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The FREE STATE OF THURINGIA (English: /θəˈrɪndʒiə/ ; German : Freistaat Thüringen, pronounced ) is a federal state in central Germany
Germany
. It has an area of 16,171 square kilometres (6,244 sq mi) and 2.29 million inhabitants, making it the sixth smallest by area and the fifth smallest by population of Germany's sixteen states. Most of Thuringia
Thuringia
is within the watershed of the Saale
Saale
, a left tributary of the Elbe
Elbe
. The capital is Erfurt
Erfurt
.

Thuringia
Thuringia
has been known as "the green heart of Germany" (das grüne Herz Deutschlands) from the late 19th century, due to the dense forest covering the land.

It is home to the Rennsteig
Rennsteig
, Germany's most well-known hiking trail , and the winter resort of Oberhof making it a well known winter sports destination. Half of Germany's 136 Winter Olympic gold medals (through the Sochi games in 2014) have been won by Thuringian athletes.

Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach
spent the first part of his life (1685–1717) and important further stages of his career in Thuringia. Goethe
Goethe
and Schiller
Schiller
lived in Weimar
Weimar
and both worked at the University of Jena
University of Jena
, which today hosts Thuringia's most important science centre. Other Universities in this federal state are the Ilmenau
Ilmenau
University
University
of Technology , the University
University
of Erfurt
Erfurt
, and the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
University
University
of Weimar
Weimar
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology and symbols * 2 History

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Topography * 3.2 Climate * 3.3 Nature and environment

* 4 Demographics

* 4.1 Demographic history * 4.2 Current population * 4.3 Natural and spatial tendencies * 4.4 Population projection * 4.5 Cities, towns and villages * 4.6 Religion

* 5 Politics

* 5.1 List of Ministers-President of Thuringia * 5.2 September 2014 state election * 5.3 Local government

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Agriculture and forestry * 6.2 Industry and mining * 6.3 General economic parameters

* 7 Infrastructure

* 7.1 Transport * 7.2 Energy and water supply * 7.3 Health

* 8 Education

* 8.1 School system * 8.2 Universities * 8.3 Research

* 9 Personalities * 10 References * 11 External links

ETYMOLOGY AND SYMBOLS

Arms of the landgraves of Thuringia
Thuringia
(1265)

The name Thuringia
Thuringia
or Thüringen derives from the Germanic tribe Thuringii
Thuringii
, who emerged during the Migration Period . Their origin is largely unknown. An older theory claims that they were successors of the Hermunduri , but later research rejected the idea. Other historians argue that the Thuringians were allies of the Huns , came to central Europe together with them, and lived before in what is Galicia today. Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus first mentioned the Thuringii
Thuringii
around 400; during that period, the Thuringii
Thuringii
were famous for their excellent horses.

The Thuringian Realm existed until after 531, the Landgraviate
Landgraviate
of Thuringia
Thuringia
was the largest state in the region, persisting between 1131 and 1247. Afterwards the state known as Thuringia
Thuringia
ceased to exist; nevertheless the term commonly described the region between the Harz mountains in the north, the Weiße Elster
Weiße Elster
river in the east, the Franconian Forest
Franconian Forest
in the south and the Werra
Werra
river in the west. After the Treaty of Leipzig , Thuringia
Thuringia
had its own dynasty again, the Ernestine Wettins . Their various lands formed the Free State of Thuringia, founded in 1920, together with some other small principalities. The Prussian territories around Erfurt
Erfurt
, Mühlhausen and Nordhausen
Nordhausen
joined Thuringia
Thuringia
in 1945.

The coat of arms of Thuringia
Thuringia
shows the lion of the Ludowingian Landgraves of 12th-century origin. The eight stars around it represent the eight former states which formed Thuringia. The flag of Thuringia is a white-red bicolor, derived from the white and red stripes of the Ludowingian lion. The coat of arms and flag of Hesse
Hesse
are quite similar to the Thuringian ones, because they are also derived from the Ludowingian symbols.

Symbols of Thuringia
Thuringia
in popular culture are the Bratwurst and the Forest , because a large amount of the territory is forested.

HISTORY

For the earlier history of the region, see Thuringii
Thuringii
and Duchy of Thuringia
Thuringia
.

Named after the Thuringii
Thuringii
tribe who occupied it around AD 300, Thuringia
Thuringia
came under Frankish domination in the 6th century.

Thuringia
Thuringia
became a landgraviate in 1130 AD. After the extinction of the reigning Ludowingian line of counts and landgraves in 1247 and the War of the Thuringian Succession (1247–1264), the western half became independent under the name of " Hesse
Hesse
", never to become a part of Thuringia
Thuringia
again. Most of the remaining Thuringia
Thuringia
came under the rule of the Wettin dynasty of the nearby Margraviate of Meissen , the nucleus of the later Electorate and Kingdom of Saxony . With the division of the house of Wettin in 1485, Thuringia
Thuringia
went to the senior Ernestine branch of the family, which subsequently subdivided the area into a number of smaller states, according to the Saxon tradition of dividing inheritance amongst male heirs. These were the "Saxon duchies ", consisting, among others, of the states of Saxe- Weimar
Weimar
, Saxe-Eisenach , Saxe-Jena , Saxe-Meiningen
Saxe-Meiningen
, Saxe-Altenburg , Saxe-Coburg , and Saxe-Gotha ; Thuringia
Thuringia
became merely a geographical concept.

