Thurso (pronounced /ˈθɜːrsoʊ/, Scots: Thursa, Scottish Gaelic:
Inbhir Theòrsa [ˈiɲɪɾʲ ˈhjɔːrsə]) is a town and former burgh
on the north coast of the Highland council area of Scotland. Situated
in the historical area of Caithness, it is the northernmost town on
the British mainland.
It lies at the junction of the north-south
A9 road and the west-east
A836 road, connected to Bridge of Forss in the west and Castletown in
the east. The 34 miles (55 km)
River Thurso flows through the
town and into
Thurso Bay and the Pentland Firth. The river estuary
serves as a small harbour. At the 2011 Census,
Thurso had a population
of 7,933. The larger
Thurso civil parish including the town and the
surrounding countryside had a population of 9,112.
Thurso functioned as an important Norse port, and later traded with
ports throughout northern Europe until the 19th century. A thriving
Thurso also had a reputation for its linen-cloth and
tanning activities. As of 2015[update] the
Dounreay Nuclear power
plant, although decommissioned at the end of the 20th century, employs
a significant number of the local population. The Category-A listed
ruined Old St Peter's Church (St. Peter's Kirk) is one of the oldest
churches in Scotland, dating to at least 1125. The current church, St
Andrew's and St Peter's, was built in 1832 to a design by William Burn
in the Gothic style.
The town contains the main campus of
North Highland College and Thurso
High School, the northernmost secondary school on the British
mainland, which was established in 1958.
Thurso Castle, built in 1872,
is in ruins.
Thurso is home to the football (soccer) team,
established in 2008, which play in the North Caledonian League, and
the rugby teams
Caithness Crushers and
Thurso railway station, opened in 1874, was the most northern station
on the Sutherland and
Caithness Railway. The nearby port of Scrabster
provides ferry services to the Orkney Islands; the Northlink ferry
(MV Hamnavoe) operates between
Scrabster and Stromness.
9 Twin towns
10 Notable people
12 External links
Thurso was known by the Celtic name of tarvodubron meaning
"bull water" or "bull river"; similarly
Dunnet Head was tarvedunum
standing for "bull fort" and the name of the town name may have its
roots there. Norse influence altered its name to Thjorsá, then
Thorsá, based on the deity of
Thor and translating as the place on
The local Scots name, Thursa, derives from the Norse, as does the
Scottish Gaelic Inbhir Theòrsa. Inbhir means a river mouth,
and is generally found as "Inver" in many anglicised names. It is
possible that there was also a pre-Norse Gaelic name as well, as
"tarvodunum" is cognate with the modern Gaelic terms, "tarbh"
(bull), "dobhran" and "dun".
St. Peter's Kirk, Thurso
Thurso's history stretches back to at least the era of Norse Orcadian
rule in Caithness, which ended conclusively in 1266. Neolithic horned
cairns found on nearby Shebster Hill, which were used for burials and
rituals, date back about 5000 years. The town was an important
Norse port, and has a later history of trade with ports throughout
northern Europe until the 19th century. In 1330 Scotland's standard
unit of weight was brought in line with that of
Thurso at the decree
of King David II of Scotland, a measure of the town's economic
importance. Old St Peter's Kirk is said to date from circa 1220 and
the time of
Caithness Bishop Gilbert Murray, who died in 1245.
In 1649, the Irish, led by Donald Macalister Mullach, attacked Thurso
and were chased off by the residents, headed by Sir James Sinclair.
One of the locals, a servant of Sinclair was said to have killed
Mullach by "cutting a button from his master's coat and firing it from
a musket". In 1811, the parish had 592 houses with a population of
3462. Following the passage into law of the 1845 Poor Law Act,
a combination poorhouse was constructed; work commenced in 1854 and
was completed by 1856. The building, which had a capacity to house 149
inmates, was on a five acres (2.0 ha) site to the west of
Thurso Road and provided poor relief for
Thurso and the parishes of
Bower, Canisbay, Dunnet, Halkirk, Olrig,
Reay and Watten. Many of
the poorhouses in
Scotland were under used, and by 1924 the
building had been unoccupied for several years so was sold; it was
later utilised as housing but by 2001 was again abandoned.
