-10-26). "U.S. Woman Is Named Reborn Buddhist
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Sources[edit]

Brunnhölzl, Karl (2004), The Center of the Sunlit Sky: Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
in the Kagyu
Kagyu
Tradition, Shambhala, ISBN 1-55939-218-5  Coleman, Graham, ed. (1993). A Handbook of Tibetan Culture. Boston: Shambhala
Shambhala
Publications, Inc. ISBN 1-57062-002-4. Conze, Edward (1993). A Short History of Buddhism
Buddhism
(2nd ed.). Oneworld. ISBN 1-85168-066-7.  Cornu, Philippe (2001), "Nawoord", Schijn en werkelijkheid. De twee waarheden in de vier boeddhistische leerstelsels, KunchabPublicaties  Dhargyey, Geshe
Geshe
Ngawang (1978). Alexander Berzin, ed. Tibetan Tradition of Mental Development. Translated by Sharpa Tulku
Tulku
(3rd ed.). Dharmsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives.  [A pithy lam-rim by a geshe appointed in 1973 by the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
as head of the translation team at the Tibetan Library.] Dhargyey, Geshe
Geshe
Ngawang (1982). Alexander Berzin, ed. An Anthology of Well-Spoken Advice on the Graded Paths of the Mind, Vol. I. Translated by Sharpa Tulku. Dharmsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives. ISBN 81-86470-29-8.  [The first part of a more extensive lam-rim by a geshe appointed in 1973 by the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
as head of the translation team at the Tibetan Library. The language of this publication is very different from that of the 1978 work by the same lama due to widespread changes in choice of English terminology by the translators.] Hill, John E. "Notes on the Dating of Khotanese History." Indo-Iranian Journal, Vol. 13, No. 3 July 1988. To purchase this article see: [1]. An updated version of this article is available for free download (with registration) at: [2] Hookham, S.K. (1991), The Buddha within : Tathagatagarbha doctrine according to the Shentong
Shentong
interpretation of the Ratnagotravibhaga, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791403587  Hopkins, Jeffrey (1996). Meditation
Meditation
on Emptiness. Boston: Wisdom. ISBN 0-86171-110-6.  [Definitive treatment of emptiness according to the Prasaṅgika- Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
school.] Lati Rinpoche
Rinpoche
(1980). Elizabeth Napper, ed. Mind in Tibetan Buddhism: Oral Commentary on Ge-shay Jam-bel-sam-pel's "Presentation of Awareness and Knowledge Composite of All the Important Points Opener of the Eye of New Intelligence. Translated by Napper. Valois, NY: Snow Lion. ISBN 0-937938-02-5.  Mullin, Glenn H (15 December 2008). Living in the Face of Death: The Tibetan Tradition. Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 978-1-55939-908-1.  Nyanaponika Thera
Nyanaponika Thera
(1965). The Heart of Buddhist
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Meditation. Boston: Weiser. ISBN 0-87728-073-8.  pha bong kha pa byams pa bstan ʼdzin ʼphrin las rgya mtsho; khri byang blo bzang ye shes bstan ʼdzin rgya mtsho; Michael Richards (3 November 2006). Liberation in the Palm of Your Hand: A Concise Discourse on the Path to Enlightenment. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-86171-500-8.  Powers, John. History as Propaganda: Tibetan Exiles versus the People's Republic of China
China
(2004) Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-517426-7 Ringu Tulku. The Ri-Me Philosophy of Jamgon Kongtrul
Jamgon Kongtrul
the Great: A Study of the Buddhist
Buddhist
Lineages of Tibet. Shambhala. ISBN 1-59030-286-9.  Smith, E. Gene (2001). Among Tibetan Texts: History and Literature of the Himalayan Plateau. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-179-3 Sopa, Geshe
Geshe
Lhundup; Jeffrey Hopkins (1977). Practice and Theory of Tibetan Buddhism. New Delhi: B.I. Publications. ISBN 0-09-125621-6.  [Part Two of this book, ‘’Theory: Systems of Tenets’’ is an annotated translation of ‘’Precious Garland of Tenets (Grub-mtha’ rin-chhen phreng-ba)’’ by Kön-chok-jik-may-wang-po (1728-1791).] Tsomo, Karma
Karma
Lekshe (1 April 1999). Buddhist
Buddhist
Women Across Cultures: Realizations. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-4138-1.  The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment

Tsong-kha-pa (2000). Joshua Cutler; Guy Newland, eds. The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment, Volume I. Canada: Snow Lion. ISBN 1-55939-152-9.  Tsong-kha-pa (2002). Joshua Cutler; Guy Newland, eds. The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment, Volume II. Canada: Snow Lion. ISBN 1-55939-168-5.  Tsong-kha-pa (2004). Joshua Cutler; Guy Newland, eds. The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment, Volume III. Canada: Snow Lion. ISBN 1-55939-166-9. 

Wallace, B. Alan (1999), "The Buddhist
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Tradition of Samatha: Methods for Refining and Examining Consciousness", Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (2-3): 175-187 . Yeshe De Project (1986): Ancient Tibet: Research Materials from The Yeshe De Project. Dharma
Dharma
Publishing, Berkeley, California. ISBN 0-89800-146-3.

Further reading[edit] Introductory books

John Powers (1995, 2007), Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism, Snow Lion Publications John Powers (2008), A Concise Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism, Snow Lion Publications Matthew T. Kapstein (2014), Tibetan Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press Wallace, B. Alan (October 25, 1993). Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
From the Ground Up: A Practical Approach for Modern Life. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-075-4, ISBN 978-0-86171-075-1

"Insider" texts

Yeshe, Lama
Lama
Thubten (2001). "The Essence of Tibetan Buddhism". Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive. ISBN 1-891868-08-X

Other books

Coleman, Graham, ed. (1993). A Handbook of Tibetan Culture. Boston: Shambhala
Shambhala
Publications, Inc. ISBN 1-57062-002-4. Ringu Tulku. The Ri-Me Philosophy of Jamgon Kongtrul
Jamgon Kongtrul
the Great: A Study of the Buddhist
Buddhist
Lineages of Tibet. Shambhala. ISBN 1-59030-286-9.  Smith, E. Gene (2001). Among Tibetan Texts: History and Literature of the Himalayan Plateau. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-179-3

Articles

Cabezón, José Ignacio. "Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
Society." In: Juergensmeyer, Mark (editor). The Oxford Handbook of Global Religions. October 2006. Published online in September 2009. DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195137989.003.0010

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Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Lāmāism.

Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Buddhist
Buddhist
Meditation
Meditation
Traditions in Tibet: The Union of Three Vehicles by Georgios T. Halkias LamRim.com — Tibetan Buddhist
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Internet Radio The Tibetan and Himalayan Digital Library The Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
Resource Center the Tibetan bibliography database Tibetan Buddhism in the West
Buddhism in the West
by Dzongsar Khyentse Rinpoche Songtsen — The rescue and preservation of Tibet's cultural and spiritual traditions Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
in Study Buddhism: An extensive source of authentic Buddhist
Buddhist
teachings, presented in a down-to-earth and practical way — formerly The Berzin Archives, a site maintained by Alexander Berzin Lotsawa
Lotsawa
House Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
Texts Translations Tibetan Rimé Text Library — Buddhist
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Text Library of all traditions Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
Forums A Day In The Life Of A Tibetan Monk - article and slideshow by National Geographic Student film about Tibetan Monks studying at Emory University Tibetan Buddhist
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Practice eCalendar Karma
Karma
Kagyü Calendar Tibetan Philosophy article in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy The History of Relationship Development Between Imperial China
China
and Tibetan Regime in Tang and Song Dynasty

v t e

Tibetan Buddhism

Traditions

Vajrayana Bon Nyingma Kadam Bodongpa Sakya Jonang Kagyu Gelug Rimé movement

Practices and teachings

Lamrim Lamdre Ngöndro Chöd Dzogchen Mahamudra Six Dharmas Kālacakra

Institutional roles

Lama Tulku Tertön Rinpoche Ngagpa Dalai Lama Panchen Lama Karmapa Sakya
Sakya
Trizin

Key figures

Nyingma
Nyingma
(Dzogchen)