Thuringia
Thuringia
generally accepted the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
, and Roman Catholicism was suppressed as early as 1520; priests who remained loyal to it were driven away and churches and monasteries were largely destroyed, especially during the German Peasants\' War of 1525. In Mühlhausen and elsewhere, the Anabaptists found many adherents. Thomas Müntzer
Thomas Müntzer
, a leader of some non-peaceful groups of this sect, was active in this city. Within the borders of modern Thuringia
Thuringia
the Roman Catholic faith only survived in the Eichsfeld district, which was ruled by the Archbishop of Mainz , and to a small degree in Erfurt and its immediate vicinity. Map of Thuringian States 1890

Some reordering of the Thuringian states occurred during the German Mediatisation from 1795 to 1814, and the territory was included within the Napoleonic Confederation of the Rhine organized in 1806. The 1815 Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
confirmed these changes and the Thuringian states' inclusion in the German Confederation ; the Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
also acquired some Thuringian territory and administered it within the Province of Saxony . The Thuringian duchies which became part of the German Empire
German Empire
in 1871 during the Prussian-led unification of Germany were Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach , Saxe-Meiningen
Saxe-Meiningen
, Saxe-Altenburg , Saxe-Coburg-Gotha , Schwarzburg-Sondershausen , Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and the two principalities of Reuss Elder Line
Reuss Elder Line
and Reuss Younger Line . In 1920, after World War I
World War I
, these small states merged into one state, called Thuringia; only Saxe-Coburg voted to join Bavaria instead. Weimar
Weimar
became the new capital of Thuringia. The coat of arms of this new state was simpler than those of its predecessors.

In 1930 Thuringia
Thuringia
was one of the free states where the Nazis gained real political power. Wilhelm Frick was appointed Minister of the Interior for the state of Thuringia
Thuringia
after the Nazi Party won six delegates to the Thuringia
Thuringia
Diet. In this position he removed from the Thuringia
Thuringia
police force anyone he suspected of being a republican and replaced them with men who were favourable towards the Nazi Party. He also ensured that whenever an important position came up within Thuringia, he used his power to ensure that a Nazi was given that post.

After being controlled briefly by the US, from July 1945, the state of Thuringia
Thuringia
came under the Soviet occupation zone , and was expanded to include parts of Prussian Saxony, such as the areas around Erfurt
Erfurt
, Mühlhausen , and Nordhausen
Nordhausen
. Erfurt
Erfurt
became the new capital of Thuringia. Ostheim , an exclave of Landkreis (roughly equivalent to a county in the English-speaking world) Eisenach, was ceded to Bavaria.

In 1952, the German Democratic Republic
German Democratic Republic
dissolved its states, and created districts (Bezirke ) instead. The three districts that shared the former territory of Thuringia
Thuringia
were Erfurt, Gera
Gera
and Suhl . Altenburg
Altenburg
Kreis was part of Leipzig
Leipzig
Bezirk.

The State of Thuringia
Thuringia
was recreated with slightly altered borders during German reunification
German reunification
in 1990.

GEOGRAPHY

TOPOGRAPHY

From the northwest going clockwise, Thuringia
Thuringia
borders on the German states of Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
, Saxony-Anhalt , Saxony
Saxony
, Bavaria
Bavaria
and Hesse
Hesse
.

The landscapes of Thuringia
Thuringia
are quite diverse. The far north is occupied by the Harz mountains, followed by the Goldene Aue , a fertile floodplain around Nordhausen
Nordhausen
with the Helme as most important river. The north-west includes the Eichsfeld , a hilly and sometimes forested region, where the Leine river emanates. The central and northern part of Thuringia
Thuringia
is defined by the 3000 km² wide Thuringian Basin , a very fertile and flat area around the Unstrut river and completely surrounded by the following hill chains (clockwise from the north-west): Dün , Hainleite , Windleite , Kyffhäuser , Hohe Schrecke , Schmücke , Finne , Ettersberg , Steigerwald , Thuringian Forest , Hörselberge and Hainich
Hainich
. Within the Basin the smaller hill chains Fahner Höhe and Heilinger Höhen . South of the Thuringian Basin is the Land's largest mountain range, marked by the Thuringian Forest in the north-west, the Thuringian Highland
Thuringian Highland
in the middle and the Franconian Forest
Franconian Forest
in the south-east. Most of this range is forested and the Großer Beerberg (983 m) is Thuringia's highest mountain. To the south-west, the Forest is followed up by Werra
Werra
river valley, dividing it from the Rhön Mountains in the west and the Grabfeld plain in the south. Eastern Thuringia, commonly described as the area east of Saale
Saale
and Loquitz valley, is marked by a hilly landscape, rising slowly from the flat north to the mountainous south. The Saale
Saale
in the west and the Weiße Elster
Weiße Elster
in the east are the two big rivers running from south to north and forming densely settled valleys in this area. Between them lies the flat and forested Holzland in the north, the flat and fertile Orlasenke in the middle and the Vogtland , a hilly but in most parts non-forested region in the south. The far eastern region (east of Weiße Elster) is the Osterland or Altenburger Land along Pleiße river, a flat, fertile and densely settled agricultural area.