Much of the town is a planned 19th-century development. In 1906, a new
Royal National Lifeboat Institution
Royal National Lifeboat Institution boathouse and slipway was
Scrabster Harbour. A fire on 10 December 1956
destroyed the building and its
47ft Watson-class lifeboat and a new
building and boat was built, launched the following year. A new
lifeboat, named "The Three Sisters" was inaugurated in 1971 by The
Queen Mother. A major expansion occurred in the mid-20th century when
Dounreay nuclear power plant was established at
1955, 9 miles (14 km) to the west of the town. The arrival of
workers related to the power station caused a three-fold increase in
the population of Thurso; the 1951 census gave a figure of 3,000 but
this had swelled to 9,000 by 1971. This led to around 1,700 new
houses being built in
Thurso and nearby Castletown, a mixture of local
authority housing blended with private houses and flats built by the
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. Decommissioned at the end
of the 20th century, it is estimated the site will not be cleared of
all the waste until the 2070s, so will continue to provide
Thurso is also the name of the viscountcy held by the Sinclair family
in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Thurso hosted the National
Mòd in 2010, which was the first time this festival of Gaelic
language and culture had been held so far north.
Thurso from the north
Thurso has history as a burgh of barony dating from 1633 when it was
established by Charles I. In 1975, under the Local Government
(Scotland) Act 1973, the local government burgh was merged into the
Caithness district of the two-tier Highland region. In 1996, under the
Local Government etc (Scotland) Act 1994, the district was abolished
and the region became a unitary council area. From 1996 until 2007,
the town of
Thurso was covered by two or three wards, each electing
one councillor by the first past the post system of election. In 2007,
Thurso ward was created to elect three councillors by the
single transferable vote system. . In 2017 the
Thurso ward was
absorbed into a new multi member ward along with the Western portion
Caithness , the new ward, named
Thurso and Northwest
Caithness, was contested for the first time in the Highland Council
Election, 2017. The incumbent councillors are Cllr Matthew Reiss
(Independent), Cllr Struan Mackie (Scottish Conservative), Donnie
Mackay (Independent) and Karl Rosie (Scottish National Party).
Electing four members to the new ward, it is one of two within the
Caithness ward management area and one of seven
within the council's Caithness, Sutherland and Easter Ross corporate
Thurso Community Council was created in 1975 when the burgh was
abolished. The community council is not a tier of local
government, but it is recognised as a level of statutory
representation. The community council represents an area which is
somewhat smaller than that represented by ward councillors. The ward
area also includes parts of other community council areas.
Thurso from the river
Thurso is the most northerly town on the British mainland, situated on
the northern coastline overlooking the Orkney Islands. It is
situated at the northern terminus of the A9 road, the main road
Caithness with the south of Scotland, and is 19.5 miles
(31.4 km) west of
John o' Groats
John o' Groats and 20.4 miles (32.8 km)
northwest of Wick, the closest town.
Thurso railway station
Thurso railway station is the
most northerly location served by Britain's rail network, which links
the town directly with Wick, the county town of Caithness, and with
Thurso is bordered by the parishes of
Olrig and Bower to
Halkirk to the south, and
Reay to the west, and stretches
from Holburn Head and Crosskirk Bay in the west to
Dunnet Head and
Dunnet Bay in the east. It lies as far north as the Alaskan
capital of Juneau.
The 34 miles (55 km) River Thurso, reputable for its salmon
fishing, flows through the town and into
Thurso Bay and the
Pentland Firth. The river estuary serves as a small harbour.
Thurso has a fine harbour and beach and looks out over the Pentland
Firth to the Orkney island of
Hoy and the towering Old Man of
stack of rock standing out from the main island).
Thurso has a cool oceanic climate, similar weather to the Scottish
Alaska and the Scandinavian West Coast of Norway.
The highest temperature recorded was 25 °C (July 1995) and the
lowest -11 °C (December 2010). Similar parallels in nearby
Sweden have much more continental climates with much more extensive
heat and coldwaves, further demonstrating the moderating effect of the
North Atlantic. The moderate winter climate is some 30 °C warmer
than marine areas around
Hudson Bay in Canada on similar latitudes.
Climate data for Thurso, Scotland
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Rotterdam Street, Thurso
Thurso was known for its production of linen cloth and
had a thriving tanning business. Fishing has always been of major
significance in the running of the local economy, and the Thurso
Shipowner's Association overlooked much of the shipping activity.
The port of
Scrabster lies about 1 1⁄2 miles (2.4 km) to
the west of the estuary of the River Thurso, and plays a significant
role in the white fish industry in Scotland.
