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The TIBER (/ˈtaɪbər/ , Latin
Latin
Tiberis, Italian Tevere, Italian pronunciation: ) is the third-longest river in Italy
Italy
, rising in the Apennine Mountains
Apennine Mountains
in Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
and flowing 406 kilometres (252 mi) through Umbria
Umbria
and Lazio
Lazio
, where it is joined by the river Aniene , to the Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea
, between Ostia and Fiumicino . It drains a basin estimated at 17,375 square kilometres (6,709 sq mi). The river has achieved lasting fame as the main watercourse of the city of Rome , founded on its eastern banks.

The river rises at Mount Fumaiolo in central Italy
Italy
and flows in a generally southerly direction past Perugia
Perugia
and Rome
Rome
to meet the sea at Ostia . Popularly called flavus ("the blond"), in reference to the yellowish colour of its water, the Tiber
Tiber
has heavily advanced at the mouth by about 3 kilometres (2 miles) since Roman times, leaving the ancient port of Ostia Antica
Ostia Antica
6 kilometres (4 miles) inland. However, it does not form a proportional delta , owing to a strong north-flowing sea current close to the shore, to the steep shelving of the coast, and to slow tectonic subsidence .

CONTENTS

* 1 Sources * 2 Etymology * 3 History about Tiber
Tiber
* 4 Bridges * 5 See also * 6 References

SOURCES

The source of the Tiber
Tiber
consists of two springs 10 metres (33 ft) away from each other on Mount Fumaiolo . These springs are called "Le Vene." The springs are in a beech forest 1,268 metres (4,160 ft) above sea level . During the 1930s, Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
placed an antique marble Roman column at the point where the river arises, inscribed QUI NASCE IL FIUME SACRO AI DESTINI DI ROMA ("Here is born the river / sacred to the destinies of Rome"). There is an eagle on the top of this column. The first miles of the Tiber
Tiber
run through Valtiberina before entering Umbria
Umbria
.

ETYMOLOGY

It is probable that the genesis of the name Tiber
Tiber
was pre-Latin, like the Roman name of Tibur (modern Tivoli ), and may be specifically Italic in origin. The same root is found in the Latin
Latin
praenomen Tiberius
Tiberius
. There are also Etruscan variants of this praenomen in Thefarie (borrowed from Faliscan *TIFERIOS, lit. '(He) from the Tiber' < *TIFERIS 'Tiber') and Teperie (via the Latin
Latin
hydronym Tiber). While often claimed, there is no evidence supporting Etruscan origin and rather it is more likely that the Etruscans
Etruscans
adopted these terms from the native Italic-speaking population particularly given Faliscan's characteristic f/b sound correspondence with Latin
Latin
which is preserved in the Etruscan forms.

The legendary king Tiberinus , ninth in the king-list of Alba Longa , was said to have drowned in the river Albula, which was afterward called Tiberis. The myth may have explained a memory of an earlier, perhaps pre-Indo-European name for the river, "white" (alba) with sediment, or "from the mountains" from preindoeuropean word "alba, albion" mount, elevated area. Tiberis/Tifernus may be a preindoeuropean substrate word related to Aegaean tifos still water, Greek phytonym τύφη a kind of swamp and river bank weed (Typha angustifolia ), Hiberian hydronyms Tibilis, Tebro and Numidian Aquae Tibilitanae. Yet another etymology is from *dubri-, water, considered by Alessio as Sicel, whence the form Θύβρις later Tiberis. This root *dubri- is widespread in Western Europe e.g. Dover, Portus Dubris.

According to the legend, Jupiter made him a god and guardian spirit of the river (also called Volturnus, "rolling water"). This gave rise to the standard Roman depiction of the river as a powerfully built reclining god, also named Tiberinus , with streams of water flowing from his hair and beard.

The Tiber
Tiber
was also believed to be the river into which Romulus and Remus (the former founded Rome) were thrown as infants.

HISTORY ABOUT TIBER

According to legend, the city of Rome
Rome
was founded in 753 BC on the banks of the Tiber
Tiber
about 25 kilometres (16 mi) from the sea at Ostia . The island Isola Tiberina in the centre of Rome, between Trastevere and the ancient center, was the site of an important ancient ford and was later bridged. Legend says Rome's founders, the twin brothers Romulus and Remus , were abandoned on its waters, where they were rescued by the she-wolf, Lupa.

The river marked the boundary between the lands of the Etruscans
Etruscans
to the west, the Sabines
Sabines
to the east and the Latins
Latins
to the south. Benito Mussolini, born in Romagna
Romagna
, adjusted the boundary between Tuscany
Tuscany
and Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
, so that the springs of the Tiber
Tiber
would lie in Romagna.

The Tiber
Tiber
was critically important to Roman trade and commerce, as ships could reach as far as 100 kilometres (60 mi) upriver; there is evidence that it was used to ship grain from the Val Teverina as long ago as the 5th century BC. It was later used to ship stone, timber and foodstuffs to Rome.

