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Coordinates : 31°12′N 88°48′E / 31.2°N 88.8°E / 31.2; 88.8

"Greater Tibet" as claimed by Tibetan exile groups

Tibetan autonomous areas , as designated by China

Tibet Autonomous Region , within China

Chinese-controlled, claimed by India
India
as part of Aksai Chin

Indian -controlled, parts claimed by China
China
as South Tibet

Other areas historically within the Tibetan cultural sphere

Tibet

"Tibet" in the Tibetan (top) and Chinese (bottom) scripts

CHINESE NAME

CHINESE 西藏

LITERAL MEANING "Western Tsang "

TRANSCRIPTIONS

STANDARD MANDARIN

HANYU PINYIN Xīzàng

WADE–GILES Hsi1-tsang4

IPA

WU

ROMANIZATION xi55 zaan21

HAKKA

ROMANIZATION Sî-tshông

YUE: CANTONESE

JYUTPING sai1 zong6

SOUTHERN MIN

HOKKIEN POJ Se-chōng

TEOCHEW PENG\\'IM Sai-tsăng

EASTERN MIN

FUZHOU BUC Să̤-câung

MIDDLE CHINESE

MIDDLE CHINESE Sei-dzang

TIBETAN NAME

TIBETAN བོད་

TRANSCRIPTIONS

WYLIE bod

TIBETAN PINYIN boew

THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS TIBETAN ALPHABET . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Tibetan characters.

TIBET (/tɪˈbɛt/ (_ listen ); Tibetan : བོད་, Wylie : bod_, Tibetan Pinyin : _boew_, pronounced ; Chinese : 西藏; pinyin : _Xīzàng_ /ɕi⁵⁵ t͡sɑŋ⁵¹/) is an autonomous region of the People\'s Republic of China
China
in the Tibetan Plateau in Asia
Asia
, spanning about 2.4 million km2 and nearly a quarter of China's territory. It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpa , Qiang , and Lhoba peoples and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of Han Chinese and Hui people . Tibet
Tibet
is the highest region on Earth, with an average elevation of 4,900 metres (16,000 ft). The highest elevation in Tibet is Mount Everest
Mount Everest
, Earth's highest mountain, rising 8,848 m (29,029 ft) above sea level.

The Tibetan Empire
Tibetan Empire
emerged in the 7th century, but with the fall of the empire the region soon divided into a variety of territories . The bulk of western and central Tibet
Tibet
( Ü-Tsang ) was often at least nominally unified under a series of Tibetan governments in Lhasa
Lhasa
, Shigatse , or nearby locations; these governments were at various times under Mongol and Chinese overlordship. The eastern regions of Kham and Amdo often maintained a more decentralized indigenous political structure, being divided among a number of small principalities and tribal groups, while also often falling more directly under Chinese rule after the Battle of Chamdo ; most of this area was eventually incorporated into the Chinese provinces of Sichuan and Qinghai . The current borders of Tibet
Tibet
were generally established in the 18th century.

Following the Xinhai Revolution against the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in 1912, Qing soldiers were disarmed and escorted out of Tibet
Tibet
Area (Ü-Tsang). The region subsequently declared its independence in 1913 without recognition by the subsequent Chinese Republican government . Later, Lhasa
Lhasa
took control of the western part of Xikang , China. The region maintained its autonomy until 1951 when, following the Battle of Chamdo , Tibet
Tibet
became incorporated into the People\'s Republic of China
China
, and the previous Tibetan government was abolished in 1959 after a failed uprising. Today, China
China
governs western and central Tibet
Tibet
as the Tibet Autonomous Region while the eastern areas are now mostly ethnic autonomous prefectures within Sichuan
Sichuan
, Qinghai and other neighbouring provinces. There are tensions regarding Tibet\'s political status and dissident groups that are active in exile. It is also said that Tibetan activists in Tibet
Tibet
have been arrested or tortured.

The economy of Tibet
Tibet
is dominated by subsistence agriculture , though tourism has become a growing industry in recent decades. The dominant religion in Tibet
Tibet
is Tibetan Buddhism ; in addition there is Bön , which is similar to Tibetan Buddhism, and there are also Tibetan Muslims and Christian minorities. Tibetan Buddhism is a primary influence on the art , music , and festivals of the region. Tibetan architecture reflects Chinese and Indian influences. Staple foods in Tibet
Tibet
are roasted barley , yak meat, and butter tea .

CONTENTS

* 1 Names * 2 Language

* 3 History

* 3.1 Early history * 3.2 Tibetan Empire
Tibetan Empire
* 3.3 Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
* 3.4 Phagmodrupa, Rinpungpa and Tsangpa Dynasties * 3.5 Rise of Ganden Phodrang * 3.6 Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
* 3.7 Post-Qing period * 3.8 From 1950 to present

* 4 Geography

* 4.1 Cities, towns and villages

* 5 Government

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Development zone

* 7 Demographics

* 8 Culture

* 8.1 Religion

* 8.1.1 Buddhism * 8.1.2 Christianity * 8.1.3 Islam

* 8.2 Tibetan art * 8.3 Architecture * 8.4 Music * 8.5 Festivals * 8.6 Cuisine

* 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links

NAMES

Main article: Definitions of Tibet

The Tibetan name for their land, _Bod_ བོད་, means "Tibet" or " Tibetan Plateau ", although it originally meant the central region around Lhasa
Lhasa
, now known in Tibetan as Ü . The Standard Tibetan pronunciation of _Bod_, , is transcribed _Bhö_ in Tournadre Phonetic Transcription , _Bö_ in the THL Simplified Phonetic Transcription and _Poi_ in Tibetan pinyin . Some scholars believe the first written reference to _Bod_ "Tibet" was the ancient _Bautai_ people recorded in the Egyptian Greek works _ Periplus of the Erythraean Sea _ (1st century CE) and _ Geographia
Geographia
_ ( Ptolemy
Ptolemy
, 2nd century CE), itself from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
form _Bhauṭṭa_ of the Indian geographical tradition.

The modern Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
exonym for the ethnic Tibetan region is _Zangqu_ (Chinese: 藏区; pinyin: _Zàngqū_), which derives by metonymy from the Tsang region around Shigatse plus the addition of a Chinese suffix, 区 _qū_, which means "area, district, region, ward". Tibetan people, language, and culture, regardless of where they are from, are referred to as _Zang_ (Chinese: 藏; pinyin: _Zàng_) although the geographical term _Xīzàng_ is often limited to the Tibet Autonomous Region . The term _Xīzàng_ was coined during the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in the reign of the Jiaqing Emperor (1796–1820) through the addition of a prefix meaning "west" (西 _xī_) to _Zang_.

The best-known medieval Chinese name for Tibet
Tibet
is _Tubo_ (Chinese: 吐蕃 also written as 土蕃 or 土番; pinyin: _Tǔbō_ or Tǔfān). This name first appears in Chinese characters as 土番 in the 7th century ( Li Tai ) and as 吐蕃 in the 10th-century (_Old Book of Tang _ describing 608–609 emissaries from Tibetan King Namri Songtsen to Emperor Yang of Sui
Emperor Yang of Sui
). In the Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
spoken during that period, as reconstructed by William H. Baxter , 土番 was pronounced _thux-phjon_ and 吐蕃 was pronounced _thux-pjon_ (with the x representing tone ).

