Coordinates : 31°12′N 88°48′E / 31.2°N 88.8°E /
"Greater Tibet" as claimed by Tibetan exile groups
Tibetan autonomous areas , as designated by China
Tibet Autonomous Region , within China
Chinese-controlled, claimed by
India as part of
Indian -controlled, parts claimed by
Other areas historically within the Tibetan cultural sphere
"Tibet" in the Tibetan (top) and Chinese (bottom) scripts
"Western Tsang "
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS TIBETAN ALPHABET . Without proper rendering
support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead
of Tibetan characters.
TIBET (/tɪˈbɛt/ (_ listen ); Tibetan : བོད་, Wylie :
Tibetan Pinyin : _boew_, pronounced ; Chinese : 西藏; pinyin
: _Xīzàng_ /ɕi⁵⁵ t͡sɑŋ⁵¹/) is an autonomous region of the
People\'s Republic of
China in the
Tibetan Plateau in
Asia , spanning
about 2.4 million km2 and nearly a quarter of China's territory. It
is the traditional homeland of the
Tibetan people as well as some
other ethnic groups such as Monpa , Qiang , and
Lhoba peoples and is
now also inhabited by considerable numbers of
Han Chinese and Hui
Tibet is the highest region on Earth, with an average
elevation of 4,900 metres (16,000 ft). The highest elevation in Tibet
Mount Everest , Earth's highest mountain, rising 8,848 m (29,029
ft) above sea level.
Tibetan Empire emerged in the 7th century, but with the fall of
the empire the region soon divided into a variety of territories . The
bulk of western and central
Ü-Tsang ) was often at least
nominally unified under a series of Tibetan governments in
Shigatse , or nearby locations; these governments were at various
times under Mongol and Chinese overlordship. The eastern regions of
Amdo often maintained a more decentralized indigenous
political structure, being divided among a number of small
principalities and tribal groups, while also often falling more
directly under Chinese rule after the
Battle of Chamdo ; most of this
area was eventually incorporated into the Chinese provinces of Sichuan
Qinghai . The current borders of
Tibet were generally established
in the 18th century.
Xinhai Revolution against the
Qing dynasty in 1912,
Qing soldiers were disarmed and escorted out of
Tibet Area (Ü-Tsang).
The region subsequently declared its independence in 1913 without
recognition by the subsequent Chinese Republican government . Later,
Lhasa took control of the western part of
Xikang , China. The region
maintained its autonomy until 1951 when, following the Battle of
Tibet became incorporated into the People\'s Republic of
China , and the previous Tibetan government was abolished in 1959
after a failed uprising. Today,
China governs western and central
Tibet as the
Tibet Autonomous Region while the eastern areas are now
mostly ethnic autonomous prefectures within
other neighbouring provinces. There are tensions regarding Tibet\'s
political status and dissident groups that are active in exile. It
is also said that Tibetan activists in
Tibet have been arrested or
The economy of
Tibet is dominated by subsistence agriculture , though
tourism has become a growing industry in recent decades. The dominant
Tibetan Buddhism ; in addition there is
which is similar to Tibetan Buddhism, and there are also Tibetan
Muslims and Christian minorities.
Tibetan Buddhism is a primary
influence on the art , music , and festivals of the region. Tibetan
architecture reflects Chinese and Indian influences. Staple foods in
Tibet are roasted barley , yak meat, and butter tea .
* 1 Names
* 2 Language
* 3 History
* 3.1 Early history
* 3.4 Phagmodrupa,
* 3.5 Rise of
* 3.7 Post-Qing period
* 3.8 From 1950 to present
* 4 Geography
* 4.1 Cities, towns and villages
* 5 Government
* 6 Economy
* 6.1 Development zone
* 7 Demographics
* 8 Culture
* 8.1 Religion
* 8.1.1 Buddhism
* 8.1.2 Christianity
* 8.1.3 Islam
* 8.3 Architecture
* 8.4 Music
* 8.5 Festivals
* 8.6 Cuisine
* 9 See also
* 10 Notes
* 11 References
* 12 Further reading
* 13 External links
Definitions of Tibet
The Tibetan name for their land, _Bod_ བོད་, means "Tibet" or
Tibetan Plateau ", although it originally meant the central region
Lhasa , now known in Tibetan as Ü . The Standard Tibetan
pronunciation of _Bod_, , is transcribed _Bhö_ in Tournadre Phonetic
Transcription , _Bö_ in the
THL Simplified Phonetic Transcription and
Tibetan pinyin . Some scholars believe the first written
reference to _Bod_ "Tibet" was the ancient _Bautai_ people recorded in
the Egyptian Greek works _
Periplus of the Erythraean Sea _ (1st
century CE) and _
Geographia _ (
Ptolemy , 2nd century CE), itself from
Sanskrit form _Bhauṭṭa_ of the Indian geographical tradition.
Standard Chinese exonym for the ethnic Tibetan region is
_Zangqu_ (Chinese: 藏区; pinyin: _Zàngqū_), which derives by
metonymy from the Tsang region around
Shigatse plus the addition of a
Chinese suffix, 区 _qū_, which means "area, district, region, ward".
Tibetan people, language, and culture, regardless of where they are
from, are referred to as _Zang_ (Chinese: 藏; pinyin: _Zàng_)
although the geographical term _Xīzàng_ is often limited to the
Tibet Autonomous Region . The term _Xīzàng_ was coined during the
Qing dynasty in the reign of the
Jiaqing Emperor (1796–1820) through
the addition of a prefix meaning "west" (西 _xī_) to _Zang_.
The best-known medieval Chinese name for
Tibet is _Tubo_ (Chinese:
吐蕃 also written as 土蕃 or 土番; pinyin: _Tǔbō_ or Tǔfān).
This name first appears in Chinese characters as 土番 in the 7th
Li Tai ) and as 吐蕃 in the 10th-century (_Old Book of Tang
_ describing 608–609 emissaries from Tibetan King
Namri Songtsen to
Emperor Yang of Sui
Emperor Yang of Sui ). In the
Middle Chinese spoken during that
period, as reconstructed by
William H. Baxter , 土番 was pronounced
_thux-phjon_ and 吐蕃 was pronounced _thux-pjon_ (with the x
representing tone ).