Scrabster has deep
water in the shelter of Holborn Head. The harbour includes a berth for
the MV Hamnavoe, a roll-on/roll-off ferry operated by Northlink
linking the Scottish mainland with
Stromness on Orkney. There is also
a large fishmart and the local lifeboat is stationed there too. From
June 2007, a summer-only weekly ferry service operated by the Faroese
Smyril Line reopened, connecting
Scrabster with the Faroe
Iceland and Norway, but has now been discontinued.
Thurso boasts a small museum,
Caithness Horizons, several hotels and
bars, a surf shop/cafe stocking famous brands, and a small skatepark.
There is also a sizeable
British Telecom call centre and a plant
making lithium-ion batteries for the MoD on the west side of the town,
which along with the
Dounreay Nuclear power plant, provide a high
level of employment in Caithness. On 12 January 2010, approval was
granted for the Baillie wind farm near
Thurso which will feature 21
turbines and supply 52.5 MW, enough for 25,000 homes.
Further information: List of listed buildings in Thurso, Highland
Old St Peter's Church (St. Peter's Kirk)
Category A listed ruined Old St Peter's Church (St. Peter's Kirk)
is one of the older churches in Scotland, dated to at least 1125, and
at one time it was the principal church for the county, administered
by the Bishops of Caithness. The church held hearings against
criminal activity and determined how those caught should be punished.
In 1701, a woman who had a relationship with a Dutch sailor had her
head shaved and was publicly shamed, paraded through the town by the
The current church, St Andrew's and St Peter's, was built in 1832 to a
William Burn in the Gothic style with buttressed walls and a
square tower. The pipe organ was added by Norman & Beard in
1914, and in 1922
Oscar Paterson contributed some of the stained glass
windows such as 'The Sower'. In 2013 gravestones were vandalised in
the graveyard. Holburn Head Lighthouse, within the parish
territory, was completed in 1862 to a design by David & Thomas
Stevenson and has since achieved
Category B listed status.
Holburn Head Lighthouse
The Swanson Gallery of
Thurso hosts exhibitions throughout the year,
and showcases glass art by Ian Pearson. The
building contains a museum and also hosts exhibitions. Hotels of note
include the 103-room Royal Hotel, Pentland Hotel, Waterside House,
Murray House and the
Category B listed Forss House Hotel, about 4
miles to the west of
Thurso in a Georgian country mansion. At Sir
John's Square is an ornamental garden and statue which was donated to
the town by Sir Tollemache Sinclair in memory of his grandfather Sir
John Sinclair, a prominent local figure responsible for the
"compilation of the First Statistical Account of
Scotland and the
pioneering of agricultural reforms in Caithness". A
listed fountain was built in 1894 by the son of Sir George Sinclair.
Also of note is the wellhouse of Meadow Well at the junction of Traill
Street and Manson's Lane, which was the primary water supply for
Thurso for centuries. The current well, with a conical roof, was
completed in 1823.
The main campus of North Highland College, formerly
Thurso College, is
one of several partner colleges which constitute the University of the
Highlands & Islands. It offers several certificate, diploma and
degree courses from subjects as diverse as Nuclear Decommissioning,
Hairdressing, Gamekeeping and Golf Management. Adjacent to the UHI is
Thurso High School, the most northerly secondary school on the British
mainland, established in 1958. The town also has three primary
schools, Pennyland, Miller Academy Primary[a] and Mount Pleasant.
Mount Pleasant Primary School teaches in Scottish gaelic, part of a
revival of the language in Caithness. According to the 2011
census, 110 residents of the town age three and over (1.43%) speak
Gaelic while 181 overall (2.35%) have some facility with the
language. A Gaelic language nursery school, Cròileagan Inbhir
Theòrsa, was created in the town in 1996.
Caithness Horizons is a small museum that opened in 2008. The
museum now houses panels from the control room at the Dounreay
Materials Testing Reactor (DMTR), which in 1958 had become Scotland's
first operation nuclear reactor.
Thurso is popular with water sports enthusiasts
With its powerful swells,
Thurso is a notable location for surfing and
kayaking, with international surfing championship events having
regularly been held in the area. It attracts surfers from all over
the world, and both the European
Surfing Championships and
Kayaking Championships have been held in Caithness, with
Thurso East being the main focus of activity. An annual raft race is
organised by the North Coast Branch of Coastguard Association.