Padmasambhava

Sakya

Sakya
Sakya
Pandita Drogön Chögyal Phagpa

Kagyu

Milarepa Thang Tong Gyalpo

Gelug

Je Tsongkhapa

Other

Trisong Detsen Vairotsana Dampa Sangye Drukpa Kunley Namkhai Norbu Godrakpa Gorampa
Gorampa
Sonam Sengye Jigdral Yeshe Dorje (2nd Dudjom Rinpoche) Shamarpa Dilgo Khyentse Jamgon Kongtrul Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo Dzongsar Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö Dolpopa
Dolpopa
Sherab Gyaltsen Longchenpa Jigme Lingpa Patrul Rinpoche Gampopa Marpa Lotsawa Chögyam Trungpa Penor Rinpoche Ratna Lingpa Chagdud Tulku
Tulku
Rinpoche Chökyi Nyima Rinpoche Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche Shakya Shri Thinley Norbu Chogye Trichen Tenzin Ösel Hita Tulku
Tulku
Urgyen Rinpoche Taranatha Mikyö Dorje, 8th Karmapa
Karmapa
Lama Minling Terton Rendawa Rongtong Shenrab Kunrig Orgyen Chokgyur Lingpa Pema Lingpa Tai Situpa Thubten Yeshe Jamgon Ju Mipham Gyatso Tenzin Palmo Sakya
Sakya
Chokden Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche Tsele Natsok Rangdröl Ganden Tripa Lama
Lama
Jampa Thaye Rangjung Dorje, 3rd Karmapa
Karmapa
Lama Thubten Zopa Rinpoche Nyoshul Khenpo Rinpoche Tarthang Tulku Dodrupchen Rinpoche Anagarika Govinda Alexandra David-Néel Vimalamitra Atiśa Ngorchen Kunga Zangpo Tsangnyön Heruka Go Lotsawa
Lotsawa
Shonnu Pal Sogyal Rinpoche Second Beru Khyentse Alexander Berzin (scholar) Chatral Rinpoche Dezhung Rinpoche Tulku
Tulku
Thondup Traleg Kyabgon Rinpoche Akong Rinpoche Khenpo Abbey Rinpoche Kangyur
Kangyur
Rinpoche Dudjom Yangsi Dzigar Kongtrul Rinpoche Orgyen Tobgyal Kathok Ontrul Rinpoche Zurmang Tenpa Rinpoche Adzom Drukpa Yudra Nyingpo Ratna Vajra
Vajra
Sakya Gyana Vajra
Vajra
Sakya Dzogchen
Dzogchen
Ponlop Rinpoche Dawa Chodrak Rinpoche Kalu Rinpoche Tenga Rinpoche Khenpo Tsultrim Gyamtso Rinpoche Thrangu Rinpoche Chetsang Rinpoche Trijang Rinpoche Phabongkha Reting Rinpoche Zong Rinpoche Ling Rinpoche Khandro Rinpoche Trulshik Rinpoche Karma
Karma
Thinley Rinpoche Khamtrul Rinpoche Gyalwang Drukpa Luding Khenchen Rinpoche Rechung Dorje Drakpa Phagmo Drupa Dorje Gyalpo Arija Rinpoche Hugh Edward Richardson Charles Alfred Bell

Texts

Terma Gyubum Kangyur Tengyur Tibetan canon

Ritual objects

Thangka Stupa Yidam

Monasteries

Jokhang Palyul
Palyul
Monastery Dzogchen
Dzogchen
Monastery Kathog Monastery Shechen Monastery Namdroling Monastery Ganden Monastery Sera Monastery Ramoche Temple Sanga Monastery Drepung Monastery Tashilhunpo Monastery Dzongsar Monastery Sakya
Sakya
Monastery

Places

Lhasa Shambhala

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Indian philosophy

Topics

Atheism Atomism Idealism Logic Monotheism Vedic philosophy

Āstika

Hindu: Samkhya Nyaya Vaisheshika Yoga Mīmāṃsā Vedanta

Acintya bheda abheda Advaita Bhedabheda Dvaita Dvaitadvaita Shuddhadvaita Vishishtadvaita

Shaiva

Pratyabhijña Pashupata Shaivism Shaiva
Shaiva
Siddhanta

Nāstika

Ājīvika Ajñana Cārvāka Jain

Anekantavada Syādvāda

Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
and Early Buddhist
Buddhist
schools