Other pre-modern Chinese names for
Tibet include _Wusiguo_ (Chinese:
烏斯國; pinyin: _Wūsīguó_; cf. Tibetan _dbus_, Ü , ),
_Wusizang_ (Chinese: 烏斯藏; pinyin: _wūsīzàng_, cf. Tibetan
Ü-Tsang ), _Tubote_ (Chinese: 圖伯特; pinyin:
_Túbótè_), and _Tanggute_ (Chinese: 唐古忒; pinyin:
_Tánggǔtè_, cf. Tangut ). American Tibetologist
Elliot Sperling has
argued in favor of a recent tendency by some authors writing in
Chinese to revive the term _Tubote_ (simplified Chinese: 图伯特;
traditional Chinese: 圖伯特; pinyin: _Túbótè_) for modern use in
place of _Xizang_, on the grounds that _Tubote_ more clearly includes
the entire Tibetan plateau rather than simply the
The English word _Tibet_ or _Thibet_ dates back to the 18th century.
Historical linguists generally agree that "Tibet" names in European
languages are loanwords from Semitic _Ṭībat_ or_Tūbātt_
(طيبة، توبات) (טובּה, טובּת), itself deriving from
Turkic _Töbäd_, literally: "The Heights" (plural of _töbän_).
Linguists generally classify the Tibetan language as a Tibeto-Burman
language of the
Sino-Tibetan language family although the boundaries
between 'Tibetan' and certain other Himalayan languages can be
unclear. According to
Matthew Kapstein :
From the perspective of historical linguistics, Tibetan most closely
resembles Burmese among the major languages of Asia. Grouping these
two together with other apparently related languages spoken in the
Himalayan lands, as well as in the highlands of Southeast
Asia and the
Sino-Tibetan frontier regions, linguists have generally concluded that
there exists a
Tibeto-Burman family of languages. More controversial
is the theory that the
Tibeto-Burman family is itself part of a larger
language family, called Sino-Tibetan , and that through it Tibetan and
Burmese are distant cousins of Chinese. Tibetan family in Kham
attending a horse festival
The language has numerous regional dialects which are generally not
mutually intelligible. It is employed throughout the Tibetan plateau
Bhutan and is also spoken in parts of
Nepal and northern India,
Sikkim . In general, the dialects of central
Amdo and some smaller nearby areas are considered
Tibetan dialects. Other forms, particularly
Dzongkha , Sikkimese ,
Sherpa , and Ladakhi , are considered by their speakers, largely for
political reasons, to be separate languages. However, if the latter
group of Tibetan-type languages are included in the calculation, then
'greater Tibetan' is spoken by approximately 6 million people across
the Tibetan Plateau. Tibetan is also spoken by approximately 150,000
exile speakers who have fled from modern-day
India and other
Although spoken Tibetan varies according to the region, the written
language, based on
Classical Tibetan , is consistent throughout. This
is probably due to the long-standing influence of the Tibetan empire,
whose rule embraced (and extended at times far beyond) the present
Tibetan linguistic area, which runs from northern
Pakistan in the west
Sichuan in the east, and from north of
south as far as Bhutan. The Tibetan language has its own script which
it shares with Ladakhi and
Dzongkha , and which is derived from the
Brāhmī script .
Starting in 2001, the local deaf sign languages of
Tibetan Sign Language is now being promoted across
The first Tibetan-English dictionary and grammar book was written by
Alexander Csoma de Kőrös in 1834.
History of Tibet Further information: History of
European exploration in
Foreign relations of Tibet
Neolithic Tibet ,
Zhangzhung , and
Humans inhabited the
Tibetan Plateau at least 21,000 years ago. This
population was largely replaced around 3,000 BP by Neolithic
immigrants from northern China, but there is a partial genetic
continuity between the Paleolithic inhabitants and contemporary
The earliest Tibetan historical texts identify the Zhang Zhung
culture as a people who migrated from the
Amdo region into what is now
the region of
Guge in western Tibet. Zhang Zhung is considered to be
the original home of the
Bön religion. By the 1st century BCE, a
neighboring kingdom arose in the Yarlung valley , and the Yarlung
Drigum Tsenpo , attempted to remove the influence of the Zhang
Zhung by expelling the Zhang's
Bön priests from Yarlung. He was
assassinated and Zhang Zhung continued its dominance of the region
until it was annexed by
Songtsen Gampo in the 7th century. Prior to
Songtsen Gampo , the kings of
Tibet were more mythological than
factual, and there is insufficient evidence of their existence.
Tibetan Empire Map of the
Tibetan Empire at its
greatest extent between the 780s and the 790s CE
The history of a unified
Tibet begins with the rule of Songtsen Gampo
(604–650 CE), who united parts of the Yarlung River Valley and
founded the Tibetan Empire. He also brought in many reforms, and
Tibetan power spread rapidly, creating a large and powerful empire. It
is traditionally considered that his first wife was the Princess of
Bhrikuti , and that she played a great role in the
establishment of Buddhism in Tibet. In 640 he married Princess
Wencheng , the niece of the powerful Chinese emperor Taizong of Tang
Under the next few Tibetan kings, Buddhism became established as the
state religion and Tibetan power increased even further over large
areas of Central
Asia , while major inroads were made into Chinese
territory, even reaching the Tang 's capital Chang\'an (modern Xi\'an
) in late 763. However, the Tibetan occupation of
lasted for fifteen days, after which they were defeated by Tang and
its ally, the Turkic
Uyghur Khaganate .
Kingdom of Nanzhao (in
Yunnan and neighbouring regions) remained
under Tibetan control from 750 to 794, when they turned on their
Tibetan overlords and helped the Chinese inflict a serious defeat on
In 747, the hold of
Tibet was loosened by the campaign of general Gao
Xianzhi , who tried to re-open the direct communications between
Kashmir . By 750, the Tibetans had lost almost all of
their central Asian possessions to the Chinese . However, after Gao
Xianzhi's defeat by the Arabs and Qarluqs at the
Battle of Talas
Battle of Talas (751)
and the subsequent civil war known as the
An Lushan Rebellion (755),
Chinese influence decreased rapidly and Tibetan influence resumed.
At its height in the 780's to 790's the
Tibetan Empire reached its
highest glory when it ruled and controlled a territory stretching from
modern day Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, India,
Nepal, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan.
In 821/822 CE
China signed a peace treaty. A bilingual
account of this treaty, including details of the borders between the
two countries, is inscribed on a stone pillar which stands outside the
Jokhang temple in Lhasa.
Tibet continued as a Central Asian empire
until the mid-9th century, when a civil war over succession led to the
collapse of imperial Tibet. The period that followed is known
traditionally as the _
Era of Fragmentation _, when political control
Tibet became divided between regional warlords and tribes with no
dominant centralized authority. An Islamic invasion from Bengal took
place in 1206.