Other pre-modern Chinese names for Tibet
Tibet
include _Wusiguo_ (Chinese: 烏斯國; pinyin: _Wūsīguó_; cf. Tibetan _dbus_, Ü , ), _Wusizang_ (Chinese: 烏斯藏; pinyin: _wūsīzàng_, cf. Tibetan _dbus-gtsang_, Ü-Tsang ), _Tubote_ (Chinese: 圖伯特; pinyin: _Túbótè_), and _Tanggute_ (Chinese: 唐古忒; pinyin: _Tánggǔtè_, cf. Tangut ). American Tibetologist Elliot Sperling has argued in favor of a recent tendency by some authors writing in Chinese to revive the term _Tubote_ (simplified Chinese: 图伯特; traditional Chinese: 圖伯特; pinyin: _Túbótè_) for modern use in place of _Xizang_, on the grounds that _Tubote_ more clearly includes the entire Tibetan plateau rather than simply the Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region.

The English word _Tibet_ or _Thibet_ dates back to the 18th century. Historical linguists generally agree that "Tibet" names in European languages are loanwords from Semitic _Ṭībat_ or_Tūbātt_ (طيبة، توبات) (טובּה, טובּת), itself deriving from Turkic _Töbäd_, literally: "The Heights" (plural of _töbän_).

LANGUAGE

Main article: Standard Tibetan

Linguists generally classify the Tibetan language as a Tibeto-Burman language of the Sino-Tibetan language family although the boundaries between 'Tibetan' and certain other Himalayan languages can be unclear. According to Matthew Kapstein :

From the perspective of historical linguistics, Tibetan most closely resembles Burmese among the major languages of Asia. Grouping these two together with other apparently related languages spoken in the Himalayan lands, as well as in the highlands of Southeast Asia
Asia
and the Sino-Tibetan frontier regions, linguists have generally concluded that there exists a Tibeto-Burman
Tibeto-Burman
family of languages. More controversial is the theory that the Tibeto-Burman
Tibeto-Burman
family is itself part of a larger language family, called Sino-Tibetan , and that through it Tibetan and Burmese are distant cousins of Chinese. Tibetan family in Kham attending a horse festival

The language has numerous regional dialects which are generally not mutually intelligible. It is employed throughout the Tibetan plateau and Bhutan
Bhutan
and is also spoken in parts of Nepal
Nepal
and northern India, such as Sikkim
Sikkim
. In general, the dialects of central Tibet
Tibet
(including Lhasa), Kham , Amdo and some smaller nearby areas are considered Tibetan dialects. Other forms, particularly Dzongkha
Dzongkha
, Sikkimese , Sherpa , and Ladakhi , are considered by their speakers, largely for political reasons, to be separate languages. However, if the latter group of Tibetan-type languages are included in the calculation, then 'greater Tibetan' is spoken by approximately 6 million people across the Tibetan Plateau. Tibetan is also spoken by approximately 150,000 exile speakers who have fled from modern-day Tibet
Tibet
to India
India
and other countries.

Although spoken Tibetan varies according to the region, the written language, based on Classical Tibetan , is consistent throughout. This is probably due to the long-standing influence of the Tibetan empire, whose rule embraced (and extended at times far beyond) the present Tibetan linguistic area, which runs from northern Pakistan
Pakistan
in the west to Yunnan
Yunnan
and Sichuan
Sichuan
in the east, and from north of Qinghai Lake south as far as Bhutan. The Tibetan language has its own script which it shares with Ladakhi and Dzongkha
Dzongkha
, and which is derived from the ancient Indian Brāhmī script
Brāhmī script
.

Starting in 2001, the local deaf sign languages of Tibet
Tibet
were standardized, and Tibetan Sign Language is now being promoted across the country.

The first Tibetan-English dictionary and grammar book was written by Alexander Csoma de Kőrös in 1834.

HISTORY

Main article: History of Tibet Further information: History of European exploration in Tibet
Tibet
and Foreign relations of Tibet King Songtsen Gampo
Songtsen Gampo

EARLY HISTORY

Main articles: Neolithic Tibet , Zhangzhung , and Pre-Imperial Tibet

Humans inhabited the Tibetan Plateau at least 21,000 years ago. This population was largely replaced around 3,000 BP by Neolithic immigrants from northern China, but there is a partial genetic continuity between the Paleolithic inhabitants and contemporary Tibetan populations.

The earliest Tibetan historical texts identify the Zhang Zhung culture as a people who migrated from the Amdo region into what is now the region of Guge in western Tibet. Zhang Zhung is considered to be the original home of the Bön religion. By the 1st century BCE, a neighboring kingdom arose in the Yarlung valley , and the Yarlung king, Drigum Tsenpo , attempted to remove the influence of the Zhang Zhung by expelling the Zhang's Bön priests from Yarlung. He was assassinated and Zhang Zhung continued its dominance of the region until it was annexed by Songtsen Gampo
Songtsen Gampo
in the 7th century. Prior to Songtsen Gampo
Songtsen Gampo
, the kings of Tibet
Tibet
were more mythological than factual, and there is insufficient evidence of their existence.

TIBETAN EMPIRE

Main article: Tibetan Empire
Tibetan Empire
Map of the Tibetan Empire
Tibetan Empire
at its greatest extent between the 780s and the 790s CE

The history of a unified Tibet
Tibet
begins with the rule of Songtsen Gampo (604–650 CE), who united parts of the Yarlung River Valley and founded the Tibetan Empire. He also brought in many reforms, and Tibetan power spread rapidly, creating a large and powerful empire. It is traditionally considered that his first wife was the Princess of Nepal, Bhrikuti , and that she played a great role in the establishment of Buddhism in Tibet. In 640 he married Princess Wencheng , the niece of the powerful Chinese emperor Taizong of Tang China
China
.

Under the next few Tibetan kings, Buddhism became established as the state religion and Tibetan power increased even further over large areas of Central Asia
Asia
, while major inroads were made into Chinese territory, even reaching the Tang 's capital Chang\'an (modern Xi\'an ) in late 763. However, the Tibetan occupation of Chang'an only lasted for fifteen days, after which they were defeated by Tang and its ally, the Turkic Uyghur Khaganate .

The Kingdom of Nanzhao (in Yunnan
Yunnan
and neighbouring regions) remained under Tibetan control from 750 to 794, when they turned on their Tibetan overlords and helped the Chinese inflict a serious defeat on the Tibetans.

In 747, the hold of Tibet
Tibet
was loosened by the campaign of general Gao Xianzhi , who tried to re-open the direct communications between Central Asia
Asia
and Kashmir
Kashmir
. By 750, the Tibetans had lost almost all of their central Asian possessions to the Chinese . However, after Gao Xianzhi's defeat by the Arabs and Qarluqs at the Battle of Talas
Battle of Talas
(751) and the subsequent civil war known as the An Lushan Rebellion (755), Chinese influence decreased rapidly and Tibetan influence resumed.

At its height in the 780's to 790's the Tibetan Empire
Tibetan Empire
reached its highest glory when it ruled and controlled a territory stretching from modern day Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan.

In 821/822 CE Tibet
Tibet
and China
China
signed a peace treaty. A bilingual account of this treaty, including details of the borders between the two countries, is inscribed on a stone pillar which stands outside the Jokhang
Jokhang
temple in Lhasa. Tibet
Tibet
continued as a Central Asian empire until the mid-9th century, when a civil war over succession led to the collapse of imperial Tibet. The period that followed is known traditionally as the _ Era of Fragmentation _, when political control over Tibet
Tibet
became divided between regional warlords and tribes with no dominant centralized authority. An Islamic invasion from Bengal took place in 1206.

YUAN DYNASTY

Main articles: Mongol conquest of Tibet
Mongol conquest of Tibet
and Tibet under Yuan rule The Mongol Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
, c. 1294.