The most important river in Thuringia
Thuringia
is the Saale
Saale
(a tributary of the Elbe
Elbe
) with its tributaries Unstrut , Ilm and Weiße Elster
Weiße Elster
, draining the most parts of Thuringia
Thuringia
and the Werra
Werra
(the headwater of the Weser ), draining the south-west and west of the Land. Furthermore, some small parts on the southern border are drained by tributaries of the Main (a tributary of the Rhine
Rhine
). There are no large natural lakes in Thuringia, but it does have some of Germany's biggest dams including the Bleiloch Dam and the Hohenwarte Dam at Saale
Saale
river same as the Leibis-Lichte Dam and the Goldisthal Pumped Storage Station within the Highland. Thuringia
Thuringia
is Germany's only state without connection to navigable waterways.

The geographic center of the Federal Republic is located in Thuringia, within the municipality of Vogtei next to Mühlhausen . Thuringia's center is located only eight kilometres south of the capital's Cathedral within the municipality of Rockhausen .

CLIMATE

Thuringia's climate is temperate with humid westerly winds predominate. Increasing from the north-west to the south-east the Land's climate shows continental features; winters can be cold for long periods, and summers can become warm. Dry periods are often recorded, especially within the Thuringian Basin, situated leeward to mountains in all directions. It is Germany's most dry area with annual precipitation of only 400 to 500 mm.

Within Thuringia
Thuringia
are relatively big climate differences with a range from an average temperature of 8.5 °C and precipitation of 450 mm in Artern up to an average temperature of 4.4 °C and precipitation of 1300 mm at Schmücke station next to Oberhof within the Thuringian Forest.

CLIMATE DATA FOR ERFURT (1971–2000)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 2.2 (36) 3.2 (37.8) 7.8 (46) 12.2 (54) 17.5 (63.5) 20.1 (68.2) 22.5 (72.5) 22.7 (72.9) 18.3 (64.9) 12.7 (54.9) 6.4 (43.5) 3.4 (38.1) 12.4 (54.3)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −3.1 (26.4) −2.9 (26.8) 0.3 (32.5) 2.8 (37) 7.1 (44.8) 10.2 (50.4) 12.1 (53.8) 12.0 (53.6) 9.1 (48.4) 5.1 (41.2) 0.9 (33.6) −1.5 (29.3) 4.3 (39.7)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 24.7 (0.972) 23.8 (0.937) 35.5 (1.398) 40.3 (1.587) 54.8 (2.157) 60.8 (2.394) 62.5 (2.461) 52.8 (2.079) 40.5 (1.594) 36.8 (1.449) 37.5 (1.476) 31.5 (1.24) 501.5 (19.744)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM) 7.0 6.7 8.3 7.9 8.5 10.0 8.7 8.3 7.4 6.9 7.8 7.6 95.1

Source: World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization

NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT

Due to many centuries of intensive settlement, most of the area is shaped by human influence. The original natural vegetation of Thuringia
Thuringia
is forest with beech as its predominant species, as can still be found in the Hainich
Hainich
mountains today. In the uplands, a mixture of beech and spruce would be natural. However, most of the plains have been cleared and are in intensive agricultural use while most of the forests are planted with spruce and pine . Since 1990, Thuringia's forests have been managed aiming for a more natural and tough vegetation more resilient to climate change as well as diseases and vermin. In comparison to the forest, agriculture is still quite conventional and dominated by large structures and monocultures. Problems here are caused especially by increasingly prolonged dry periods during the summer months.

Environmental damage in Thuringia
Thuringia
has been reduced to a large extent after 1990. The condition of forests, rivers and air was improved by modernizing factories, houses (decline of coal heating) and cars, and contaminated areas such as the former Uranium
Uranium
surface mines around Ronneburg have been remediated. Today's environmental problems are the salination of the Werra
Werra
river, caused by discharges of K+S salt mines around Unterbreizbach and overfertilisation in agriculture, damaging the soil and small rivers.

Environment and nature protection has been of growing importance and attention since 1990. Large areas, especially within the forested mountains, are protected as natural reserves, including Thuringia's first national park within the Hainich
Hainich
mountains, founded in 1997, the Rhön Biosphere Reserve , the Thuringian Forest
Thuringian Forest
Nature Park and the South Harz Nature Park .

DEMOGRAPHICS

DEMOGRAPHIC HISTORY

During the Middle Ages, Thuringia
Thuringia
was situated at the border between Germanic and Slavic territories, marked by the Saale
Saale
river. The Ostsiedlung movement led to the assimilation of Slavic people between the 11th and the 13th century under German rule. The population growth increased during the 18th century and stayed high until World War I, before it slowed within the 20th century and changed to a decline since 1990. Since the beginning of Urbanisation around 1840, the Thuringian cities have higher growth rates resp. smaller rates of decline than rural areas (many villages lost half of their population since 1950, whereas the biggest cities ( Erfurt
Erfurt
and Jena
Jena
) keep growing).

YEAR POPULATION

1834 1,172,375

1864 1,435,115

1890 1,737,544

1910 2,160,692

1950 2,932,242

1960 2,737,865

1970 2,759,084

1980 2,730,368

1988 2,723,268

YEAR POPULATION

1995 2,503,785

2000 2,431,255

2005 2,334,575

2010 2,235,025

2011 2,221,222

2011 2,181,603

2012 2,170,460

* ^ old number according to the 1981 Census forward projection * ^ new number according to the 2011 Census

CURRENT POPULATION

The current population is 2,170,000 (in 2012) with an annual rate of decrease of about 0.5%, which varies wide between the local regions. In 2012, 905,000 Thuringians lived in a municipality with more than 20,000 inhabitants, this is an urbanization rate of 42% which continues to rise.