Śūnyatā Madhyamaka Yogacara Sautrāntika Svatantrika

Texts

Abhinavabharati Arthashastra Bhagavad Gita Bhagavata Purana Brahma Sutra Buddhist
Buddhist
texts Dharmashastra Hindu texts Jain Agamas Kamasutra Mimamsa Sutras

All 108 texts Principal

Nyāya Sūtras Nyayakusumanjali Panchadasi Samkhyapravachana Sutra Shiva Sutras Tarka-Sangraha Tattvacintāmaṇi Upanishads

Minor

Vaiśeṣika Sūtra Vedangas Vedas Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha More...

Philosophers

Avatsara Uddalaka Aruni Gautam Buddha Yajnavalkya Gargi Vachaknavi Buddhaghosa Patanjali Kanada Kapila Brihadratha Ikshvaku Jaimini Vyasa Chanakya Dharmakirti Akshapada Gotama Nagarjuna Padmasambhava Vasubandhu Gaudapada Adi Shankara Vivekananda Dayananda Saraswati Ramanuja Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika Raikva Sadananda Sakayanya Satyakama Jabala Madhvacharya Mahavira Guru
Guru
Nanak Vidyaranya More...

Concepts

Abhava Abhasavada Abheda Adarsana Adrishta Advaita Aham Aishvarya Akrodha Aksara Anatta Ananta Anavastha Anupalabdhi Apauruṣheyā Artha Asiddhatva Asatkalpa Ātman Avyakta Brahman Brahmi sthiti Bhuman Bhumika Chaitanya Chidabhasa Cittabhumi Dāna Devatas Dharma Dhi Dravya Dhrti Ekagrata Guṇa Hitā Idam Ikshana Ishvaratva Jivatva Kama Karma Kasaya Kshetrajna Lakshana Mithyatva Mokṣa Nididhyasana Nirvāṇa Niyama Padārtha Paramatman Paramananda Parameshashakti Parinama-vada Pradhana Prajna Prakṛti Pratibimbavada Pratītyasamutpāda Puruṣa Rājamaṇḍala Ṛta Sakshi Samadhi Saṃsāra Sankalpa Satya Satkaryavada Shabda Brahman Sphoṭa Sthiti Śūnyatā Sutram Svātantrya Iccha-mrityu Syādvāda Taijasa Tajjalan Tanmatra Tyāga Uparati Upekkhā Utsaha Vivartavada Viraj Yamas Yoga More...

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Bodhisattvas

General list

Avalokitesvara (Guanyin) Manjushri Samantabhadra Kshitigarbha Maitreya Mahasthamaprapta Ākāśagarbha

Chinese

Skanda Sangharama (Guan Yu)

Vajrayana

Padmasambhava Mandarava Tara Vajrapani Vajrasattva Sitatapatra Cundi

Other

B. R. Ambedkar Bhaishajyaraja Candraprabha Nagarjuna Niō Shantideva Supratisthitacaritra Supushpachandra Suryaprabha Vasudhara Visistacaritra Visuddhacaritra

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Buddhism
Buddhism
topics

Glossary Index Outline

Foundations

Three Jewels

Buddha Dharma Sangha

Four Noble Truths Noble Eightfold Path Nirvana Middle Way

The Buddha

Tathāgata Birthday Four sights Physical characteristics Footprint Relics Iconography in Laos and Thailand Films Miracles Family

Suddhodāna (father) Māyā (mother) Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother) Yasodhara (wife) Rāhula
Rāhula
(son) Ānanda (cousin) Devadatta
Devadatta
(cousin)

Places where the Buddha stayed Buddha in world religions

Key concepts

Avidyā (Ignorance) Bardo Bodhicitta Bodhisattva Buddha-nature Dhamma theory Dharma Enlightenment Five hindrances Indriya Karma Kleshas Mind Stream Parinirvana Pratītyasamutpāda Rebirth Saṃsāra Saṅkhāra Skandha Śūnyatā Taṇhā
Taṇhā
(Craving) Tathātā Ten Fetters Three marks of existence