The Mongol Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
, through the Bureau of Buddhist
Buddhist
and Tibetan Affairs , or Xuanzheng Yuan, ruled Tibet
Tibet
through a top-level administrative department. One of the department's purposes was to select a _dpon-chen _ ('great administrator'), usually appointed by the lama and confirmed by the Mongol emperor in Beijing. The Sakya lama retained a degree of autonomy, acting as the political authority of the region, while the _dpon-chen_ held administrative and military power. Mongol rule of Tibet
Tibet
remained separate from the main provinces of China, but the region existed under the administration of the Yuan dynasty . If the Sakya
Sakya
lama ever came into conflict with the _dpon-chen_, the _dpon-chen_ had the authority to send Chinese troops into the region.

Tibet
Tibet
retained nominal power over religious and regional political affairs, while the Mongols
Mongols
managed a structural and administrative rule over the region, reinforced by the rare military intervention. This existed as a "diarchic structure" under the Yuan emperor, with power primarily in favor of the Mongols. Mongolian prince Khuden gained temporal power in Tibet
Tibet
in the 1240s and sponsored Sakya Pandita , whose seat became the capital of Tibet. Drogön Chögyal Phagpa , Sakya
Sakya
Pandita's nephew became Imperial Preceptor of Kublai Khan , founder of the Yuan dynasty.

Yuan control over the region ended with the Ming overthrow of the Yuan and Tai Situ Changchub Gyaltsen 's revolt against the Mongols. Following the uprising, Tai Situ Changchub Gyaltsen founded the Phagmodrupa Dynasty , and sought to reduce Yuan influences over Tibetan culture and politics.

PHAGMODRUPA, RINPUNGPA AND TSANGPA DYNASTIES

Main articles: Phagmodrupa Dynasty , Rinpungpa , and Tsangpa Further information: Sino-Tibetan relations during the Ming dynasty

Between 1346 and 1354, Tai Situ Changchub Gyaltsen toppled the Sakya and founded the Phagmodrupa Dynasty. The following 80 years saw the founding of the Gelug school (also known as Yellow Hats) by the disciples of Je Tsongkhapa , and the founding of the important Ganden , Drepung and Sera monasteries near Lhasa. However, internal strife within the dynasty and the strong localism of the various fiefs and political-religious factions led to a long series of internal conflicts. The minister family Rinpungpa , based in Tsang (West Central Tibet), dominated politics after 1435. In 1565 they were overthrown by the Tsangpa Dynasty of Shigatse which expanded its power in different directions of Tibet
Tibet
in the following decades and favoured the Karma Kagyu sect.

RISE OF GANDEN PHODRANG

_ The Khoshut Khanate
Khoshut Khanate
, 1642–1717. Tibet
Tibet
in 1734. Royaume de Thibet_ ("Kingdom of Tibet") in _la Chine, la Tartarie Chinoise, et le Thibet_ ("China, Chinese Tartary , and Tibet") on a 1734 map by Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d\'Anville , based on earlier Jesuit maps. Tibet
Tibet
in 1892 during the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
. Main article: Ganden Phodrang

In 1578, Altan Khan of the Tümed Mongols
Mongols
gave Sonam Gyatso , a high lama of the Gelugpa school, the name _ Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
_, _Dalai_ being the Mongolian translation of the Tibetan name _Gyatso_ "Ocean".

The 5th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
is known for unifying the Tibetan heartland under the control of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism , after defeating the rival Kagyu and Jonang sects and the secular ruler, the Tsangpa prince, in a prolonged civil war. His efforts were successful in part because of aid from Güshi Khan , the Oirat leader of the Khoshut Khanate . With Güshi Khan as a largely uninvolved overlord, the 5th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
and his intimates established a civil administration which is referred to by historians as the _ Lhasa
Lhasa
state_. This Tibetan regime or government is also referred to as the Ganden Phodrang .

QING DYNASTY

Main articles: Chinese expedition to Tibet (1720) and Tibet
Tibet
under Qing rule

Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
rule in Tibet
Tibet
began with their 1720 expedition to the country when they expelled the invading Dzungars . Amdo came under Qing control in 1724, and eastern Kham was incorporated into neighbouring Chinese provinces in 1728. Meanwhile, the Qing government sent resident commissioners called _Ambans _ to Lhasa. In 1750 the Ambans and the majority of the Han Chinese and Manchus living in Lhasa
Lhasa
were killed in a riot , and Qing troops arrived quickly and suppressed the rebels in the next year. Like the preceding Yuan dynasty, the Manchus of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
exerted military and administrative control of the region, while granting it a degree of political autonomy. The Qing commander publicly executed a number of supporters of the rebels and, as in 1723 and 1728, made changes in the political structure and drew up a formal organization plan. The Qing now restored the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
as ruler, leading the governing council called _ Kashag _, but elevated the role of _Ambans_ to include more direct involvement in Tibetan internal affairs. At the same time the Qing took steps to counterbalance the power of the aristocracy by adding officials recruited from the clergy to key posts.

For several decades, peace reigned in Tibet, but in 1792 the Qing Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
sent a large Chinese army into Tibet
Tibet
to push the invading Nepalese out. This prompted yet another Qing reorganization of the Tibetan government, this time through a written plan called the "Twenty-Nine Regulations for Better Government in Tibet". Qing military garrisons staffed with Qing troops were now also established near the Nepalese border. Tibet
Tibet
was dominated by the Manchus in various stages in the 18th century, and the years immediately following the 1792 regulations were the peak of the Qing imperial commissioners' authority; but there was no attempt to make Tibet
Tibet
a Chinese province.

In 1834 the Sikh Empire invaded and annexed Ladakh
Ladakh
, a culturally Tibetan region that was an independent kingdom at the time. Seven years later a Sikh army led by General Zorawar Singh invaded western Tibet
Tibet
from Ladakh, starting the Sino-Sikh War
Sino-Sikh War
. A Qing-Tibetan army repelled the invaders but was in turn defeated when it chased the Sikhs into Ladakh. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Chushul between the Chinese and Sikh empires.

As the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
weakened, its authority over Tibet
Tibet
also gradually declined, and by the mid-19th century its influence was minuscule. Qing authority over Tibet
Tibet
had become more symbolic than real by the late 19th century, although in the 1860s the Tibetans still chose for reasons of their own to emphasize the empire's symbolic authority and make it seem substantial.

This period also saw some contacts with Jesuits
Jesuits
and Capuchins from Europe, and in 1774 a Scottish nobleman, George Bogle , came to Shigatse to investigate prospects of trade for the British East India Company . However, in the 19th century the situation of foreigners in Tibet
Tibet
grew more tenuous. The British Empire
British Empire
was encroaching from northern India
India
into the Himalayas
Himalayas
, the Emirate of Afghanistan and the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
were expanding into Central Asia
Asia
and each power became suspicious of the others' intentions in Tibet.

In 1904, a British expedition to Tibet , spurred in part by a fear that Russia
Russia
was extending its power into Tibet
Tibet
as part of The Great Game , invaded the country, hoping that negotiations with the 13th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
would be more effective than with Chinese representatives. When the British-led invasion reached Tibet
Tibet
on December 12, 1903, an armed confrontation with the ethnic Tibetans resulted in the Massacre of Chumik Shenko , which resulted in 600 fatalities amongst the Tibetan forces, compared to only 12 on the British side. Afterwards, in 1904 Francis Younghusband imposed a treaty known as the Treaty of Lhasa
Lhasa
, which was subsequently repudiated and was succeeded by a 1906 treaty signed between Britain and China.

In 1910, the Qing government sent a military expedition of its own under Zhao Erfeng to establish direct Manchu-Chinese rule and, in an imperial edict, deposed the Dalai Lama, who fled to British India. Zhao Erfeng defeated the Tibetan military conclusively and expelled the Dalai Lama's forces from the province. His actions were unpopular, and there was much animosity against him for his mistreatment of civilians and disregard for local culture.