Mongol conquest of Tibet
Mongol conquest of Tibet and
Tibet under Yuan rule
Yuan dynasty , c. 1294.
Yuan dynasty , through the Bureau of
Buddhist and Tibetan
Affairs , or Xuanzheng Yuan, ruled
Tibet through a top-level
administrative department. One of the department's purposes was to
select a _dpon-chen _ ('great administrator'), usually appointed by
the lama and confirmed by the Mongol emperor in Beijing. The Sakya
lama retained a degree of autonomy, acting as the political authority
of the region, while the _dpon-chen_ held administrative and military
power. Mongol rule of
Tibet remained separate from the main provinces
of China, but the region existed under the administration of the Yuan
dynasty . If the
Sakya lama ever came into conflict with the
_dpon-chen_, the _dpon-chen_ had the authority to send Chinese troops
into the region.
Tibet retained nominal power over religious and regional political
affairs, while the
Mongols managed a structural and administrative
rule over the region, reinforced by the rare military intervention.
This existed as a "diarchic structure" under the Yuan emperor, with
power primarily in favor of the Mongols. Mongolian prince Khuden
gained temporal power in
Tibet in the 1240s and sponsored Sakya
Pandita , whose seat became the capital of Tibet. Drogön Chögyal
Sakya Pandita's nephew became
Imperial Preceptor of Kublai
Khan , founder of the Yuan dynasty.
Yuan control over the region ended with the Ming overthrow of the
Tai Situ Changchub Gyaltsen 's revolt against the Mongols.
Following the uprising,
Tai Situ Changchub Gyaltsen founded the
Phagmodrupa Dynasty , and sought to reduce Yuan influences over
Tibetan culture and politics.
PHAGMODRUPA, RINPUNGPA AND TSANGPA DYNASTIES
Phagmodrupa Dynasty ,
Rinpungpa , and
Sino-Tibetan relations during the Ming dynasty
Between 1346 and 1354,
Tai Situ Changchub Gyaltsen toppled the Sakya
and founded the Phagmodrupa Dynasty. The following 80 years saw the
founding of the
Gelug school (also known as Yellow Hats) by the
Je Tsongkhapa , and the founding of the important Ganden
Drepung and Sera monasteries near Lhasa. However, internal strife
within the dynasty and the strong localism of the various fiefs and
political-religious factions led to a long series of internal
conflicts. The minister family
Rinpungpa , based in Tsang (West
Central Tibet), dominated politics after 1435. In 1565 they were
overthrown by the
Tsangpa Dynasty of
Shigatse which expanded its power
in different directions of
Tibet in the following decades and favoured
Karma Kagyu sect.
RISE OF GANDEN PHODRANG
Khoshut Khanate , 1642–1717.
Tibet in 1734. Royaume
de Thibet_ ("Kingdom of Tibet") in _la Chine, la Tartarie Chinoise, et
le Thibet_ ("China, Chinese
Tartary , and Tibet") on a 1734 map by
Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d\'Anville , based on earlier Jesuit maps.
Tibet in 1892 during the
Qing dynasty . Main article: Ganden
Altan Khan of the
Mongols gave Sonam Gyatso , a high
lama of the
Gelugpa school, the name _
Dalai Lama _, _Dalai_ being the
Mongolian translation of the Tibetan name _Gyatso_ "Ocean".
Dalai Lama is known for unifying the Tibetan heartland under
the control of the
Gelug school of
Tibetan Buddhism , after defeating
Jonang sects and the secular ruler, the Tsangpa
prince, in a prolonged civil war. His efforts were successful in part
because of aid from
Güshi Khan , the Oirat leader of the Khoshut
Khanate . With
Güshi Khan as a largely uninvolved overlord, the 5th
Dalai Lama and his intimates established a civil administration which
is referred to by historians as the _
Lhasa state_. This Tibetan regime
or government is also referred to as the
Ganden Phodrang .
Chinese expedition to Tibet (1720) and
Qing dynasty rule in
Tibet began with their 1720 expedition to the
country when they expelled the invading Dzungars .
Amdo came under
Qing control in 1724, and eastern
Kham was incorporated into
neighbouring Chinese provinces in 1728. Meanwhile, the Qing
government sent resident commissioners called _Ambans _ to Lhasa. In
1750 the Ambans and the majority of the
Han Chinese and
Lhasa were killed in a riot , and Qing troops arrived quickly and
suppressed the rebels in the next year. Like the preceding Yuan
Manchus of the
Qing dynasty exerted military and
administrative control of the region, while granting it a degree of
political autonomy. The Qing commander publicly executed a number of
supporters of the rebels and, as in 1723 and 1728, made changes in the
political structure and drew up a formal organization plan. The Qing
now restored the
Dalai Lama as ruler, leading the governing council
Kashag _, but elevated the role of _Ambans_ to include more
direct involvement in Tibetan internal affairs. At the same time the
Qing took steps to counterbalance the power of the aristocracy by
adding officials recruited from the clergy to key posts.
For several decades, peace reigned in Tibet, but in 1792 the Qing
Qianlong Emperor sent a large Chinese army into
Tibet to push the
invading Nepalese out. This prompted yet another Qing reorganization
of the Tibetan government, this time through a written plan called the
"Twenty-Nine Regulations for Better Government in Tibet". Qing
military garrisons staffed with Qing troops were now also established
near the Nepalese border.
Tibet was dominated by the
various stages in the 18th century, and the years immediately
following the 1792 regulations were the peak of the Qing imperial
commissioners' authority; but there was no attempt to make
In 1834 the
Sikh Empire invaded and annexed
Ladakh , a culturally
Tibetan region that was an independent kingdom at the time. Seven
years later a Sikh army led by
General Zorawar Singh invaded western
Tibet from Ladakh, starting the
Sino-Sikh War . A Qing-Tibetan army
repelled the invaders but was in turn defeated when it chased the
Sikhs into Ladakh. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of
Chushul between the Chinese and Sikh empires.
Qing dynasty weakened, its authority over
Tibet also gradually
declined, and by the mid-19th century its influence was minuscule.
Qing authority over
Tibet had become more symbolic than real by the
late 19th century, although in the 1860s the Tibetans still chose
for reasons of their own to emphasize the empire's symbolic authority
and make it seem substantial.
This period also saw some contacts with
Jesuits and Capuchins from
Europe, and in 1774 a Scottish nobleman, George Bogle , came to
Shigatse to investigate prospects of trade for the British East India
Company . However, in the 19th century the situation of foreigners in
Tibet grew more tenuous. The
British Empire was encroaching from
India into the
Himalayas , the
Emirate of Afghanistan and the
Russian Empire were expanding into Central
Asia and each power became
suspicious of the others' intentions in Tibet.