In July 2013, there were 41,000 non-Germans by citizenship living in Thuringia
Thuringia
(1.9% of the population − among the smallest proportions of any state in Germany). Nevertheless, the number rose from 33,000 in July 2011, an increase of 24% in only two years. About 4% of the population are migrants (including persons that already received the German citizenship). The biggest groups of foreigners by citizenship are (as of 2012): Russians (3,100), Poles (3,000), Vietnamese (2,800), Turks (2,100) and Ukrainians (2,000). The amount of foreigners varies between regions: the college towns Erfurt
Erfurt
, Jena
Jena
, Weimar
Weimar
and Ilmenau have the highest rates, whereas there are almost no migrants living in the most rural smaller municipalities.

The Thuringian population has a significant sex ratio gap, caused by the emigration of young women, especially in rural areas. Overall, there are 115 to 120 men per 100 women in the 25–40 age group ("family founders") which has negative consequences for the birth ratio. Furthermore, the population is getting older and older with some rural municipalities recording more than 30% of over-65s (pensioners). This is a problem for the regional labour market, as there are twice as many people leaving as entering the job market annually.

NATURAL AND SPATIAL TENDENCIES

The birth rate was about 1.8 children per women in the 1970s and 1980s, shrinking to 0.8 in 1994 during the economic crisis after the reunification and rose again to more than 1.4 children in 2010, which is a higher level than in West Germany. Nevertheless, there are only 17,000 births compared to 27,000 deaths per year, so that the annual natural change of the Thuringian population is about −0.45%. In 2015 were was 17.934 births, the highest number since 1990.

Migration plays an important role in Thuringia. The internal migration shows a strong tendency from rural areas towards the big cities. From 2008 to 2012, there was a net migration from Thuringia
Thuringia
to Erfurt
Erfurt
of +6,700 persons (33 per 1000 inhabitants), +1,800 to Gera
Gera
(19 per 1000), +1,400 to Jena
Jena
(14 per 1000), +1,400 to Eisenach
Eisenach
(33 per 1000) and +1,300 to Weimar
Weimar
(21 per 1000). Between Thuringia
Thuringia
and the other German states, the balance is negative: In 2012, Thuringia
Thuringia
lost 6,500 persons to other federal states, the most to Bavaria
Bavaria
, Saxony
Saxony
, Hesse
Hesse
and Berlin
Berlin
. Only with Saxony-Anhalt and Brandenburg the balance is positive. The international migration is fluctuating heavily. In 2009, the balance was +700, in 2010 +1,800, in 2011 +2,700 and in 2012 +4,800. The most important countries of origin of the Thuringia migrants from 2008 to 2012 were Poland
Poland
(+1,700), Romania
Romania
(+1,200), Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(+1,100) and Serbia
Serbia
/ Montenegro
Montenegro
/ Kosovo
Kosovo
(+1,000), whereas the balance was negative with Switzerland
Switzerland
(−2,800) and Austria (−900).

POPULATION PROJECTION

The governmental population projection predicts a further shrinkage of the Thuringian population down to 2.12 millions in 2015 and 2.04 millions in 2020. The regional effects will be very different. The biggest cities keep growing, whereas many villages will downright die out.

CITIES, TOWNS AND VILLAGES

Of the approximately 850 municipalities of Thuringia, 126 are classed as towns (within a district) or cities (forming their own urban district). Most of the towns are small with a population of less than 10,000; only the ten biggest ones have a population greater than 30,000. The first towns emerged during the 12th century, whereas the latest ones received town status only in the 20th century. Today, all municipalities within districts are equal in law, whether they are towns or villages. Independent cities (i.e. urban districts) have greater powers (the same as any district) than towns within a district.

RANK CITY DISTRICT POP. 2012-12-31 CHANGE* COA IMAGE

1 Erfurt
Erfurt
independent 203,485 +0.68

2 Jena
Jena
independent 106,915 +0.47

3 Gera
Gera
independent 95,384 −0.55

4 Weimar
Weimar
independent 63,236 +0.35

5 Gotha
Gotha
Gotha
Gotha
44,371 −0.05

6 Nordhausen
Nordhausen
Nordhausen
Nordhausen
41,926 −0.35

7 Eisenach
Eisenach
independent 41,744 −0.12

8 Suhl independent 35,967 −1.68

9 Altenburg
Altenburg
Altenburger Land 33,343 −1.27

10 Mühlhausen Unstrut-Hainich-Kreis 33,235 −0.38

* Average annual change in percent within the last three years (2009-12-31 until 2012-12-31), adjusted from incorporations and the 2011 Census results.