POST-QING PERIOD

Rogyapas , an outcast group , early 20th century. Their hereditary occupation included disposal of corpses and leather work. Main article: Tibet (1912–51)

After the Xinhai Revolution (1911–12) toppled the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
and the last Qing troops were escorted out of Tibet, the new Republic of China
China
apologized for the actions of the Qing and offered to restore the Dalai Lama's title. The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
refused any Chinese title and declared himself ruler of an independent Tibet
Tibet
. In 1913, Tibet
Tibet
and Mongolia
Mongolia
concluded a treaty of mutual recognition . For the next 36 years, the 13th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
and the regents who succeeded him governed Tibet. During this time, Tibet
Tibet
fought Chinese warlords for control of the ethnically Tibetan areas in Xikang and Qinghai (parts of Kham and Amdo) along the upper reaches of the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
. In 1914 the Tibetan government signed the Simla Accord with Britain, ceding the South Tibet region to British India
India
. The Chinese government denounced the agreement as illegal.

When in the 1930s and 1940s the regents displayed negligence in affairs, the Kuomintang Government of the Republic of China
China
took advantage of this to expand its reach into the territory.

FROM 1950 TO PRESENT

Main article: History of Tibet (1950–present)

Emerging with control over most of mainland China
China
after the Chinese Civil War , the People\'s Republic of China
China
incorporated Tibet
Tibet
in 1950 and negotiated the Seventeen Point Agreement with the newly enthroned 14th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
's government, affirming the People's Republic of China's sovereignty but granting the area autonomy. Subsequently, on his journey into exile, the 14th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
completely repudiated the agreement, which he has repeated on many occasions. The Chinese used the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
to be able to have control of the military's training and actions.

The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
had a strong following as many people from Tibet looked at him as their leader from not just a political point of view but, also from a spiritual prospective. After the Dalai Lama's government fled to Dharamsala , India, during the 1959 Tibetan Rebellion , it established a rival government-in-exile . Afterwards, the Central People\'s Government in Beijing renounced the agreement and began implementation of the halted social and political reforms. During the Great Leap Forward
Great Leap Forward
, between 200,000 and 1,000,000 Tibetans died, and approximately 6,000 monasteries were destroyed during the Cultural Revolution , thus the vast majority of historic Tibetan architecture was destroyed. In 1962 China
China
and India
India
fought a brief war over the disputed South Tibet and Aksai Chin regions. Although China
China
won the war, Chinese troops withdrew north of the McMahon Line , effectively ceding South Tibet to India.

In 1980, General Secretary and reformist Hu Yaobang visited Tibet
Tibet
and ushered in a period of social, political, and economic liberalization. At the end of the decade, however, before the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 , monks in the Drepung and Sera monasteries started protesting for independence, and so the government halted reforms and started an anti-separatist campaign. Human rights organisations have been critical of the Beijing and Lhasa
Lhasa
governments' approach to human rights in the region when cracking down on separatist convulsions that have occurred around monasteries and cities, most recently in the 2008 Tibetan unrest .

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Geography of Tibet Tibet
Tibet
is located on the Tibetan Plateau , the world's highest region. Himalayas, on the southern rim of the Tibetan plateau

All of modern China, including Tibet, is considered a part of East Asia. Historically, some European sources also considered parts of Tibet
Tibet
to lie in Central Asia
Asia
. Tibet
Tibet
is west of the Central China plain , and within mainland China
China
Tibet
Tibet
is regarded as part of 西部 (Xībù), a term usually translated by Chinese media as "the Western section", meaning "Western China". Yarlung Tsangpo River Tibet
Tibet
is often called the "roof of the world, because it is a very high plateau. Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas above 1600 m – topography .

Tibet
Tibet
has some of the world's tallest mountains, with several of them making the top ten list. Mount Everest
Mount Everest
, located on the border with Nepal
Nepal
, is, at 8,848 metres (29,029 ft), the highest mountain on earth. Several major rivers have their source in the Tibetan Plateau (mostly in present-day Qinghai Province). These include the Yangtze , Yellow River
Yellow River
, Indus River
Indus River
, Mekong
Mekong
, Ganges
Ganges
, Salween and the Yarlung Tsangpo River ( Brahmaputra River
Brahmaputra River
). The Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon , along the Yarlung Tsangpo River , is among the deepest and longest canyons in the world.

Tibet
Tibet
has been called the "Water Tower" of Asia, and China
China
is investing heavily in water projects in Tibet.

The Indus and Brahmaputra rivers originate from a lake (Tib: Tso Mapham) in Western Tibet, near Mount Kailash . The mountain is a holy pilgrimage site for both Hindus and Tibetans. The Hindus consider the mountain to be the abode of Lord Shiva. The Tibetan name for Mt. Kailash is Khang Rinpoche. Tibet
Tibet
has numerous high-altitude lakes referred to in Tibetan as _tso_ or _co_. These include Qinghai Lake , Lake Manasarovar
Lake Manasarovar
, Namtso , Pangong Tso , Yamdrok Lake , Siling Co , Lhamo La-tso
Lhamo La-tso
, Lumajangdong Co , Lake Puma Yumco , Lake Paiku , Como Chamling , Lake Rakshastal , Dagze Co and Dong Co . The Qinghai Lake (Koko Nor) is the largest lake in the People's Republic of China.

The atmosphere is severely dry nine months of the year, and average annual snowfall is only 18 inches (46 cm), due to the rain shadow effect . Western passes receive small amounts of fresh snow each year but remain traversible all year round. Low temperatures are prevalent throughout these western regions, where bleak desolation is unrelieved by any vegetation bigger than a low bush, and where wind sweeps unchecked across vast expanses of arid plain. The Indian monsoon exerts some influence on eastern Tibet. Northern Tibet
Tibet
is subject to high temperatures in the summer and intense cold in the winter.

Cultural Tibet
Tibet
consists of several regions. These include Amdo (_A mdo_) in the northeast, which is administratively part of the provinces of Qinghai, Gansu and Sichuan. Kham (_Khams_) in the southeast encompasses parts of western Sichuan, northern Yunnan
Yunnan
, southern Qinghai and the eastern part of the Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region. Ü-Tsang (_dBus gTsang_) (Ü in the center, Tsang in the center-west, and Ngari (_mNga' ris_) in the far west) covered the central and western portion of Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region.

Tibetan cultural influences extend to the neighboring states of Bhutan
Bhutan
, Nepal, regions of India
India
such as Sikkim
Sikkim
, Ladakh
Ladakh
, Lahaul
Lahaul
, and Spiti
Spiti
, in addition to designated Tibetan autonomous areas in adjacent Chinese provinces.

CITIES, TOWNS AND VILLAGES

Further information: List of populated places in the Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region Looking across the square at Jokhang
Jokhang
temple, Lhasa
Lhasa

There are over 800 settlements in Tibet. Lhasa
Lhasa
is Tibet's traditional capital and the capital of Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region. It contains two world heritage sites – the Potala Palace and Norbulingka , which were the residences of the Dalai Lama. Lhasa
Lhasa
contains a number of significant temples and monasteries, including Jokhang
Jokhang
and Ramoche Temple .

Shigatse is the second largest city in the Tibet
Tibet
AR, west of Lhasa. Gyantse
Gyantse
and Qamdo are also amongst the largest.

Other cities and towns in cultural Tibet
Tibet
include Shiquanhe (Ali), Nagchu , Bamda
Bamda
, Rutog , Nyingchi
Nyingchi
, Nedong , Coqên , Barkam , Sakya
Sakya
, Gartse , Pelbar , Lhatse
Lhatse
, and Tingri ; in Sichuan, Kangding (Dartsedo); in Qinghai, Jyekundo (Yushu), Machen , and Golmud ; in India, Tawang , Leh
Leh
, and Gangtok .