In 1904, a
British expedition to Tibet , spurred in part by a fear
Russia was extending its power into
Tibet as part of The Great
Game , invaded the country, hoping that negotiations with the 13th
Dalai Lama would be more effective than with Chinese representatives.
When the British-led invasion reached
Tibet on December 12, 1903, an
armed confrontation with the ethnic Tibetans resulted in the Massacre
of Chumik Shenko , which resulted in 600 fatalities amongst the
Tibetan forces, compared to only 12 on the British side. Afterwards,
Francis Younghusband imposed a treaty known as the Treaty of
Lhasa , which was subsequently repudiated and was succeeded by a 1906
treaty signed between Britain and China.
In 1910, the Qing government sent a military expedition of its own
Zhao Erfeng to establish direct Manchu-Chinese rule and, in an
imperial edict, deposed the Dalai Lama, who fled to British India.
Zhao Erfeng defeated the Tibetan military conclusively and expelled
the Dalai Lama's forces from the province. His actions were unpopular,
and there was much animosity against him for his mistreatment of
civilians and disregard for local culture.
Rogyapas , an outcast group , early 20th century. Their
hereditary occupation included disposal of corpses and leather work.
Xinhai Revolution (1911–12) toppled the
Qing dynasty and
the last Qing troops were escorted out of Tibet, the new Republic of
China apologized for the actions of the Qing and offered to restore
the Dalai Lama's title. The
Dalai Lama refused any Chinese title and
declared himself ruler of an independent
Tibet . In 1913,
Mongolia concluded a treaty of mutual recognition . For the next 36
years, the 13th
Dalai Lama and the regents who succeeded him governed
Tibet. During this time,
Tibet fought Chinese warlords for control of
the ethnically Tibetan areas in
Qinghai (parts of
Amdo) along the upper reaches of the
Yangtze River . In 1914 the
Tibetan government signed the Simla Accord with Britain, ceding the
South Tibet region to British
India . The Chinese government denounced
the agreement as illegal.
When in the 1930s and 1940s the regents displayed negligence in
affairs, the Kuomintang Government of the Republic of
advantage of this to expand its reach into the territory.
FROM 1950 TO PRESENT
History of Tibet (1950–present)
Emerging with control over most of mainland
China after the Chinese
Civil War , the People\'s Republic of
Tibet in 1950
and negotiated the Seventeen Point Agreement with the newly enthroned
Dalai Lama 's government, affirming the People's Republic of
China's sovereignty but granting the area autonomy. Subsequently, on
his journey into exile, the 14th
Dalai Lama completely repudiated the
agreement, which he has repeated on many occasions. The Chinese used
Dalai Lama to be able to have control of the military's training
Dalai Lama had a strong following as many people from Tibet
looked at him as their leader from not just a political point of view
but, also from a spiritual prospective. After the Dalai Lama's
government fled to Dharamsala , India, during the 1959 Tibetan
Rebellion , it established a rival government-in-exile . Afterwards,
the Central People\'s Government in Beijing renounced the agreement
and began implementation of the halted social and political reforms.
Great Leap Forward
Great Leap Forward , between 200,000 and 1,000,000 Tibetans
died, and approximately 6,000 monasteries were destroyed during the
Cultural Revolution , thus the vast majority of historic Tibetan
architecture was destroyed. In 1962
India fought a brief
war over the disputed
South Tibet and
Aksai Chin regions. Although
China won the war, Chinese troops withdrew north of the
McMahon Line ,
South Tibet to India.
In 1980, General Secretary and reformist
Hu Yaobang visited
ushered in a period of social, political, and economic liberalization.
At the end of the decade, however, before the Tiananmen Square
protests of 1989 , monks in the
Drepung and Sera monasteries started
protesting for independence, and so the government halted reforms and
started an anti-separatist campaign. Human rights organisations have
been critical of the Beijing and
Lhasa governments' approach to human
rights in the region when cracking down on separatist convulsions that
have occurred around monasteries and cities, most recently in the 2008
Tibetan unrest .
Geography of Tibet
Tibet is located on the
Tibetan Plateau , the world's highest region. Himalayas, on the
southern rim of the Tibetan plateau
All of modern China, including Tibet, is considered a part of East
Asia. Historically, some European sources also considered parts of
Tibet to lie in Central
Tibet is west of the Central China
plain , and within mainland
Tibet is regarded as part of 西部
(Xībù), a term usually translated by Chinese media as "the Western
section", meaning "Western China".
Yarlung Tsangpo River
Tibet is often called the "roof of the world, because it is a very
Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas above 1600
m – topography .
Tibet has some of the world's tallest mountains, with several of them
making the top ten list.
Mount Everest , located on the border with
Nepal , is, at 8,848 metres (29,029 ft), the highest mountain on
earth. Several major rivers have their source in the Tibetan Plateau
(mostly in present-day
Qinghai Province). These include the Yangtze ,
Yellow River ,
Indus River ,
Ganges , Salween and the Yarlung
Tsangpo River (
Brahmaputra River ). The Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon
, along the
Yarlung Tsangpo River , is among the deepest and longest
canyons in the world.
Tibet has been called the "Water Tower" of Asia, and
investing heavily in water projects in Tibet.
The Indus and Brahmaputra rivers originate from a lake (Tib: Tso
Mapham) in Western Tibet, near
Mount Kailash . The mountain is a holy
pilgrimage site for both Hindus and Tibetans. The Hindus consider the
mountain to be the abode of Lord Shiva. The Tibetan name for Mt.
Kailash is Khang Rinpoche.
Tibet has numerous high-altitude lakes
referred to in Tibetan as _tso_ or _co_. These include
Qinghai Lake ,
Lake Manasarovar ,
Pangong Tso ,
Yamdrok Lake ,
Siling Co ,
Lhamo La-tso ,
Lumajangdong Co ,
Lake Puma Yumco ,
Lake Paiku , Como
Lake Rakshastal ,
Dagze Co and
Dong Co . The
(Koko Nor) is the largest lake in the People's Republic of China.
The atmosphere is severely dry nine months of the year, and average
annual snowfall is only 18 inches (46 cm), due to the rain shadow
effect . Western passes receive small amounts of fresh snow each year
but remain traversible all year round. Low temperatures are prevalent
throughout these western regions, where bleak desolation is unrelieved
by any vegetation bigger than a low bush, and where wind sweeps
unchecked across vast expanses of arid plain. The Indian monsoon
exerts some influence on eastern Tibet. Northern
Tibet is subject to
high temperatures in the summer and intense cold in the winter.