RELIGION

RELIGION IN THURINGIA - 2015

religion

percent

None or other   70.1%

EKD Protestants   22.2%

Roman Catholics   7.8%

Since the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
, the most prominent Christian denomination in Thuringia
Thuringia
has been Lutheranism . During the GDR period, church membership was discouraged and has continued shrinking since the reunification in 1990. Today over two thirds of the population is non-religious. The Protestant Evangelical Church in Germany
Germany
has had the largest number of members in the state, adhered to by 22.2% of the population in 2015. Members of the Catholic Church formed 7.8% of the population, while 70.1% of Thuringians were non-religious or adhere to other faiths. The highest Protestant concentrations are in the small villages of southern and western Thuringia, whereas the bigger cities are even more non-religious (up to 88% in Gera
Gera
). Catholic regions are the Eichsfeld in the northwest and parts of the Rhön Mountains around Geisa in the southwest. Protestant church membership is shrinking rapidly, whereas the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
is somewhat more stable because of Catholic migration from Poland, Southern Europe and West Germany. Other religions play no significant role in Thuringia. There are only a few thousand Muslims (largely migrants) and about 750 Jews (mostly migrants from Russia) living in Thuringia. Furthermore, there are some Orthodox communities of Eastern European migrants and some traditional Protestant Free churches in Thuringia
Thuringia
without any societal influence.

The Protestant parishes of Thuringia
Thuringia
belong to the Evangelical Church in Central Germany
Germany
or to the Evangelical Church of Hesse Electorate-Waldeck ( Schmalkalden
Schmalkalden
region). Catholic dioceses are Erfurt (most of Thuringia), Dresden-Meissen (eastern parts) and Fulda (Rhön around Geisa in the very west).

*

EKD Protestant membership in 2011 (municipalities) *

Catholic membership in 2011 (municipalities)

POLITICS

LIST OF MINISTERS-PRESIDENT OF THURINGIA

Main article: List of Ministers-President of Thuringia

SEPTEMBER 2014 STATE ELECTION

See also: Thuringian state election, 2014

e • d Summary of the 2014 Landtag of Thuringia elections results < 2009 NEXT > PARTY POPULAR VOTE SEATS

VOTES % +/– SEATS +/–

Christian Democratic Union Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands – CDU 315,096 33.5 2.3 34 4

Left Die Linke 265,425 28.2 0.8 28 1

Social Democratic Party of Germany
Germany
Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands – SPD 116,889 12.4 6.1 12 6

Alternative for Germany
Germany
Alternative für Deutschland – AfD 99,548 10.6 10.6 11 11

Alliance \'90/The Greens Bündnis 90/Die Grünen 53,395 5.7 0.5 6

National Democratic Party Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands – NPD 34,018 3.6 0.7 0

Free Democratic Party Freie Demokratische Partei – FDP 23,352 2.5 5.1 0 7

Other parties 33,969 3.5 1.3 0

VALID VOTES 941,692 98.6 0.4

Invalid votes 13,271 1.4 0.4

TOTALS AND VOTER TURNOUT 954,963 52.7 3.5 91 3

ELECTORATE 1,812,249 100.00 —

Source: Wahlrecht.de

Following the election, the Left, Social Democrats and Greens agreed to form a coalition government led by Bodo Ramelow of the Left. The next ordinary state election is scheduled for 2019.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Thuringia
Thuringia
is divided into 17 districts (Landkreise):

* Altenburger Land * Eichsfeld * Gotha
Gotha
* Greiz * Hildburghausen * Ilm-Kreis * Kyffhäuserkreis * Nordhausen
Nordhausen
* Saale-Holzland * Saale-Orla * Saalfeld-Rudolstadt * Schmalkalden-Meiningen
Schmalkalden-Meiningen
* Sömmerda * Sonneberg * Unstrut- Hainich
Hainich
* Wartburgkreis * Weimarer Land

The districts of Thuringia
Thuringia

Furthermore, there are six urban districts, indicated on the map by letters:

* Erfurt
Erfurt
(EF) * Eisenach
Eisenach
(EA) * Gera
Gera
(G) * Jena
Jena
(J) * Suhl (SHL) * Weimar
Weimar
(WE)

ECONOMY

Thuringia's economy is marked by the economic transition that happened after the German reunification
German reunification
and led to the closure of most of the factories within the Land. The unemployment rate reached a peak around 2005. Since that year, the economy has seen an upturn and the general economic situation has improved.

AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY

Agriculture and forestry have declined in importance over the decades. Nevertheless, they are more important than in the most other areas of Germany, especially within rural regions. 54% of Thuringia's territory is in agricultural use. The fertile basins such as the large Thuringian Basin or the smaller Goldene Aue , Orlasenke and Osterland are in intensive use for growing cereals, vegetables, fruits and energy crops. Important products are apples, strawberries, cherries and plums in the fruit sector, cabbage, potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes (grown in greenhouses), onions, cucumbers and asparagus in the vegetable sector, as well as maize, rapeseed, wheat, barley and sugar beets in the crop sector.

Meat production and processing is also an important activity, with swine, cattle, chickens and turkeys in focus. Furthermore, there are many milk and cheese producers, as well as laying hens. Trout and carp are traditionally bred in aquaculture in many villages.

Most agricultural enterprises are large cooperatives, founded as Landwirtschaftliche Produktionsgenossenschaft during the GDR period, and meat producers are part of multinational companies. Traditional private peasant agriculture is an exception, as is organic farming.

Thuringia's only wine-growing district is situated around Bad Sulza north of Weimar
Weimar
and Jena
Jena
along the Ilm and Saale
Saale
valley. Its production is marketed as Saale- Unstrut wines.

Forestry plays an important role in Thuringia
Thuringia
because 32% of the Thuringian territory is forested. The most common trees are spruce, pine and beech. There are many wood and pulp-paper factories near the forested areas.