GOVERNMENT

Main article: Tibet Autonomous Region § Government

The central region of Tibet
Tibet
is an autonomous region within China, the Tibet Autonomous Region . The Tibet Autonomous Region is a province-level entity of the People's Republic of China. It is governed by a People's Government, led by a Chairman. In practice, however, the Chairman is subordinate to the branch secretary of the Communist Party of China
China
. As a matter of convention, the Chairman has almost always been an ethnic Tibetan, while the party secretary has always been ethnically non-Tibetan.

ECONOMY

Main article: Economy of Tibet The Tibetan yak is an integral part of Tibetan life

The Tibetan economy is dominated by subsistence agriculture . Due to limited arable land, the primary occupation of the Tibetan Plateau is raising livestock, such as sheep , cattle, goats , camels , yaks , dzo , and horses .

The dogs of Tibet
Tibet
are twice the size of those seen in India, with large heads and hairy bodies. They are powerful animals, and are said to be able to kill a tiger. During the day they are kept chained up, and are let loose at night to guard their masters' house.

The main crops grown are barley , wheat, buckwheat , rye , potatoes, and assorted fruits and vegetables. Tibet
Tibet
is ranked the lowest among China’s 31 provinces on the Human Development Index according to UN Development Programme data. In recent years, due to increased interest in Tibetan Buddhism, tourism has become an increasingly important sector, and is actively promoted by the authorities. Tourism
Tourism
brings in the most income from the sale of handicrafts. These include Tibetan hats, jewelry (silver and gold), wooden items, clothing, quilts, fabrics, Tibetan rugs and carpets. The Central People's Government exempts Tibet
Tibet
from all taxation and provides 90% of Tibet's government expenditures. However most of this investment goes to pay migrant workers who do not settle in Tibet
Tibet
and send much of their income home to other provinces.

40% of the rural cash income in the Tibet Autonomous Region is derived from the harvesting of the fungus _ Cordyceps sinensis _; contributing at least 1.8 billion yuan, (225 million USD) to the region’s GDP. Farmers' market in Lhasa
Lhasa

The Qingzang railway linking the Tibet Autonomous Region to Qinghai Province was opened in 2006, but not without controversy.

In January 2007, the Chinese government issued a report outlining the discovery of a large mineral deposit under the Tibetan Plateau . The deposit has an estimated value of $128 billion and may double Chinese reserves of zinc, copper, and lead. The Chinese government sees this as a way to alleviate the nation's dependence on foreign mineral imports for its growing economy. However, critics worry that mining these vast resources will harm Tibet's fragile ecosystem and undermine Tibetan culture.

On January 15, 2009, China
China
announced the construction of Tibet’s first expressway, a 37.9 km (23.5 mi) stretch of controlled-access highway in southwestern Lhasa. The project will cost 1.55 billion yuan (US$227 million).

From January 18–20, 2010 a national conference on Tibet
Tibet
and areas inhabited by Tibetans in Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu and Qinghai was held in China
China
and a substantial plan to improve development of the areas was announced. The conference was attended by General secretary Hu Jintao , Wu Bangguo , Wen Jiabao
Wen Jiabao
, Jia Qinglin , Li Changchun , Xi Jinping , Li Keqiang
Li Keqiang
, He Guoqiang and Zhou Yongkang
Zhou Yongkang
, all members of CPC Politburo Standing Committee signaling the commitment of senior Chinese leaders to development of Tibet
Tibet
and ethnic Tibetan areas. The plan calls for improvement of rural Tibetan income to national standards by 2020 and free education for all rural Tibetan children. China
China
has invested 310 billion yuan (about 45.6 billion U.S. dollars) in Tibet
Tibet
since 2001. "Tibet's GDP was expected to reach 43.7 billion yuan in 2009, up 170 percent from that in 2000 and posting an annual growth of 12.3 percent over the past nine years."

DEVELOPMENT ZONE

The State Council approved Tibet
Tibet
Lhasa
Lhasa
Economic and Technological Development Zone as a state-level development zone in 2001. It is located in the western suburbs of Lhasa, the capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region. It is 50 kilometres (31 miles) away from the Gonggar Airport , and 2 km (1.2 mi) away from Lhasa
Lhasa
Railway Station and 2 km (1.2 mi) away from 318 national highway.

The zone has a planned area of 5.46 km2 (2.11 sq mi) and is divided into two zones. Zone A developed a land area of 2.51 km2 (0.97 sq mi) for construction purposes. It is a flat zone, and has the natural conditions for good drainage.

DEMOGRAPHICS

See also: History of Tibet (1950–present) and Demographics of Tibet Autonomous Region Tibetan Lamanis, c. 1905 An elderly Tibetan woman in Lhasa
Lhasa

Historically, the population of Tibet
Tibet
consisted of primarily ethnic Tibetans and some other ethnic groups. According to tradition the original ancestors of the Tibetan people, as represented by the six red bands in the Tibetan flag , are: the Se, Mu, Dong, Tong, Dru and Ra. Other traditional ethnic groups with significant population or with the majority of the ethnic group residing in Tibet
Tibet
(excluding a disputed area with India
India
) include Bai people , Blang , Bonan , Dongxiang , Han , Hui people
Hui people
, Lhoba , Lisu people , Miao , Mongols
Mongols
, Monguor (Tu people) , Menba (Monpa) , Mosuo , Nakhi , Qiang , Nu people , Pumi , Salar , and Yi people .

The proportion of the non-Tibetan population in Tibet
Tibet
is disputed. On the one hand, the Central Tibetan Administration of the Dalai Lama accuses China
China
of actively swamping Tibet
Tibet
with migrants in order to alter Tibet's demographic makeup. On the other hand, according to the 2010 Chinese census ethnic Tibetans comprise 90% of a total population of 3 million in the Tibet Autonomous Region . Exact population numbers probably depend on how temporary migrants are counted.

CULTURE

Main article: Tibetan culture

RELIGION

Main article: Religion in Tibet

Buddhism

Main article: Tibetan Buddhism Buddhist
Buddhist
monks practicing debate in Drepung Monastery

Religion is extremely important to the Tibetans and has a strong influence over all aspects of their lives. Bön is the indigenous religion of Tibet, but has been almost eclipsed by Tibetan Buddhism, a distinctive form of Mahayana and Vajrayana
Vajrayana
, which was introduced into Tibet
Tibet
from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Buddhist
Buddhist
tradition of northern India. Tibetan Buddhism is practiced not only in Tibet
Tibet
but also in Mongolia
Mongolia
, parts of northern India, the Buryat Republic , the Tuva Republic
Tuva Republic
, and in the Republic of Kalmykia and some other parts of China. During China's Cultural Revolution , nearly all Tibet's monasteries were ransacked and destroyed by the Red Guards . A few monasteries have begun to rebuild since the 1980s (with limited support from the Chinese government) and greater religious freedom has been granted – although it is still limited. Monks returned to monasteries across Tibet
Tibet
and monastic education resumed even though the number of monks imposed is strictly limited. Before the 1950s, between 10 and 20% of males in Tibet
Tibet
were monks.