The football (soccer) team,
Thurso FC (nicknamed "the Vikings"), was
established in 2008 and plays in the North Caledonian League.
Caithness Crushers are a rugby league club playing in the Scotland
Rugby League Conference Division 1, while
Caithness RFC are a rugby
union club that participate in the Caledonia One. The local
athletics club is
Caithness Amateur Athletics Club (C.A.A.C.); hurdler
Moira Mcbeath was a 1986 Commonwealth Games athlete.
the largest swimming club in the Highland area,
Swimming Club (TASC), with over 250 members.
Thurso Bowling Club
is next door to the
Tesco supermarket. Also of note is Caithness
Motocross Club, which stages races fortnightly during the summer on
tracks around the county.
Thurso railway station
Thurso railway station
Thurso railway station opened in 1874. It was the most northern
station on the Sutherland and
Caithness Railway. The station
became part of the
Highland Railway Company in the late 19th
century before being absorbed into the London, Midland and
Scottish Railway in 1923. and it is now part of the Far North
The nearby port of
Scrabster provides ferry services to the Orkney
Islands. The A9 trunk road, which connects
Thurso to Inverness, Perth
Central Belt ends at the ferry terminal. Stagecoach run
bus services from
Thurso to Wick and John O' Groats, and a long
distance service to
Helmsdale and Inverness.
Thurso has been twinned with Brilon, Germany since 1972, after two men
from the respective towns met in London and agreed a formal link. The
twinning has come under threat as
Thurso High School no longer
participates in its activities and there is a lack of young people
willing to preserve relationships between the towns.
Andrew Geddes Bain
Andrew Geddes Bain (1797–1864) — geologist, road engineer,
palaeontologist and explorer.
David Orson Calder (1823–1884) — academician and pioneer settler
John Charles "Jock" Campbell (VC) (1894–1942) — British Army
Martin Carr (born 1968) — writer and musician.
Robert Dick (1811–1866) — geologist; lived in
Thurso from 1830
John Finlaison (1783–1860) — civil servant and government
George Finlayson (1790–1823) — naturalist and traveler.
Bryan Gunn (born 1963) — professional football goalkeeper and
Robin Harper (born 1940) — politician.
William Henderson (1810–1872) — physician and homeopath.
Christina Keith (1889-1963), Scottish academic and author
Jock Macdonald (1897–1960) — Canadian painter and art
Gary Mackay-Steven (born 1990) — professional football winger,
currently playing for Celtic.
Tommy McGee (born 1979) — professional rugby player.
Anne McKevitt (born 1967) — entrepreneur, TV Personality, author and
Martin Rennie (born 1975) — professional football coach.
Sir William David Ross, KBE (1877–1971) — moral philosopher,
editor and translator of Aristotle.
Arthur St. Clair
Arthur St. Clair (1737–1818) — American Revolutionary War soldier
Sir William Alexander Smith (1854–1914) — founder of the Boys
Donald Swanson (1848–1924) — senior police officer in the
Metropolitan Police during the Jack the Ripper murders.
^ Originally Miller Institution, it changed to only a Primary School
in 1958 when
Thurso High School was built to accommodate the influx of
people connected to the
Dounreay Nuclear Power Station.
^ Highland profile, Highland Council, archived from the original on 28
December 2017, retrieved 28 December 2017
^ Field, John (1984). Discovering Place Names. Shire Publications.
^ Mills, A. D. (2011). "Thurso". A Dictionary of British Place Names.
Oxford University Press. Retrieved 10 June 2015. (Subscription
^ "Scottish Place Names in Scots". Scots Language Centre. Retrieved 14
^ Macleod & Dewar 1845, p. 563.
^ "Neolithic horned cairns near
Caithness wind farm scanned". BBC.
Retrieved 14 December 2014.
^ Mitchell 1825, p. 385.
^ McFadden 1999, p. 301.
^ a b c d "Gravestones vandalised at Old St Peter's Church in Thurso".
BBC. 26 April 2013. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
^ a b Rees 1819, p. 603.
^ "Poor Relief", Scottish Archive Network, archived from the original
on 20 January 2015, retrieved 20 January 2015
^ Groome (1885), p. 438
^ a b Higginbotham, Peter. "
Thurso Combination, Caithness".
workhouses.org. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
^ Higginbotham (2012), The 1845 Scottish Poor Law Act
^ a b "Thurso". Visitoruk.com. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
^ ThirdWay. Hymns Ancient & Modern Ltd. April 1986.