Tibet consists of several regions. These include
mdo_) in the northeast, which is administratively part of the
provinces of Qinghai, Gansu and Sichuan.
Kham (_Khams_) in the
southeast encompasses parts of western Sichuan, northern
Qinghai and the eastern part of the
Tibet Autonomous Region.
Ü-Tsang (_dBus gTsang_) (Ü in the center, Tsang in the center-west,
and Ngari (_mNga' ris_) in the far west) covered the central and
western portion of
Tibet Autonomous Region.
Tibetan cultural influences extend to the neighboring states of
Bhutan , Nepal, regions of
India such as
Spiti , in addition to designated Tibetan autonomous areas in
adjacent Chinese provinces.
CITIES, TOWNS AND VILLAGES
Further information: List of populated places in the
Region Looking across the square at
There are over 800 settlements in Tibet.
Lhasa is Tibet's traditional
capital and the capital of
Tibet Autonomous Region. It contains two
world heritage sites – the
Potala Palace and
Norbulingka , which
were the residences of the Dalai Lama.
Lhasa contains a number of
significant temples and monasteries, including
Jokhang and Ramoche
Shigatse is the second largest city in the
Tibet AR, west of Lhasa.
Qamdo are also amongst the largest.
Other cities and towns in cultural
Bamda , Rutog ,
Nyingchi , Nedong , Coqên , Barkam ,
Gartse , Pelbar ,
Lhatse , and Tingri ; in Sichuan, Kangding
(Dartsedo); in Qinghai,
Jyekundo (Yushu), Machen , and
Golmud ; in
Leh , and
Tibet Autonomous Region § Government
The central region of
Tibet is an autonomous region within China, the
Tibet Autonomous Region . The
Tibet Autonomous Region is a
province-level entity of the People's Republic of China. It is
governed by a People's Government, led by a Chairman. In practice,
however, the Chairman is subordinate to the branch secretary of the
Communist Party of
China . As a matter of convention, the Chairman has
almost always been an ethnic Tibetan, while the party secretary has
always been ethnically non-Tibetan.
Economy of Tibet The Tibetan yak is an integral
part of Tibetan life
The Tibetan economy is dominated by subsistence agriculture . Due to
limited arable land, the primary occupation of the
Tibetan Plateau is
raising livestock, such as sheep , cattle, goats , camels , yaks , dzo
, and horses .
The dogs of
Tibet are twice the size of those seen in India, with
large heads and hairy bodies. They are powerful animals, and are said
to be able to kill a tiger. During the day they are kept chained up,
and are let loose at night to guard their masters' house.
The main crops grown are barley , wheat, buckwheat , rye , potatoes,
and assorted fruits and vegetables.
Tibet is ranked the lowest among
China’s 31 provinces on the Human Development Index according to UN
Development Programme data. In recent years, due to increased
interest in Tibetan Buddhism, tourism has become an increasingly
important sector, and is actively promoted by the authorities.
Tourism brings in the most income from the sale of handicrafts. These
include Tibetan hats, jewelry (silver and gold), wooden items,
clothing, quilts, fabrics, Tibetan rugs and carpets. The Central
People's Government exempts
Tibet from all taxation and provides 90%
of Tibet's government expenditures. However most of this
investment goes to pay migrant workers who do not settle in
send much of their income home to other provinces.
40% of the rural cash income in the
Tibet Autonomous Region is
derived from the harvesting of the fungus _
Cordyceps sinensis _;
contributing at least 1.8 billion yuan, (225 million USD) to the
region’s GDP. Farmers' market in
Qingzang railway linking the
Tibet Autonomous Region to Qinghai
Province was opened in 2006, but not without controversy.
In January 2007, the Chinese government issued a report outlining the
discovery of a large mineral deposit under the
Tibetan Plateau . The
deposit has an estimated value of $128 billion and may double Chinese
reserves of zinc, copper, and lead. The Chinese government sees this
as a way to alleviate the nation's dependence on foreign mineral
imports for its growing economy. However, critics worry that mining
these vast resources will harm Tibet's fragile ecosystem and undermine
On January 15, 2009,
China announced the construction of Tibet’s
first expressway, a 37.9 km (23.5 mi) stretch of controlled-access
highway in southwestern Lhasa. The project will cost 1.55 billion yuan
From January 18–20, 2010 a national conference on
Tibet and areas
inhabited by Tibetans in Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu and
Qinghai was held
China and a substantial plan to improve development of the areas
was announced. The conference was attended by General secretary Hu
Wu Bangguo ,
Wen Jiabao ,
Jia Qinglin ,
Li Changchun , Xi
Li Keqiang ,
He Guoqiang and
Zhou Yongkang , all members of
CPC Politburo Standing Committee signaling the commitment of senior
Chinese leaders to development of
Tibet and ethnic Tibetan areas. The
plan calls for improvement of rural Tibetan income to national
standards by 2020 and free education for all rural Tibetan children.
China has invested 310 billion yuan (about 45.6 billion U.S. dollars)
Tibet since 2001. "Tibet's GDP was expected to reach 43.7 billion
yuan in 2009, up 170 percent from that in 2000 and posting an annual
growth of 12.3 percent over the past nine years."
The State Council approved
Lhasa Economic and Technological
Development Zone as a state-level development zone in 2001. It is
located in the western suburbs of Lhasa, the capital of the Tibet
Autonomous Region. It is 50 kilometres (31 miles) away from the
Gonggar Airport , and 2 km (1.2 mi) away from
Lhasa Railway Station
and 2 km (1.2 mi) away from 318 national highway.
The zone has a planned area of 5.46 km2 (2.11 sq mi) and is divided
into two zones. Zone A developed a land area of 2.51 km2 (0.97 sq mi)
for construction purposes. It is a flat zone, and has the natural
conditions for good drainage.
History of Tibet (1950–present) and Demographics of Tibet
Autonomous Region Tibetan Lamanis, c. 1905 An elderly
Tibetan woman in
Historically, the population of
Tibet consisted of primarily ethnic
Tibetans and some other ethnic groups. According to tradition the
original ancestors of the Tibetan people, as represented by the six
red bands in the
Tibetan flag , are: the Se, Mu, Dong, Tong, Dru and
Ra. Other traditional ethnic groups with significant population or
with the majority of the ethnic group residing in
Tibet (excluding a
disputed area with
India ) include
Bai people , Blang , Bonan ,
Dongxiang , Han ,
Hui people ,
Lisu people , Miao ,
Monguor (Tu people) , Menba (Monpa) ,
Nakhi , Qiang , Nu
people , Pumi , Salar , and
Yi people .