Tibetan Buddhism has four main traditions (the suffix _pa_ is comparable to "er" in English):

* GELUG(PA) , _Way of Virtue_, also known casually as _Yellow Hat_, whose spiritual head is the Ganden Tripa and whose temporal head is the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
. Successive Dalai Lamas ruled Tibet
Tibet
from the mid-17th to mid-20th centuries. This order was founded in the 14th to 15th centuries by Je Tsongkhapa , based on the foundations of the Kadampa tradition. Tsongkhapa was renowned for both his scholasticism and his virtue. The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
belongs to the Gelugpa school, and is regarded as the embodiment of the Bodhisattva of Compassion. * KAGYU(PA) , _Oral Lineage_. This contains one major subsect and one minor subsect. The first, the Dagpo Kagyu, encompasses those Kagyu schools that trace back to Gampopa . In turn, the Dagpo Kagyu consists of four major sub-sects: the Karma Kagyu , headed by a Karmapa , the Tsalpa Kagyu, the Barom Kagyu, and Pagtru Kagyu. The once-obscure Shangpa Kagyu , which was famously represented by the 20th-century teacher Kalu Rinpoche
Kalu Rinpoche
, traces its history back to the Indian master Niguma, sister of Kagyu lineage holder Naropa . This is an oral tradition which is very much concerned with the experiential dimension of meditation. Its most famous exponent was Milarepa, an 11th-century mystic. * NYINGMA(PA) , _The Ancient Ones_. This is the oldest, the original order founded by Padmasambhava . * SAKYA(PA) , _Grey Earth_, headed by the Sakya
Sakya
Trizin , founded by Khon Konchog Gyalpo, a disciple of the great translator Drokmi Lotsawa. Sakya
Sakya
Pandita 1182–1251 CE was the great grandson of Khon Konchog Gyalpo. This school emphasizes scholarship.

Christianity

The first Christians documented to have reached Tibet
Tibet
were the Nestorians , of whom various remains and inscriptions have been found in Tibet. They were also present at the imperial camp of Möngke Khan at Shira Ordo, where they debated in 1256 with Karma Pakshi (1204/6-83), head of the Karma Kagyu order. Desideri, who reached Lhasa
Lhasa
in 1716, encountered Armenian and Russian merchants.

Roman Catholic Jesuits
Jesuits
and Capuchins arrived from Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. Portuguese missionaries Jesuit Father António de Andrade and Brother Manuel Marques first reached the kingdom of Gelu in western Tibet
Tibet
in 1624 and was welcomed by the royal family who allowed them to build a church later on. By 1627, there were about a hundred local converts in the Guge kingdom. Later on, Christianity was introduced to Rudok , Ladakh
Ladakh
and Tsang and was welcomed by the ruler of the Tsang kingdom , where Andrade and his fellows established a Jesuit outpost at Shigatse in 1626.

In 1661 another Jesuit, Johann Grueber , crossed Tibet
Tibet
from Sining to Lhasa
Lhasa
(where he spent a month), before heading on to Nepal. He was followed by others who actually built a church in Lhasa. These included the Jesuit Father Ippolito Desideri , 1716–1721, who gained a deep knowledge of Tibetan culture, language and Buddhism, and various Capuchins in 1707–1711, 1716–1733 and 1741–1745, Christianity was used by some Tibetan monarchs and their courts and the Karmapa sect lamas to counterbalance the influence of the Gelugpa sect in the 17th century until in 1745 when all the missionaries were expelled at the lama's insistence.

In 1877, the Protestant James Cameron from the China
China
Inland Mission walked from Chongqing
Chongqing
to Batang in Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture , Sichuan
Sichuan
province, and "brought the Gospel to the Tibetan people." Beginning in the 20th century, in Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan, a large number of Lisu people and some Yi and Nu people converted to Christianity. Famous earlier missionaries include James O. Fraser , Alfred James Broomhall and Isobel Kuhn of the China Inland Mission, among others who were active in this area.

Proselytising
Proselytising
has been illegal in China
China
since 1949. But as of 2013 , many Christian missionaries were reported to be active in Tibet
Tibet
with the tacit approval of Chinese authorities, who view the missionaries as a counterforce to Tibetan Buddhism or as a boon to the local economy.

Islam

Main article: Islam in Tibet Tibetan mosque in Lhasa
Lhasa

Muslims have been living in Tibet
Tibet
since as early as the 8th or 9th century. In Tibetan cities, there are small communities of Muslims , known as Kachee (Kache), who trace their origin to immigrants from three main regions: Kashmir
Kashmir
(Kachee Yul in ancient Tibetan), Ladakh and the Central Asian Turkic countries. Islamic influence in Tibet also came from Persia. After 1959 a group of Tibetan Muslims made a case for Indian nationality based on their historic roots to Kashmir and the Indian government declared all Tibetan Muslims Indian citizens later on that year. Other Muslim ethnic groups who have long inhabited Tibet
Tibet
include Hui , Salar , Dongxiang and Bonan . There is also a well established Chinese Muslim community (gya kachee), which traces its ancestry back to the Hui ethnic group of China.

TIBETAN ART

Main article: Tibetan art A thangka painting in Sikkim
Sikkim
A ritual box

Tibetan representations of art are intrinsically bound with Tibetan Buddhism and commonly depict deities or variations of Buddha in various forms from bronze Buddhist
Buddhist
statues and shrines, to highly colorful thangka paintings and mandalas .

ARCHITECTURE

Main article: Tibetan culture § Architecture

Tibetan architecture contains Chinese and Indian influences, and reflects a deeply Buddhist
Buddhist
approach. The Buddhist
Buddhist
wheel , along with two dragons, can be seen on nearly every Gompa
Gompa
in Tibet. The design of the Tibetan Chörtens can vary, from roundish walls in Kham to squarish, four-sided walls in Ladakh
Ladakh
.

The most distinctive feature of Tibetan architecture is that many of the houses and monasteries are built on elevated, sunny sites facing the south, and are often made out of a mixture of rocks, wood, cement and earth. Little fuel is available for heat or lighting, so flat roofs are built to conserve heat, and multiple windows are constructed to let in sunlight. Walls are usually sloped inwards at 10 degrees as a precaution against the frequent earthquakes in this mountainous area. The Potala Palace

Standing at 117 metres (384 feet) in height and 360 metres (1,180 feet) in width, the Potala Palace is the most important example of Tibetan architecture. Formerly the residence of the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
, it contains over one thousand rooms within thirteen stories, and houses portraits of the past Dalai Lamas and statues of the Buddha. It is divided between the outer White Palace, which serves as the administrative quarters, and the inner Red Quarters, which houses the assembly hall of the Lamas, chapels, 10,000 shrines, and a vast library of Buddhist
Buddhist
scriptures. The Potala Palace is a World Heritage Site , as is Norbulingka , the former summer residence of the Dalai Lama.

MUSIC

Main article: Music of Tibet

The music of Tibet
Tibet
reflects the cultural heritage of the trans-Himalayan region, centered in Tibet
Tibet
but also known wherever ethnic Tibetan groups are found in India, Bhutan
Bhutan
, Nepal
Nepal
and further abroad. First and foremost Tibetan music is religious music , reflecting the profound influence of Tibetan Buddhism on the culture.

Tibetan music often involves chanting in Tibetan or Sanskrit
Sanskrit
, as an integral part of the religion. These chants are complex, often recitations of sacred texts or in celebration of various festivals. Yang chanting, performed without metrical timing, is accompanied by resonant drums and low, sustained syllables. Other styles include those unique to the various schools of Tibetan Buddhism, such as the classical music of the popular Gelugpa school, and the romantic music of the Nyingmapa , Sakyapa and Kagyupa schools.

Nangma dance music is especially popular in the karaoke bars of the urban center of Tibet, Lhasa
Lhasa
. Another form of popular music is the classical gar style, which is performed at rituals and ceremonies. Lu are a type of songs that feature glottal vibrations and high pitches. There are also epic bards who sing of Gesar , who is a hero to ethnic Tibetans.