^ a b The History and Achievements of UKAEA
Dounreay (PDF), UKAEA,
archived (PDF) from the original on 10 June 2015, retrieved 10 June
Dounreay Decommissioning: Monumental task", The Engineer, 19 May
2008, retrieved 22 June 2015 – via Highbeam Research, (Subscription
^ Groot 1993, p. 236.
^ a b "Gaelic medium primary department for Caithness". BBC News. 30
July 2013. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
^ "List of Mod's places". Sabhal Mòr Ostaig. Retrieved 14 December
^ Publications. 1855. p. 753.
^ "Highland Council". Alexgraham.org.uk. Retrieved 14 December
^ Wilson, P. (13 February 2007), "Council to save pounds 1m in jobs
changes", The Press and Journal, p. 4
^ Atkinson 2010, p. 929.
Google (14 December 2014). "Thurso" (Map).
Google Maps. Google.
Retrieved 14 December 2014.
^ Krauskopf 2001, p. 9.
Thurso puts his famous salmon river up for sale at GBP 2m".
The Scotsman, accessed via HighBream Research (subscription required).
8 October 2005. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
^ Lewis 1848, p. 534.
^ Tait & Johnstone 1836, p. 640.
^ "climate: Thurso". Met Office. Archived from the original on 5 June
2011. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
^ Aberdeen Journal - Saturday 1 March 1879, p.8, Accessed via The
British Newspaper Archive
British Newspaper Archive (subscription required). Retrieved 14
^ "Scotland's marine atlas: Fishing". The Scottish Government. March
2011. Archived from the original on 10 June 2015. Retrieved 10 June
^ "Reopening of North Atlantic Link to
Scrabster - Highland". Highland
Council. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
^ "Summer ferry sailings cancelled". BBC. Archived from the original
on 23 June 2015. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
^ "News release: Two wind farm schemes approved". Scottish Government.
12 January 2010. Archived from the original on 3 February 2013.
^ "St Peter's & St Andrew's Church, Thurso".
Trust. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
^ "Holburn Head". Northern Lighthouse Board. Retrieved 14 December
^ "Thurso". Visitscotland.com. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
^ "The Royal Hotel". Bespokehotels.com. Retrieved 14 December
^ Wilson 2012, p. 262.
^ "Thurso". Caithness.org. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
^ "Meadow Well". Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical
Monuments of Scotland. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
^ Ramsay, Pat, "About our school" (pdf), Miller Academy Primary School
^ "Pennyland Primary School". Highland Council. Retrieved 14 December
^ "2011 Scottish Census (Table QS211SC)". Scotlandscensus.gov.uk.
Retrieved 14 December 2014.
Scottish Gaelic Local Studies" (PDF). Linguae-celticae.org.
Retrieved 14 December 2014.
^ "Scotland's museums:
Caithness Horizons". Museums Galleries
Scotland. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
Dounreay control room given to museum in Thurso". BBC News. 5
December 2014. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
^ Cox, Roger (16 November 2013). "
Thurso still boasts world-class
waves". The Scotsman. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
^ Mason 2011, p. 12.
Thurso Bay Raft Race". Caithness.org. Retrieved 14 December
Caithness Rugby Football Club: history: CRFC 1962 - Present Day".
Pitchero.com. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
Caithness baton bearers named". John O'Groat Journal. 12 June 2014.
Retrieved 13 December 2014.
Thurso Amateur Swimming Club". Thursoasc.org.uk. Retrieved 14
Caithness Moto-X Club". sport.caithness.org. Archived from the
original on 10 June 2015. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
^ "Sutherland and
Caithness Railway". 15. The Railway Magazine. 1904.
Retrieved 7 June 2015.
^ Campbell 1920, p. 150.
^ Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, p. 204.
^ "Far North Line:
Thurso and Wick". ScotRail. Retrieved
23 June 2015.
^ "Scottish independence: my way and the highway". The Guardian. 29
August 2014. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
^ "Timetable 51336 77" (PDF). Stagecoach Group. Retrieved 7 June
^ Clark, Will (8 August 2012). "Threat to future link with twin-town".
John O'Groat Journal. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
^ Bain 1949, p. xii.
^ Chamberlin 1960, p. 584.
^ Zabecki 2015, p. 283.