The proportion of the non-Tibetan population in
Tibet is disputed. On
the one hand, the
Central Tibetan Administration of the Dalai Lama
China of actively swamping
Tibet with migrants in order to
alter Tibet's demographic makeup. On the other hand, according to the
2010 Chinese census ethnic Tibetans comprise 90% of a total population
of 3 million in the
Tibet Autonomous Region . Exact population
numbers probably depend on how temporary migrants are counted.
Religion in Tibet
Buddhist monks practicing debate
Religion is extremely important to the Tibetans and has a strong
influence over all aspects of their lives.
Bön is the indigenous
religion of Tibet, but has been almost eclipsed by Tibetan Buddhism, a
distinctive form of
Vajrayana , which was introduced into
Tibet from the
Buddhist tradition of northern India. Tibetan
Buddhism is practiced not only in
Tibet but also in
Mongolia , parts
of northern India, the
Buryat Republic , the
Tuva Republic , and in
Republic of Kalmykia and some other parts of China. During China's
Cultural Revolution , nearly all Tibet's monasteries were ransacked
and destroyed by the Red Guards . A few monasteries have begun to
rebuild since the 1980s (with limited support from the Chinese
government) and greater religious freedom has been granted –
although it is still limited. Monks returned to monasteries across
Tibet and monastic education resumed even though the number of monks
imposed is strictly limited. Before the 1950s, between 10 and 20%
of males in
Tibet were monks.
Tibetan Buddhism has four main traditions (the suffix _pa_ is
comparable to "er" in English):
* GELUG(PA) , _Way of Virtue_, also known casually as _Yellow Hat_,
whose spiritual head is the
Ganden Tripa and whose temporal head is
Dalai Lama . Successive Dalai Lamas ruled
Tibet from the mid-17th
to mid-20th centuries. This order was founded in the 14th to 15th
Je Tsongkhapa , based on the foundations of the Kadampa
tradition. Tsongkhapa was renowned for both his scholasticism and his
Dalai Lama belongs to the
Gelugpa school, and is regarded
as the embodiment of the Bodhisattva of Compassion.
* KAGYU(PA) , _Oral Lineage_. This contains one major subsect and
one minor subsect. The first, the Dagpo Kagyu, encompasses those Kagyu
schools that trace back to
Gampopa . In turn, the Dagpo
of four major sub-sects: the
Karma Kagyu , headed by a
Karmapa , the
Tsalpa Kagyu, the Barom Kagyu, and Pagtru Kagyu. The once-obscure
Kagyu , which was famously represented by the 20th-century
Kalu Rinpoche , traces its history back to the Indian master
Niguma, sister of
Kagyu lineage holder
Naropa . This is an oral
tradition which is very much concerned with the experiential dimension
of meditation. Its most famous exponent was Milarepa, an 11th-century
* NYINGMA(PA) , _The Ancient Ones_. This is the oldest, the original
order founded by
* SAKYA(PA) , _Grey Earth_, headed by the
Sakya Trizin , founded by
Khon Konchog Gyalpo, a disciple of the great translator Drokmi
Sakya Pandita 1182–1251 CE was the great grandson of Khon
Konchog Gyalpo. This school emphasizes scholarship.
The first Christians documented to have reached
Tibet were the
Nestorians , of whom various remains and inscriptions have been found
in Tibet. They were also present at the imperial camp of Möngke Khan
at Shira Ordo, where they debated in 1256 with Karma Pakshi
(1204/6-83), head of the
Karma Kagyu order. Desideri, who reached
Lhasa in 1716, encountered Armenian and Russian merchants.
Jesuits and Capuchins arrived from Europe in the 17th
and 18th centuries. Portuguese missionaries Jesuit Father António de
Andrade and Brother Manuel Marques first reached the kingdom of Gelu
Tibet in 1624 and was welcomed by the royal family who
allowed them to build a church later on. By 1627, there were about a
hundred local converts in the
Guge kingdom. Later on, Christianity
was introduced to
Ladakh and Tsang and was welcomed by the
ruler of the Tsang kingdom , where Andrade and his fellows established
a Jesuit outpost at
Shigatse in 1626.
In 1661 another Jesuit,
Johann Grueber , crossed
Lhasa (where he spent a month), before heading on to Nepal. He was
followed by others who actually built a church in Lhasa. These
included the Jesuit Father
Ippolito Desideri , 1716–1721, who gained
a deep knowledge of Tibetan culture, language and Buddhism, and
various Capuchins in 1707–1711, 1716–1733 and 1741–1745,
Christianity was used by some Tibetan monarchs and their courts and
Karmapa sect lamas to counterbalance the influence of the Gelugpa
sect in the 17th century until in 1745 when all the missionaries were
expelled at the lama's insistence.
In 1877, the Protestant James Cameron from the
China Inland Mission
Chongqing to Batang in Garzê Tibetan Autonomous
Sichuan province, and "brought the Gospel to the Tibetan
people." Beginning in the 20th century, in Diqing Tibetan Autonomous
Prefecture in Yunnan, a large number of
Lisu people and some Yi and Nu
people converted to Christianity. Famous earlier missionaries include
James O. Fraser ,
Alfred James Broomhall and
Isobel Kuhn of the China
Inland Mission, among others who were active in this area.
Proselytising has been illegal in
China since 1949. But as of 2013 ,
many Christian missionaries were reported to be active in
the tacit approval of Chinese authorities, who view the missionaries
as a counterforce to
Tibetan Buddhism or as a boon to the local
Islam in Tibet Tibetan mosque in
Muslims have been living in
Tibet since as early as the 8th or 9th
century. In Tibetan cities, there are small communities of Muslims ,
known as Kachee (Kache), who trace their origin to immigrants from
three main regions:
Kashmir (Kachee Yul in ancient Tibetan), Ladakh
and the Central Asian Turkic countries. Islamic influence in Tibet
also came from Persia. After 1959 a group of
Tibetan Muslims made a
case for Indian nationality based on their historic roots to Kashmir
and the Indian government declared all
Tibetan Muslims Indian citizens
later on that year. Other Muslim ethnic groups who have long
Tibet include Hui , Salar , Dongxiang and Bonan . There is
also a well established Chinese Muslim community (gya kachee), which
traces its ancestry back to the Hui ethnic group of China.
Tibetan art A thangka painting in
A ritual box
Tibetan representations of art are intrinsically bound with Tibetan
Buddhism and commonly depict deities or variations of Buddha in
various forms from bronze
Buddhist statues and shrines, to highly
colorful thangka paintings and mandalas .