FESTIVALS

Main article: Tibetan festivals The Monlam Prayer Festival
Monlam Prayer Festival

Tibet
Tibet
has various festivals that are commonly performed to worship the Buddha throughout the year. Losar is the Tibetan New Year Festival. Preparations for the festive event are manifested by special offerings to family shrine deities, painted doors with religious symbols, and other painstaking jobs done to prepare for the event. Tibetans eat _ Guthuk _ (barley noodle soup with filling) on New Year's Eve with their families. The Monlam Prayer Festival
Monlam Prayer Festival
follows it in the first month of the Tibetan calendar , falling between the fourth and the eleventh days of the first Tibetan month. It involves dancing and participating in sports events, as well as sharing picnics. The event was established in 1049 by Tsong Khapa, the founder of the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama's order.

CUISINE

Main article: Tibetan cuisine See also: List of Tibetan dishes Thupka with Momo – Tibetan Style

The most important crop in Tibet
Tibet
is barley , and dough made from barley flour—called tsampa —is the staple food of Tibet. This is either rolled into noodles or made into steamed dumplings called momos . Meat dishes are likely to be yak , goat, or mutton , often dried, or cooked into a spicy stew with potatoes. Mustard seed is cultivated in Tibet, and therefore features heavily in its cuisine. Yak
Yak
yogurt , butter and cheese are frequently eaten, and well-prepared yogurt is considered something of a prestige item. Butter tea is very popular to drink.

SEE ALSO

* Tibet
Tibet
portal * China
China
portal

* Central Tibetan Administration * Human rights in Tibet * Index of Tibet-related articles * Major national historical and cultural sites in Tibet
Tibet
* Outline of Tibet * Tibet Area (administrative division) * Tibetan independence movement

NOTES

* ^ http://www.china-un.org/eng/gyzg/xizang/t424199.htm * ^ Goldstein, Melvyn, C.,_Change, Conflict and Continuity among a Community of Nomadic Pastoralist: A Case Study from Western Tibet, 1950–1990_, 1994: "What is Tibet? – Fact and Fancy", pp. 76-87 * ^ Clark, Gregory, "_In fear of China_", 1969, saying: ' _Tibet, although enjoying independence at certain periods of its history, had never been recognised by any single foreign power as an independent state. The closest it has ever come to such recognition was the British formula of 1943: suzerainty , combined with autonomy and the right to enter into diplomatic relations._ ' * ^ "Q&A: China
China
and the Tibetans". _BBC News_. 2011-08-15. Retrieved 2017-05-17. * ^ Lee, Peter (2011-05-07). "Tibet\'s only hope lies within". The Asia
Asia
Times. Retrieved 2011-05-10. Robin described the region as a cauldron of tension. Tibetans still were infuriated by numerous arrests in the wake of the 2008 protests. But local Tibetans had not organized themselves. 'They are very angry at the Chinese government and the Chinese people,' Robin said. 'But they have no idea what to do. There is no leader. When a leader appears and somebody helps out they will all join.' We ... heard tale after tale of civil disobedience in outlying hamlets . In one village, Tibetans burned their Chinese flags and hoisted the banned Tibetan Snow Lion flag instead. Authorities ... detained nine villagers ... One nomad ... said 'After I die ... my sons and grandsons will remember. They will hate the government.' * ^ "Regions and territories: Tibet". _BBC News_. 2010-12-11. * ^ Wong, Edward (2009-02-18). " China
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Environmental Watch – Development". Tew.org. Retrieved 2010-03-26. * ^ " China
China
TIBET Tourism
Tourism
Bureau". Archived from the original on August 31, 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-07. * ^ Grunfeld 1996, pg. 224 * ^ Xu Mingxu, "_Intrugues and Devoutness_", Brampton, p134, ISBN 1-896745-95-4 * ^ The 14th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
affirmed that Tibetans within the TAR have never paid taxes to the Central People's Government, _see_ Donnet, Pierre-Antoine, "_ Tibet
Tibet
mort ou vif_", 1994, p104 , ISBN 957-13-1040-9

* ^ "Tibet\'s economy depends on Beijing". NPR News. 2002-08-26. Retrieved 2006-02-24. * ^ Brown, Kerry (11 January 2014). "How Xi Can Solve The Tibet Problem". _thediplomat.com_. The Diplomat. Retrieved 10 January 2014. * ^ Daniel Winkler (November 2008). "Yartsa Gunbu (Cordyceps sinensis) and the Fungal Commodification of Tibet’s Rural Economy". _Economic Botany_. 62: 291–305. doi :10.1007/s12231-008-9038-3 . * ^ " China
China
opens world\'s highest railway". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2005-07-01. Archived from the original on July 6, 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-01. * ^ " China
China
completes railway to Tibet". BBC News. 2005-10-15. Retrieved 2006-07-04. * ^ " Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Urges \'Wait And See\' On Tibet
Tibet
Railway". Deutsche Presse Agentur. 2006-06-30. Retrieved 2006-07-04. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Valuable mineral deposits found along Tibet
Tibet
railroad route". _New York Times_. 2007-01-25. Retrieved 2014-01-06. * ^ Peng, James (2009-01-16). " China
China
Says ‘Sabotage’ by Dalai Lama Supporters Set Back Tibet". Retrieved 2009-02-07. * ^ " China
China
to achieve leapfrog development, lasting stability in Tibet" news.xinhuanet.com/english * ^ " Lhasa
Lhasa
Economic & Technology Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2010-12-31. * ^ "Population Transfer Programmes". Central Tibetan Administration . 2003. Archived from the original on July 30, 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-29. * ^ "Tibet\'s population tops 3 million; 90% are Tibetans". Xinhua News Agency . 2011-05-04. Retrieved 2011-12-04. * ^ Conze, Edward (1993). _A Short History of Buddhism_. Oneworld. ISBN 1-85168-066-7 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Tibetan monks: A controlled life. BBC News. March 20, 2008. * ^ Tibet
Tibet
During the Cultural Revolution Pictures from a Tibetan People's Liberation Army's officer Archived copy at the Library of Congress (May 5, 2010). * ^ The last of the Tibetans Los Angeles Times. March 26, 2008. Archived July 24, 2009, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ TIBET\'S BUDDHIST MONKS ENDURE TO REBUILD A PART OF THE PAST New York Times Published: June 14, 1987. * ^ Laird 2006, pp. 351, 352 * ^ Goldstein, Melvyn C. (2007). _A History of Modern Tibet: Volume 2 The Calm before the Storm, 1951–1955_. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. * ^ Avalokitesvara
Avalokitesvara
, Chenrezig * ^ Kapstein 2006, pp. 31, 71, 113 * ^ Stein 1972, pp. 36, 77–78 * ^ Françoise Pommaret, Françoise Pommaret-Imaeda (2003). _Lhasa in the Seventeenth Century: The Capital of the Dalai Lamas_. BRILL. p.159. ISBN 90-04-12866-2 * ^ Graham Sanderg, The Exploration of Tibet: History and Particulars (Delhi: Cosmo Publications, 1973), pp. 23–26; Thomas Holdich, Tibet, The Mysterious (London: Alston Rivers , 1906), p. 70. * ^ Sir Edward Maclagan, The Jesuits
Jesuits
and The Great Mogul (London: Burns, Oates & Washbourne Ltd., 1932), pp. 344–345. * ^ Lettera del P. Alano Dos Anjos al Provinciale di Goa, 10 Novembre 1627, quoted from Wu Kunming, Zaoqi Chuanjiaoshi jin Zang Huodongshi (Beijing: Zhongguo Zangxue chubanshe, 1992), p. 163. * ^ Extensively using Italian and Portuguese archival materials, Wu's work gives a detailed account of Cacella's activities in Tsang. See Zaoqi Chuanjiaoshi jin Zang Huodongshi, esp. chapter 5. * ^ _Narratives of the Mission of George Bogle to Tibet, and of the Journey of Thomas Manning to Lhasa_, pp. 295–302. Clements R. Markham. (1876). Reprint Cosmo Publications, New Delhi. 1989. * ^ Stein 1972, p. 85 * ^ "When Christianity and Lamaism Met: The Changing Fortunes of Early Western Missionaries in Tibet
Tibet
by Lin Hsiao-ting of Stanford University". Pacificrim.usfca.edu. Archived from the original on June 26, 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-26. * ^ "BBC News Country Profiles Timeline: Tibet". 2009-11-05. Retrieved 2009-03-11. * ^ Lettera del P. Antonio de Andrade. Giovanni de Oliveira. Alano Dos Anjos al Provinciale di Goa, 29 Agosto, 1627, quoted from Wu, Zaoqi Chuanjiaoshi jin Zang Huodongshi, p. 196; Maclagan, The Jesuits and The Great Mogul, pp. 347–348. * ^ Cornelius Wessels, Early Jesuit Travellers in Central Asia, 1603–1721 (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1924), pp. 80–85. * ^ Maclagan, The Jesuits
Jesuits
and The Great Mogul, pp. 349–352; Filippo de Filippi ed., An Account of Tibet, pp. 13–17. * ^ Relação da Missão do Reino de Uçangue Cabeça dos do Potente, Escrita pello P. João Cabral da Comp. de Jesu. fol. 1, quoted from Wu, Zaoqi Chuanjiaoshi jin Zang Huodongshi, pp. 294–297; Wang Yonghong, "Luelun Tianzhujiao zai Xizang di Zaoqi Huodong", Xizang Yanjiu, 1989, No. 3, pp. 62–63. * ^ " Yunnan
Yunnan
Province of China
China
Government Web". Archived from the original on March 12, 2009. Retrieved February 15, 2008. * ^ Kapstein 2006, pp. 31, 206 * ^ Kaiman, Jonathan (21 February 2013). "Going undercover, the evangelists taking Jesus to Tibet". The Guardian. Retrieved February 21, 2013. * ^ Masood Butt, \'Muslims of Tibet\' Archived September 10, 2006, at the Wayback Machine ., The Office of Tibet, January/February 1994 * ^ Crossley-Holland, Peter. (1976). "The Ritual Music of Tibet." _The Tibet
Tibet
Journal_. Vol. 1, Nos. 3 -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em;">