INDUSTRY AND MINING

Like most other regions of central and southern Germany, Thuringia has a significant industrial sector reaching back to the mid-19th-century industrialisation. The economic transition after the German reunification
German reunification
in 1990 led to the closure of most large-scale factories and companies, leaving small and medium-sized ones to dominate the manufacturing sector. Well-known industrial centres are Jena
Jena
(a world centre for optical instruments with companies like Carl Zeiss , Schott and Jenoptik
Jenoptik
) and Eisenach
Eisenach
, where BMW
BMW
started its car production in the 1920s and an Opel
Opel
factory is based today. The most important industrial branches today are engineering and metalworking, vehicle production and food industries. Especially the small and mid-sized towns in central and southwestern Thuringia
Thuringia
(e.g. Arnstadt , Schmalkalden
Schmalkalden
and Ohrdruf ) are highly industrialised, whereas there are fewer industrial companies in the northern and eastern parts of the Land. Traditional industries like production of glass, porcelain and toys collapsed during the economic crises between 1930 and 1990.

Mining was important in Thuringia
Thuringia
since the later Middle Ages, especially within the mining towns of the Thuringian Forest
Thuringian Forest
such as Schmalkalden
Schmalkalden
, Suhl and Ilmenau
Ilmenau
. Following the industrial revolution, the old iron, copper and silver mines declined because the competition from imported metal was too strong. On the other hand, the late 19th century brought new types of mines to Thuringia: the lignite surface mining around Meuselwitz near Altenburg
Altenburg
in the east of the Land started in the 1870s, and two potash mining districts were established around 1900. These are the Südharzrevier in the north of the state, between Bischofferode in the west and Roßleben in the east with Sondershausen at its centre, and the Werrarevier on the Hessian border around Vacha and Bad Salzungen in the west. Together, they accounted for a significant part of the world's potash production in the mid-20th century. After the reunification, the Südharzrevier was abandoned, whereas K+S took over the mines in the Werrarevier. Between 1950 and 1990, uranium mining was also important to cover the Soviet Union's need for this metal. The centre was Ronneburg near Gera
Gera
in eastern Thuringia
Thuringia
and the operating company Wismut was under direct Soviet control.

GENERAL ECONOMIC PARAMETERS

The GDP of Thuringia
Thuringia
is below the national average, in line with the other former East German Lands. Until 2004, Thuringia
Thuringia
was one of the weakest regions within the European Union
European Union
. The accession of several new countries, the crisis in southern Europe and the sustained economic growth in Germany
Germany
since 2005 has brought the Thuringian GDP close to the EU average since then. The high economic subsidies granted by the federal government and the EU after 1990 are being reduced gradually and will end around 2020.

The unemployment rate reached its peak of 20% in 2005. Since then, it has decreased to 7% in 2013, which is only slightly above the national average. The decrease is caused on the one hand by the emergence of new jobs and on the other by a marked decrease in the working-age population, caused by emigration and low birth rates for decades. The wages in Thuringia
Thuringia
are low compared to rich bordering Lands like Hesse and Bavaria
Bavaria
. Therefore, many Thuringians are working in other German Lands and even in Austria
Austria
and Switzerland
Switzerland
as weekly commuters. Nevertheless, the demographic transition in Thuringia
Thuringia
leads to a lack of workers in some sectors. External immigration into Thuringia
Thuringia
has been encouraged by the government since about 2010 to counter this problem.

The economic progress is quite different between the regions of Thuringia. The big cities along the A4 motorway such as Erfurt
Erfurt
, Jena and Eisenach
Eisenach
and their surroundings are booming, whereas nearly all the rural regions, especially in the north and east, have little economic impetus and employment, which is a big issue in regional planning. Young people in these areas often have to commute long distances, and many emigrate soon after finishing school.

INFRASTRUCTURE

TRANSPORT

As Germany's most central Land, Thuringia
Thuringia
is an important hub of transit traffic. The transportation infrastructure was in very poor condition after the GDR period. Since 1990, many billions of Euros have been invested to improve the condition of roads and railways within Thuringia.

During the 1930s, the first two motorways were built across the Land, the A4 motorway as an important east-west connection in central Germany
Germany
and the main link between Berlin
Berlin
and south-west Germany, and the A9 motorway as the main north-south route in eastern Germany, connecting Berlin
Berlin
with Munich
Munich
. The A4 runs from Frankfurt
Frankfurt
in Hesse via Eisenach
Eisenach
, Gotha
Gotha
, Erfurt
Erfurt
, Weimar
Weimar
, Jena
Jena
and Gera
Gera
to Dresden
Dresden
in Saxony
Saxony
, connecting Thuringia's most important cities. At Hermsdorf junction it is connected with the A9. Both highways were widened from four to six lanes (three each way) after 1990, including some extensive re-routing in the Eisenach
Eisenach
and Jena
Jena
areas. Furthermore, three new motorways were built during the 1990s and 2000s. The A71 crosses the Land in southwest-northeast direction, connecting Würzburg
Würzburg
in Bavaria
Bavaria
via Meiningen , Suhl , Ilmenau
Ilmenau
, Arnstadt , Erfurt
Erfurt
and Sömmerda with Sangerhausen
Sangerhausen
and Halle in Saxony-Anhalt . The crossing of the Thuringian Forest
Thuringian Forest
by the A71 has been one of Germany's most expensive motorway segments with various tunnels (including Germany's longest road tunnel, the Rennsteig
Rennsteig
Tunnel ) and large bridges. The A73 starts at the A71 south of Erfurt
Erfurt
in Suhl and runs south towards Nuremberg
Nuremberg
in Bavaria. The A38 is another west-east connection in the north of Thuringia
Thuringia
running from Göttingen
Göttingen
in Lower Saxony
Saxony
via Heiligenstadt and Nordhausen
Nordhausen
to Leipzig
Leipzig
in Saxony. Furthermore, there is a dense network of federal highways complementing the motorway network. The upgrading of federal highways is prioritised in the federal trunk road programme 2015 (Bundesverkehrswegeplan 2015). Envisaged projects include upgrades of the B247 from Gotha
Gotha
to Leinefelde
Leinefelde
to improve Mühlhausen 's connection to the national road network, the B19 from Eisenach
Eisenach
to Meiningen to improve access to Bad Salzungen and Schmalkalden
Schmalkalden
, and the B88 and B281 for strengthening the Saalfeld / Rudolstadt
Rudolstadt
region.