Impermanence Dukkha Anatta

Two truths doctrine

Cosmology

Ten spiritual realms Six realms

Deva (Buddhism) Human realm Asura realm Hungry Ghost realm Animal realm Hell

Three planes of existence

Practices

Bhavana Bodhipakkhiyādhammā Brahmavihara

Mettā Karuṇā Mudita Upekkha

Buddhābhiseka Dāna Devotion Dhyāna Faith Five Strengths Iddhipada Meditation

Mantras Kammaṭṭhāna Recollection Smarana Anapanasati Samatha Vipassanā
Vipassanā
(Vipassana movement) Shikantaza Zazen Kōan Mandala Tonglen Tantra Tertön Terma

Merit Mindfulness

Satipatthana

Nekkhamma Pāramitā Paritta Puja

Offerings Prostration Chanting

Refuge Satya

Sacca

Seven Factors of Enlightenment

Sati Dhamma vicaya Pīti Passaddhi

Śīla

Five Precepts Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
vow Prātimokṣa

Threefold Training

Śīla Samadhi Prajñā

Vīrya

Four Right Exertions

Nirvana

Bodhi Bodhisattva Buddhahood Pratyekabuddha Four stages of enlightenment

Sotāpanna Sakadagami Anāgāmi Arhat

Monasticism

Bhikkhu Bhikkhuni Śrāmaṇera Śrāmaṇerī Anagarika Ajahn Sayadaw Zen
Zen
master Rōshi Lama Rinpoche Geshe Tulku Householder Upāsaka and Upāsikā Śrāvaka

The ten principal disciples

Shaolin Monastery

Major figures

Gautama Buddha Kaundinya Assaji Sāriputta Mahamoggallāna Mulian Ānanda Mahākassapa Anuruddha Mahākaccana Nanda Subhuti Punna Upali Mahapajapati Gotamī Khema Uppalavanna Asita Channa Yasa Buddhaghoṣa Nagasena Angulimala Bodhidharma Nagarjuna Asanga Vasubandhu Atiśa Padmasambhava Nichiren Songtsen Gampo Emperor Wen of Sui Dalai Lama Panchen Lama Karmapa Shamarpa Naropa Xuanzang Zhiyi

Texts

Tripiṭaka Madhyamakālaṃkāra Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras Pāli Canon Chinese Buddhist
Buddhist
canon Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
canon

Branches

Theravada Mahayana

Chan Buddhism

Zen Seon Thiền

Pure Land Tiantai Nichiren Madhyamaka Yogachara

Navayana Vajrayana

Tibetan Shingon Dzogchen

Early Buddhist
Buddhist
schools Pre-sectarian Buddhism Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna

Countries

Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia China India Indonesia Japan Korea Laos Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Russia

Kalmykia Buryatia

Singapore Sri Lanka Taiwan Thailand Tibet Vietnam Middle East

Iran

Western countries

Argentina Australia Brazil France United Kingdom United States Venezuela

History

Timeline Ashoka Buddhist
Buddhist
councils History of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

Great Anti- Buddhist
Buddhist
Persecution Greco-Buddhism Buddhism
Buddhism
and the Roman world Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West Silk Road transmission of Buddhism Persecution of Buddhists Banishment of Buddhist
Buddhist
monks from Nepal Buddhist
Buddhist
crisis Sinhalese Buddhist
Buddhist
nationalism Buddhist
Buddhist
modernism Vipassana movement 969 Movement Women in Buddhism

Philosophy

Abhidharma Atomism Buddhology Creator Economics Eight Consciousnesses Engaged Buddhism Eschatology Ethics Evolution Humanism Logic Reality Secular Buddhism Socialism The unanswered questions

Culture

Architecture

Temple Vihara Wat Stupa Pagoda Candi Dzong architecture Japanese Buddhist
Buddhist
architecture Korean Buddhist
Buddhist
temples Thai temple art and architecture Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
architecture

Art

Greco-Buddhist

Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree Budai Buddharupa Calendar Cuisine Funeral Holidays

Vesak Uposatha Magha Puja Asalha Puja Vassa

Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi Kasaya Mahabodhi Temple Mantra