Tibetan culture § Architecture
Tibetan architecture contains Chinese and Indian influences, and
reflects a deeply
Buddhist approach. The
Buddhist wheel , along with
two dragons, can be seen on nearly every
Gompa in Tibet. The design of
the Tibetan Chörtens can vary, from roundish walls in
squarish, four-sided walls in
The most distinctive feature of Tibetan architecture is that many of
the houses and monasteries are built on elevated, sunny sites facing
the south, and are often made out of a mixture of rocks, wood, cement
and earth. Little fuel is available for heat or lighting, so flat
roofs are built to conserve heat, and multiple windows are constructed
to let in sunlight. Walls are usually sloped inwards at 10 degrees as
a precaution against the frequent earthquakes in this mountainous
Standing at 117 metres (384 feet) in height and 360 metres (1,180
feet) in width, the
Potala Palace is the most important example of
Tibetan architecture. Formerly the residence of the
Dalai Lama , it
contains over one thousand rooms within thirteen stories, and houses
portraits of the past Dalai Lamas and statues of the Buddha. It is
divided between the outer White Palace, which serves as the
administrative quarters, and the inner Red Quarters, which houses the
assembly hall of the Lamas, chapels, 10,000 shrines, and a vast
Buddhist scriptures. The
Potala Palace is a World Heritage
Site , as is
Norbulingka , the former summer residence of the Dalai
Music of Tibet
The music of
Tibet reflects the cultural heritage of the
trans-Himalayan region, centered in
Tibet but also known wherever
ethnic Tibetan groups are found in India,
Nepal and further
abroad. First and foremost Tibetan music is religious music ,
reflecting the profound influence of
Tibetan Buddhism on the culture.
Tibetan music often involves chanting in Tibetan or
Sanskrit , as an
integral part of the religion. These chants are complex, often
recitations of sacred texts or in celebration of various festivals.
Yang chanting, performed without metrical timing, is accompanied by
resonant drums and low, sustained syllables. Other styles include
those unique to the various schools of Tibetan Buddhism, such as the
classical music of the popular
Gelugpa school, and the romantic music
Nangma dance music is especially popular in the karaoke bars of the
urban center of Tibet,
Lhasa . Another form of popular music is the
classical gar style, which is performed at rituals and ceremonies. Lu
are a type of songs that feature glottal vibrations and high pitches.
There are also epic bards who sing of
Gesar , who is a hero to ethnic
Tibetan festivals The
Monlam Prayer Festival
Monlam Prayer Festival
Tibet has various festivals that are commonly performed to worship
the Buddha throughout the year.
Losar is the Tibetan New Year
Festival. Preparations for the festive event are manifested by special
offerings to family shrine deities, painted doors with religious
symbols, and other painstaking jobs done to prepare for the event.
Tibetans eat _
Guthuk _ (barley noodle soup with filling) on New Year's
Eve with their families. The
Monlam Prayer Festival
Monlam Prayer Festival follows it in the
first month of the
Tibetan calendar , falling between the fourth and
the eleventh days of the first Tibetan month. It involves dancing and
participating in sports events, as well as sharing picnics. The event
was established in 1049 by Tsong Khapa, the founder of the Dalai Lama
and the Panchen Lama's order.
Tibetan cuisine See also:
List of Tibetan dishes
Thupka with Momo – Tibetan Style
The most important crop in
Tibet is barley , and dough made from
barley flour—called tsampa —is the staple food of Tibet. This is
either rolled into noodles or made into steamed dumplings called momos
. Meat dishes are likely to be yak , goat, or mutton , often dried, or
cooked into a spicy stew with potatoes.
Mustard seed is cultivated in
Tibet, and therefore features heavily in its cuisine.
Yak yogurt ,
butter and cheese are frequently eaten, and well-prepared yogurt is
considered something of a prestige item.
Butter tea is very popular to
Central Tibetan Administration
Human rights in Tibet
Index of Tibet-related articles
* Major national historical and cultural sites in
Outline of Tibet
Tibet Area (administrative division)
Tibetan independence movement
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never been recognised by any single foreign power as an independent
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do. There is no leader. When a leader appears and somebody helps out
they will all join.' We ... heard tale after tale of civil
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* ^ The last of the Tibetans Los Angeles Times. March 26, 2008.
Archived July 24, 2009, at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ TIBET\'S BUDDHIST MONKS ENDURE TO REBUILD A PART OF THE PAST
New York Times Published: June 14, 1987.
* ^ Laird 2006, pp. 351, 352
* ^ Goldstein, Melvyn C. (2007). _A History of Modern Tibet: Volume
2 The Calm before the Storm, 1951–1955_. Berkeley, CA: University of
* ^ Kapstein 2006, pp. 31, 71, 113
* ^ Stein 1972, pp. 36, 77–78
* ^ Françoise Pommaret, Françoise Pommaret-Imaeda (2003). _Lhasa
in the Seventeenth Century: The Capital of the Dalai Lamas_. BRILL.
p.159. ISBN 90-04-12866-2
* ^ Graham Sanderg, The Exploration of Tibet: History and
Particulars (Delhi: Cosmo Publications, 1973), pp. 23–26; Thomas
Holdich, Tibet, The Mysterious (London:
Alston Rivers , 1906), p. 70.
* ^ Sir Edward Maclagan, The
Jesuits and The Great Mogul (London:
Burns, Oates & Washbourne Ltd., 1932), pp. 344–345.
* ^ Lettera del P. Alano Dos Anjos al Provinciale di Goa, 10
Novembre 1627, quoted from Wu Kunming, Zaoqi Chuanjiaoshi jin Zang
Huodongshi (Beijing: Zhongguo Zangxue chubanshe, 1992), p. 163.
* ^ Extensively using Italian and Portuguese archival materials,
Wu's work gives a detailed account of Cacella's activities in Tsang.
See Zaoqi Chuanjiaoshi jin Zang Huodongshi, esp. chapter 5.
* ^ _Narratives of the Mission of George Bogle to Tibet, and of the
Journey of Thomas Manning to Lhasa_, pp. 295–302. Clements R.
Markham. (1876). Reprint Cosmo Publications, New Delhi. 1989.
* ^ Stein 1972, p. 85
* ^ "When Christianity and Lamaism Met: The Changing Fortunes of
Early Western Missionaries in
Tibet by Lin Hsiao-ting of Stanford
University". Pacificrim.usfca.edu. Archived from the original on June
26, 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-26.