The first railways in Thuringia
Thuringia
had been built in the 1840s and the network of main lines was finished around 1880. By 1920, many branch lines had been built, giving Thuringia
Thuringia
one of the densest rail networks in the world before World War II with about 2,500 km of track. Between 1950 and 2000 most of the branch lines were abandoned, reducing Thuringia's network by half compared to 1940. On the other hand, most of the main lines were refurbished after 1990, resulting in improved speed of travel. The most important railway lines at present are the Thuringian Railway , connecting Halle and Leipzig
Leipzig
via Weimar
Weimar
, Erfurt
Erfurt
, Gotha
Gotha
and Eisenach
Eisenach
with Frankfurt
Frankfurt
and Kassel
Kassel
and the Saal Railway from Halle/ Leipzig
Leipzig
via Jena
Jena
and Saalfeld to Nuremberg
Nuremberg
. The former has an hourly ICE /IC service from Dresden
Dresden
to Frankfurt
Frankfurt
while the latter is served hourly by ICE trains from Berlin
Berlin
to Munich
Munich
. In 2017, a new high speed line will be opened, diverting long-distance services from these mid-19th century lines. Both ICE routes will then use the Erfurt–Leipzig/Halle high-speed railway , and the Berlin- Munich
Munich
route will continue via the Nuremberg–Erfurt high-speed railway . Only the segment west of Erfurt
Erfurt
of the Frankfurt- Dresden
Dresden
line will continue to be used by ICE trains after 2017, with an increased line speed of 200 km/h (currently 160 km/h). Erfurt\'s central station , which was completely rebuilt for this purpose in the 2000s (decade), will be the new connection between both ICE lines. The most important regional railway lines in Thuringia
Thuringia
are the Neudietendorf–Ritschenhausen railway from Erfurt
Erfurt
to Würzburg and Meiningen , the Weimar– Gera
Gera
railway from Erfurt
Erfurt
to Chemnitz , the Sangerhausen– Erfurt
Erfurt
railway from Erfurt
Erfurt
to Magdeburg
Magdeburg
, the Gotha– Leinefelde
Leinefelde
railway from Erfurt
Erfurt
to Göttingen
Göttingen
, the Halle– Kassel
Kassel
railway from Halle via Nordhausen
Nordhausen
to Kassel
Kassel
and the Leipzig–Hof railway from Leipzig
Leipzig
via Altenburg
Altenburg
to Zwickau and Hof . Most regional and local lines have hourly service, but some run only every other hour.

There are a few small airports in Thuringia
Thuringia
but the only one with public aviation is Erfurt– Weimar
Weimar
Airport . It is used for charter flights to the Mediterranean and other holiday destinations. The most important airports for scheduled flights are Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Airport , Berlin
Berlin
Brandenburg Airport and Munich
Munich
Airport , all located in adjacent states. Leipzig– Altenburg
Altenburg
Airport was served by Ryanair from 2003 to 2011.

Thuringia
Thuringia
is Germany's only Land without a connection to waterways because its rivers are too small to be navigable.

ENERGY AND WATER SUPPLY

The traditional energy supply of Thuringia
Thuringia
is lignite , mined in the bordering Leipzig
Leipzig
region. Since 2000, the importance of environmentally unfriendly lignite combustion has declined in favour of renewable energies, which reached an amount of 40% (in 2013), and more clean gas combustion, often carried out as Cogeneration in the municipal power stations. The most important forms of renewable energies are Wind power
Wind power
and Biomass , followed by Solar energy
Solar energy
and Hydroelectricity
Hydroelectricity
. Furthermore, Thuringia
Thuringia
hosts two big pumped storage stations : the Goldisthal Pumped Storage Station and the Hohenwarte Dam .

The water supply is granted by the big dams, like the Leibis-Lichte Dam , within the Thuringian Forest
Thuringian Forest
and the Thuringian Highland
Thuringian Highland
, making a drinking water exporter of Thuringia.

HEALTH

Health care provision in Thuringia
Thuringia
improved after 1990, as did the level of general health. Life expectancy rose, nevertheless it is still a bit lower than the German average. This is caused by a relatively unhealthy lifestyle of the Thuringians, especially in high consumption of meat, fat and alcohol, which led to significant higher rates of obesity compared to the German average.