Om mani padme hum

Mudra Music Pilgrimage

Lumbini Maya Devi Temple Bodh Gaya Sarnath Kushinagar

Poetry Prayer beads Prayer wheel Symbolism

Dharmachakra Flag Bhavacakra Swastika Thangka

Temple of the Tooth Vegetarianism

Miscellaneous

Abhijñā Amitābha Avalokiteśvara

Guanyin

Brahmā Dhammapada Dharma
Dharma
talk Hinayana Kalpa Koliya Lineage Maitreya Māra Ṛddhi Sacred languages

Pali Sanskrit

Siddhi Sutra Vinaya

Comparison

Bahá'í Faith Christianity

Influences Comparison

East Asian religions Gnosticism Hinduism Jainism Judaism Psychology Science Theosophy Violence Western philosophy

Lists

Bodhisattvas Books Buddhas

named

Buddhists Suttas Temples

Category Portal

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Tibet articles

History

Overviews

Timeline List of rulers European exploration Historical money

Chronology

Prehistory (Neolithic) Zhangzhung Pre-Imperial Empire (7th–9th century)

List of emperors Great Ministers Relations with Tang (618–907)

Era of Fragmentation
Era of Fragmentation
(9th–11th century)

Guge
Guge
kingdom

Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
rule (1270–1350)

Bureau of Buddhist
Buddhist
and Tibetan Affairs

Phagmodrupa dynasty

Relations with Ming (1368–1644)

Rinpungpa
Rinpungpa
dynasty Tsangpa
Tsangpa
dynasty Ganden Phodrang

Kashag

Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
rule (1720–1912)

Lifan Yuan List of imperial residents

Post-Qing to 1950

Tibetan Army

People's Republic of China
China
(PRC) rule

PRC incorporation political leaders

Wars and conflicts

Tibetan attack on Songzhou Battle of Dafei River Mongol invasions of Tibet Tibet–Ladakh–Mughal War Battle of Dartsedo Battle of the Salween River Chinese expedition to Tibet
Tibet
(1720) Lhasa
Lhasa
riot of 1750 Sino-Nepalese War Sino-Sikh War Nepalese–Tibetan War Sikkim
Sikkim
expedition British expedition to Tibet 1905 Tibetan Rebellion Chinese expedition to Tibet
Tibet
(1910) Xinhai Lhasa
Lhasa
turmoil Sino-Tibetan War

Qinghai– Tibet
Tibet
War

1938–39 German expedition to Tibet 1939 Japanese expedition to Tibet Battle of Chamdo Protests and uprisings since 1950

1959 Tibetan uprising 1987–89 Tibetan unrest 2008 Tibetan unrest Self-immolation protests by Tibetans in China

Documents

70,000 Character Petition Treaty of Chushul Treaty of Thapathali Treaty of Lhasa Treaty of friendship and alliance with Mongolia Simla Accord (1914) Seventeen-Point Agreement

Geography

Flora

Mountains

Lhotse / Changtse Namcha Barwa Tanggula

rivers

Yarlung Tsangpo

Grand Canyon

Rongbuk Glacier Tibetan Plateau

Changtang

Nature Reserve

Valleys

Traditional regions

Amdo Kham Ü-Tsang

Ü Tsang Ngari

Politics

Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region (TAR) Central Tibetan Administration

Parliament

Definitions of Tibet Foreign relations Human rights

LGBT

Patron and priest relationship Golden Urn Tibet
Tibet
Area Independence movement Serfdom controversy Sovereignty debate CIA Tibetan program

Government

Regional Government

Economy

Postage and postal history Qinghai- Tibet
Tibet
Highway Qinghai– Tibet
Tibet
Railway

Society

Education Languages Religion

Tibetan Buddhism

Sakya

Imperial Preceptor Dpon-chen

Nyingma Kagyu Jonang Gelug

Ganden Tripa Dalai Lama

list

Lhamo La-tso Panchen Lama

list

Bon

Sinicization Social classes Tibetan people

Changpa Yolmo Diaspora Names

Culture

Art Calendar Cuisine Dzong architecture Emblem Festivals Flag Historical and cultural sites Khata
Khata
(ceremonial scarf) Literature

Annals Chronicle writers

Music Tibetology Traditional medicine

Outline Index

Category Portal

Authority control

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