^ Larkin 2011, p. 10.
^ Harper's Weekly. Harper's Magazine Company. 1879. p. 95.
^ Urban 1860, p. 194.
^ The British Critic. F. and C. Rivington. 1826. p. 158.
^ Brack 2011, p. 24.
^ Spicer 2004, p. 132.
^ Debus 1968, p. 783.
^ Zemans 1985, p. 7.
Gary Mackay-Steven back in the big time". The Scotsman.
Retrieved 22 June 2015.
^ "McGhee lands seven-week suspension". The Scotsman. Retrieved 22
^ "Apprentice contestant, Alex Epstein to participate in college
Enterprise Day". North Highland College. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
^ "Scots manager Martin Rennie: I'll put my heart and Seoul into
running new club in Korea". The Daily Record. Retrieved 22 June
^ "William David Ross". Giffordlectures.org. Retrieved 22 June
^ Browning 1898, p. 154.
^ Oliver and Boyd's Edinburgh Almanac and National Repository ...
Oliver & Boyd. 1912. p. 751.
^ "True detective: The Scot who hunted Jack the Ripper". BBC News. 14
August 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
Atkinson, David (15 September 2010). Great Britain. Lonely Planet.
Bain, Andrew Geddes (1949). Journals. Van Riebeeck Society.
Brack, Ted (6 October 2011). There's Only One Sauzee: When Le God
Graced Easter Road. Black & White Publishing Limited.
Browning, Charles Henry (1898). The Magna Charta Barons and Their
American Descendants with the Pedigrees of the Founders of the Order
of Runnemede Deduced from the Sureties for the Enforcement of the
Statutes of the Magna Charta of King John.
Campbell, H.F. (1920).
Caithness and Sutherland Cambridge County
Geographies. Cambridge University Press.
Chamberlin, Ralph Vary (1960). The University of Utah: A History of
Its First Hundred Years, 1850 to 1950. University of Utah Press.
Debus, Allen G. (1968). World Who's who in Science: A Biographical
Dictionary of Notable Scientists from Antiquity to the Present.
Groot, Gerard J. De (January 1993). Liberal Crusader: The Life of Sir
Archibald Sinclair. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers.
Groome, Francis H. (1885), Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland, 6, Thomas
Higginbotham, Peter (2012), The Workhouse Encyclopedia (eBook), The
History Press, ISBN 978-0-7524-7719-0
Krauskopf, Sharma (2001). Scottish Lighthouses. Sharma Krauskopf.
Larkin, Colin (27 May 2011). The Encyclopedia of Popular Music.
Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-85712-595-8.
Lewis, Samuel (1848). Topographical Dictionary of Scotland. British
History Online (online edition).
Macleod, Norman; Dewar, Daniel (1845). A Dictionary of the Gaelic
Mason, Paul (2011). Surfing: The World's Most Fantastic Surf Spots and
Techniques. Capstone. ISBN 978-1-4296-6879-8.
McFadden, David (1999). An Innocent in Scotland: More Curious Rambles
and Singular Encounters. M&S. ISBN 978-0-7710-5528-7.
Mitchell, James (1825). The Scotsman's Library: Being a Collection of
Anecdotes and Facts Illustrative of
Scotland and Scotsmen. J.
Rees, Abraham (1819). The Cyclopaedia; Or, Universal Dictionary of
Arts, Sciences and Literature. - London, Longman, Hurst (usw.)
1819-20. Longman, Hurst.
Spicer, Matthew (2004). The Scotsman Guide to Scottish Politics.
Scotsman Publications. ISBN 978-0-7486-1924-5.
Tait, William; Johnstone, Christian Isobel (1836). Tait's Edinburgh
Magazine. W. Tait.
Urban, Sylvanus (1860). The Gentleman's Magazine and Historical
Whitehouse, Patrick; Thomas, David St John (2002). LMS 150 : The
London Midland & Scottish Railway A century and a half of
progress. David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-1378-9.
Wilson, Neil (1 March 2012). Lonely Planet Scotland's Highlands &
Islands. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74220-688-2.
Zabecki, David T. (1 May 2015). World War II in Europe: An
Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-81242-3.
Zemans, Joyce (1 January 1985). Jock Macdonald. National Gallery of
Canada. ISBN 978-0-88884-527-6.
Media related to
Thurso at Wikimedia Commons
Thurso at Travelscotland.co.uk