* ^ "BBC News Country Profiles Timeline: Tibet". 2009-11-05.
* ^ Lettera del P. Antonio de Andrade. Giovanni de Oliveira. Alano
Dos Anjos al Provinciale di Goa, 29 Agosto, 1627, quoted from Wu,
Zaoqi Chuanjiaoshi jin Zang Huodongshi, p. 196; Maclagan, The Jesuits
and The Great Mogul, pp. 347–348.
* ^ Cornelius Wessels, Early Jesuit Travellers in Central Asia,
1603–1721 (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1924), pp. 80–85.
* ^ Maclagan, The
Jesuits and The Great Mogul, pp. 349–352;
Filippo de Filippi ed., An Account of Tibet, pp. 13–17.
* ^ Relação da Missão do Reino de Uçangue Cabeça dos do
Potente, Escrita pello P. João Cabral da Comp. de Jesu. fol. 1,
quoted from Wu, Zaoqi Chuanjiaoshi jin Zang Huodongshi, pp. 294–297;
Wang Yonghong, "Luelun Tianzhujiao zai Xizang di Zaoqi Huodong",
Xizang Yanjiu, 1989, No. 3, pp. 62–63.
* ^ "
Yunnan Province of
China Government Web". Archived from the
original on March 12, 2009. Retrieved February 15, 2008.
* ^ Kapstein 2006, pp. 31, 206
* ^ Kaiman, Jonathan (21 February 2013). "Going undercover, the
evangelists taking Jesus to Tibet". The Guardian. Retrieved February
* ^ Masood Butt, \'Muslims of Tibet\' Archived September 10, 2006,
Wayback Machine ., The Office of Tibet, January/February 1994
* ^ Crossley-Holland, Peter. (1976). "The Ritual Music of Tibet."
Tibet Journal_. Vol. 1, Nos. 3 -webkit-column-width: 30em;
* Beckwith, Christopher I . _The
Tibetan Empire in Central Asia: A
History of the Struggle for Great Power among Tibetans, Turks, Arabs,
and Chinese during the Early Middle Ages'_ (1987) Princeton University
Press. ISBN 0-691-02469-3
* Goldstein, Melvyn C . _A History of Modern Tibet, 1913–1951: The
Demise of the Lamaist State_ (1989) University of California Press.
* Goldstein, Melvyn C . _A History of Modern Tibet, 1913–1951: The
Demise of the Lamaist State_ (1989), first Indian edition (1993)
Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, New Delhi, ISBN 81-215-0582-8
Pagination is identical to University of California edition.
* Goldstein, Melvyn C. _The Snow Lion and the Dragon: China, Tibet,
and the Dalai Lama_ (1997) University of California Press. ISBN
* Grunfeld, Tom (1996). _The Making of Modern Tibet._ ISBN
* Hopkirk, Peter . _Trespassers on the Roof of the World: The Secret
Exploration of Tibet_ (1983) J. P. Tarcher. ISBN 0-87477-257-5
* Kapstein, Matthew T . _The Tibetans_ (2006) Blackwell Publishing.
* Laird, Thomas. _The Story of Tibet: Conversations with the Dalai
Lama_ (2006) Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-1827-5
* Mullin, Glenn H ._The Fourteen Dalai Lamas: A Sacred Legacy of
Reincarnations_ (2001) Clear Light Publishers. ISBN 1-57416-092-3
* Powers, John. _History as Propaganda: Tibetan Exiles versus the
People's Republic of China_ (2004) Oxford University Press. ISBN
* Richardson, Hugh E . _
Tibet and its History_ Second Edition,
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* Shakya, Tsering . _The Dragon In The Land Of Snows_ (1999)
Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11814-7
* Stein, R . _Tibetan Civilization_ (1972) Stanford University
Press. ISBN 0-8047-0901-7
* Teltscher, Kate. _The High Road to China: George Bogle, the
Panchen Lama and the First British Expedition to Tibet_ (2006)
Bloomsbury UK. ISBN 0-7475-8484-2
* Allen, Charles (2004). _Duel in the Snows: The True Story of the
Younghusband Mission to Lhasa._ London: John Murray. ISBN
* Bell, Charles (1924). _Tibet: Past & Present._ Oxford: Clarendon
* Dowman, Keith (1988). _The Power-Places of Central Tibet: The
Pilgrim's Guide._ Routledge Turnbull, Colin (1968). _Tibet: Its
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* Pachen, Ani; Donnely, Adelaide (2000). _Sorrow Mountain: The
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* Petech, Luciano (1997). _
Tibet in the Early XVIIIth
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* Rabgey, Tashi; Sharlho, Tseten Wangchuk (2004). _Sino-Tibetan
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Washington: East-West Center. ISBN 1-932728-22-8 .
* Samuel, Geoffrey (1993). _Civilized Shamans: Buddhism in Tibetan
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* Schell, Orville (2000). _Virtual Tibet: Searching for Shangri-La
Himalayas to Hollywood._ Henry Holt. ISBN 0-8050-4381-0 .
* Smith, Warren W. (1996). _History of Tibet: Nationalism and
Self-determination_. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3155-2 .
* Smith, Warren W. (2004). China\'s Policy on Tibetan
EWC Working Papers No. 2_ (PDF). Washington: East-West Center.
* Smith, Warren W. (2008). _China's Tibet?:
Assimilation_. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7425-3989-1
* Sperling, Elliot (2004). _The Tibet-
China Conflict: History and
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ISSN 1547-1330 . – (online version)
* Thurman, Robert (2002). _Robert Thurman on Tibet._ DVD. ASIN
* Van Walt van Praag, Michael C. (1987). _The Status of Tibet:
History, Rights, and Prospects in International Law._ Boulder,
Colorado: Westview Press.
* Wilby, Sorrel (1988). _Journey Across Tibet: A Young Woman's
1,900-mile (3,060 km) Trek Across the Rooftop of the World._
Contemporary Books. ISBN 0-8092-4608-2 .
* Wilson, Brandon (2004). _
Yak Butter Blues: A Tibetan Trek of
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(second edition 2005)
* Wang Jiawei (2000). _The Historical Status of China's Tibet._ ISBN
Tibet wasn\'t always ours, says Chinese scholar by Venkatesan
Vembu, Daily News & Analysis, February 22, 2007
* Wylie, Turrell V. "The First Mongol Conquest of Tibet
Reinterpreted", _Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies_ (Volume 37,
Number 1, June 1977)
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Neo-Integrationism, Minority Education and Career Strategies in
Qinghai, P.R. China_. Global Oriental. ISBN 9789004257962 .
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