* Beckwith, Christopher I . _The Tibetan Empire
Tibetan Empire
in Central Asia: A History of the Struggle for Great Power among Tibetans, Turks, Arabs, and Chinese during the Early Middle Ages'_ (1987) Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-02469-3

* Goldstein, Melvyn C . _A History of Modern Tibet, 1913–1951: The Demise of the Lamaist State_ (1989) University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-06140-8

* Goldstein, Melvyn C . _A History of Modern Tibet, 1913–1951: The Demise of the Lamaist State_ (1989), first Indian edition (1993) Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, New Delhi, ISBN 81-215-0582-8 Pagination is identical to University of California edition.

* Goldstein, Melvyn C. _The Snow Lion and the Dragon: China, Tibet, and the Dalai Lama_ (1997) University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21951-1 * Grunfeld, Tom (1996). _The Making of Modern Tibet._ ISBN 1-56324-713-5 . * Hopkirk, Peter . _Trespassers on the Roof of the World: The Secret Exploration of Tibet_ (1983) J. P. Tarcher. ISBN 0-87477-257-5 * Kapstein, Matthew T . _The Tibetans_ (2006) Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-0-631-22574-4 * Laird, Thomas. _The Story of Tibet: Conversations with the Dalai Lama_ (2006) Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-1827-5 * Mullin, Glenn H ._The Fourteen Dalai Lamas: A Sacred Legacy of Reincarnations_ (2001) Clear Light Publishers. ISBN 1-57416-092-3 * Powers, John. _History as Propaganda: Tibetan Exiles versus the People's Republic of China_ (2004) Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-517426-7 * Richardson, Hugh E . _ Tibet
Tibet
and its History_ Second Edition, Revised and Updated (1984) Shambhala. ISBN 0-87773-376-7 * Shakya, Tsering . _The Dragon In The Land Of Snows_ (1999) Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11814-7 * Stein, R . _Tibetan Civilization_ (1972) Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0901-7 * Teltscher, Kate. _The High Road to China: George Bogle, the Panchen Lama
Panchen Lama
and the First British Expedition to Tibet_ (2006) Bloomsbury UK. ISBN 0-7475-8484-2

FURTHER READING

* Allen, Charles (2004). _Duel in the Snows: The True Story of the Younghusband Mission to Lhasa._ London: John Murray. ISBN 0-7195-5427-6 . * Bell, Charles (1924). _Tibet: Past & Present._ Oxford: Clarendon Press. * Dowman, Keith (1988). _The Power-Places of Central Tibet: The Pilgrim's Guide._ Routledge Turnbull, Colin (1968). _Tibet: Its History, Religion and People._ Reprint: Penguin Books (1987). * Pachen, Ani; Donnely, Adelaide (2000). _Sorrow Mountain: The Journey of a Tibetan Warrior Nun._ Kodansha America, Inc. ISBN 1-56836-294-3 . * Petech, Luciano (1997). _ China
China
and Tibet
Tibet
in the Early XVIIIth Century: History of the Establishment of Chinese Protectorate in Tibet._ T'oung Pao Monographies, Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 90-04-03442-0 . * Rabgey, Tashi; Sharlho, Tseten Wangchuk (2004). _Sino-Tibetan Dialogue in the Post-Mao Era: Lessons and Prospects_ (PDF). Washington: East-West Center. ISBN 1-932728-22-8 . * Samuel, Geoffrey (1993). _Civilized Shamans: Buddhism in Tibetan Societies._ Smithsonian ISBN 1-56098-231-4 . * Schell, Orville (2000). _Virtual Tibet: Searching for Shangri-La from the Himalayas
Himalayas
to Hollywood._ Henry Holt. ISBN 0-8050-4381-0 . * Smith, Warren W. (1996). _History of Tibet: Nationalism and Self-determination_. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3155-2 .

* Smith, Warren W. (2004). China\'s Policy on Tibetan Autonomy _– EWC Working Papers No. 2_ (PDF). Washington: East-West Center. * Smith, Warren W. (2008). _China's Tibet?: Autonomy or Assimilation_. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7425-3989-1 . * Sperling, Elliot (2004). _The Tibet- China
China
Conflict: History and Polemics_ (PDF). Washington: East-West Center. ISBN 1-932728-13-9 . ISSN 1547-1330 . – (online version) * Thurman, Robert (2002). _Robert Thurman on Tibet._ DVD. ASIN B00005Y722. * Van Walt van Praag, Michael C. (1987). _The Status of Tibet: History, Rights, and Prospects in International Law._ Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. * Wilby, Sorrel (1988). _Journey Across Tibet: A Young Woman's 1,900-mile (3,060 km) Trek Across the Rooftop of the World._ Contemporary Books. ISBN 0-8092-4608-2 . * Wilson, Brandon (2004). _ Yak
Yak
Butter Blues: A Tibetan Trek of Faith._ Pilgrim's Tales. ISBN 0-9770536-6-0 , ISBN 0-9770536-7-9 . (second edition 2005) * Wang Jiawei (2000). _The Historical Status of China's Tibet._ ISBN 7-80113-304-8 . * Tibet
Tibet
wasn\'t always ours, says Chinese scholar by Venkatesan Vembu, Daily News & Analysis, February 22, 2007 * Wylie, Turrell V. "The First Mongol Conquest of Tibet Reinterpreted", _Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies_ (Volume 37, Number 1, June 1977) * Zenz, Adrian (2014). _Tibetanness under Threat? Neo-Integrationism, Minority Education and Career Strategies in Qinghai, P.R. China_. Global Oriental. ISBN 9789004257962 .

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