During the Punic Wars of the 3rd century BC, the harbour at Ostia became a key naval base. It later became Rome's most important port, where wheat , olive oil , and wine were imported from Rome's colonies around the Mediterranean. Wharves were also built along the riverside in Rome
Rome
itself, lining the riverbanks around the Campus Martius
Campus Martius
area. The Romans connected the river with a sewer system (the Cloaca Maxima ) and with an underground network of tunnels and other channels, to bring its water into the middle of the city.

Wealthy Romans had garden-parks or "horti" on the banks of the river in Rome
Rome
up through the first century BC. These may have been sold and developed about a century later.

The heavy sedimentation of the river made it difficult to maintain Ostia, prompting the emperors Claudius
Claudius
and Trajan
Trajan
to establish a new port on the Fiumicino in the 1st century AD. They built a new road, the via Portuensis , to connect Rome
Rome
with Fiumicino, leaving the city by Porta Portese ('the port gate'). Both ports were eventually abandoned due to silting.

Several popes attempted to improve navigation on the Tiber
Tiber
in the 17th and 18th century, with extensive dredging continuing into the 19th century. Trade was boosted for a while but by the 20th century silting had resulted in the river only being navigable as far as Rome itself.

The Tiber
Tiber
was once known for its floods — the Campus Martius
Campus Martius
is a flood plain and would regularly flood to a depth of 2 metres (6 ft 7 in). The river is now confined between high stone embankments which were begun in 1876. Within the city, the riverbanks are lined by boulevards known as lungoteveri , streets "along the Tiber."

Because the river is identified with Rome, the terms "swimming the Tiber" or "crossing the Tiber" have come to be the Protestant shorthand term for converting to Roman Catholicism . This is most common if the person who converts had been Anglican , the reverse of which is referred to as "swimming the Thames " or "crossing the Thames."

In ancient Rome, executed criminals were thrown into the Tiber. People executed at the Gemonian stairs were thrown in the Tiber
Tiber
during the later part of the reign of the emperor Tiberius
Tiberius
. This practice continued over the centuries. For example, the corpse of Pope
Pope
Formosus was thrown into the Tiber
Tiber
after the infamous Cadaver Synod held in 897.

BRIDGES

In addition to the numerous modern bridges over the Tiber
Tiber
in Rome, there remain a few ancient bridges (now mostly pedestrian-only) that have survived in part (e.g., the Milvian Bridge
Bridge
and the Ponte Sant\'Angelo ) or in whole (Fabricius\' Bridge
Bridge
).

SEE ALSO

* Hollywood on the Tiber

REFERENCES

* ^ Richard J.A. Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World: Map-By-Map Directory. I. Princeton, NJ and Oxford, UK: Princeton University Press. p. 630. ISBN 0691049459 . * ^ (in Italian) Dizionario d\'ortografia e di pronunzia * ^ Lazio
Lazio
Latium
Latium
Italy * ^ A B C D " Tiber
Tiber
River." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006 * ^ "Tiber". World Encyclopedia. Philip's, 2005. * ^ Tiber
Tiber
Springs – Mount Fumaiolo * ^ Tuscany
Tuscany
tours – the origin of the Tiber
Tiber
River * ^ A B "Tiber". Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names. John Everett-Heath . Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
2005. * ^ George Davis Chase, "The Origin of Roman Praenomina", in Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, vol. VIII (1897) * ^ Cf. e.g. G. Alessio "Studi storico-linguisitci messapici" in Archivio Storico Pugliese p. 304; "Sul nome di Brindisi" in Archivio Storico Puglese VIII 1955 p. 211 f.; "Apulia et Calabria nel quadro della toponomastica mediterranea" in Atti del VII Congresso Internazionale di Studi Onomastici Firenze 1962 p. 85. * ^ G. Simonetta "La stratificazione linguistica dell' Agro Falisco" p. 6 citing G. Alessio. * ^ G. Alessio "Problemi storico-linguistici messapici" in Studi Salentini12 1962 p. 304. * ^ Tiber. Bloomsbury Dictionary of Myth (1996) * ^ Horti:LacusCurtius • Gardens of Ancient Rome
Rome
(Platner "> Comune di Fiumicino and the mouth of the Tiber, May 2013

Wikimedia Commons has media related to TIBER .

* v * t * e

Lazio
Lazio

PROVINCES

* Frosinone * Latina * Rieti * Rome
Rome
* Viterbo

HISTORY

* Latins
Latins
* Latium
Latium
* Ancient Rome
Rome
* Papal States
Papal States
* Roman Republic (18th century) * Roman Republic (19th century)

LAKES

* Lake Albano * Lake Bolsena * Lake Bracciano * Lago di Canterno * Lago di Caprolace * Lago di Fondi * Lago di Giulianello * Lake Martignano * Lake Mezzano * Lago dei Monaci * Lake Nemi * Lago di Posta Fibreno * Lago di Rascino * Lago di Sabaudia * Lago del Salto * Lago del Turano * Lake Vico

MOUNTAINS

* Seven hills of Rome
Rome
* Alban Hills * Aurunci Mountains * Monti Ausoni * Monte Cavo * Cimini Hills * Monti Ernici
Monti Ernici
* Monte Gorzano * Monti della Laga
Monti