Health care in Thuringia
Thuringia
is currently undergoing a concentration process. Many smaller hospitals in the rural towns are closing, whereas the bigger ones in centres like Jena
Jena
and Erfurt
Erfurt
get enlarged. Overall, there is an oversupply of hospital beds, caused by rationalisation processes in the German health care system, so that many smaller hospitals generate losses. On the other hand, there is a lack of family doctors, especially in rural regions with increased need of health care provision because of overageing.

EDUCATION

In Germany, the educational system is part of the sovereignty of the Lands; therefore each Land has its own school and college system.

SCHOOL SYSTEM

See also: Education in Germany
Germany

The Thuringian school system was developed after the reunification in 1990, combining some elements of the former GDR school system with the Bavarian school system. Most German school rankings attest that Thuringia
Thuringia
has one of the most successful education systems in Germany, resulting in high-quality outcomes.

Early-years education is quite common in Thuringia. Since the 1950s, nearly all children have been using the service, whereas early-years education is less developed in western Germany. Its inventor Friedrich Fröbel lived in Thuringia
Thuringia
and founded the world's first Kindergartens there in the 19th century. The Thuringian primary school takes four years and most primary schools are all-day schools offering optional extracurricular activities in the afternoon. At the age of ten, pupils are separated according to aptitude and proceed to either the Gymnasium or the Regelschule. The former leads to the Abitur
Abitur
exam after a further eight years and prepares for higher education, while the latter has a more vocational focus and finishes with exams after five or six years, comparable to the Hauptschule
Hauptschule
and Realschule found elsewhere in Germany.

UNIVERSITIES

The German higher education system comprises two forms of academic institutions: universities and polytechnics ( Fachhochschule ). The University of Jena
University of Jena
is the biggest amongst Thuringia's four universities and offers nearly every discipline. It was founded in 1558, and today has 21,000 students. The second-largest is the Technische Universität Ilmenau
Technische Universität Ilmenau
with 7,000 students, founded in 1894, which offers many technical disciplines such as engineering and mathematics. The University
University
of Erfurt
Erfurt
, founded in 1392, has 5,000 students today and an emphasis on humanities and teacher training. The Bauhaus
Bauhaus
University
University
Weimar
Weimar
with 4,000 students is Thuringia's smallest university, specialising in creative subjects such as architecture and arts. It was founded in 1860 and came to prominence as Germany's leading art school during the inter-war period, the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
.

The polytechnics of Thuringia
Thuringia
are based in Erfurt
Erfurt
(4,500 students), Jena
Jena
(5,000 students), Nordhausen
Nordhausen
(2,500 students) and Schmalkalden (3,000 students). In addition, there is a civil service college in Gotha
Gotha
with 500 students, the College of Music "Franz Liszt" in Weimar (800 students) as well as two private colleges, the Adam-Ries- Fachhochschule in Erfurt
Erfurt
(500 students) and the SRH College for nursing and allied medical subjects (SRH Fachhochschule für Gesundheit Gera
Gera
) in Gera
Gera
(500 students). Finally, there are colleges for those studying for a technical qualification while working in a related field (Berufsakademie) at Eisenach
Eisenach
(600 students) and Gera (700 students).

RESEARCH

Thuringia's leading research centre is Jena
Jena
, followed by Ilmenau
Ilmenau
. Both focus on technology, in particular life sciences and optics at Jena
Jena
and information technology at Ilmenau. Erfurt
Erfurt
is a centre of Germany's horticultural research, whereas Weimar
Weimar
and Gotha
Gotha
with their various archives and libraries are centres of historic and cultural research. Most of the research in Thuringia
Thuringia
is publicly funded basic research due to the lack of large companies able to invest significant amounts in applied research, with the notable exception of the optics sector at Jena
Jena
.

PERSONALITIES

* Georg Böhm (1661-1733), German composer and organist of the Baroque period, born in Hohenkirchen * Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach
(1685–1750), German composer and musician of the Baroque period, born in Eisenach
Eisenach
* Franz Liszt
Franz Liszt
(1811–1886), Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, teacher and Franciscan tertiary, lived in Weimar * Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner
(1813–1883), German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor, sojourns in Weimar
Weimar
and Eisenach
Eisenach
* Richard Strauss
Richard Strauss
(1864–1949), German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras, director of the Weimar
Weimar
Court Orchestra (Hofkapellmeister)

*

Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach
*

Franz Liszt
Franz Liszt
*

Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner

* Martin Luther
Martin Luther
(1483–1546), German friar (Observant Augustinian), Catholic priest, professor of theology and seminal figure of the 16th-century movement in Christianity known later as the Protestant Reformation, schooldays in Eisenach
Eisenach
, translation of the New Testament from Greek into German at Wartburg
Wartburg
castle * Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Goethe
(1749–1832), German writer and statesman, went to live in Weimar * Friedrich von Schiller
Schiller
(1759–1805), German poet, philosopher, historian, and playwright; professor of history at the University
University
of Jena
Jena
before relocating Weimar

*

Chamber of Martin Luther
Martin Luther
at Wartburg
Wartburg
castle *

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Goethe
*

Friedrich von Schiller
Schiller

* Meister Eckhart
Meister Eckhart
O.P. (c. 1260 – c. 1328), German theologian, philosopher and mystic, born near Gotha
Gotha
* Lucas Cranach the Elder
Lucas Cranach the Elder
(1472–1553), German Renaissance painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving, lived his last years in Weimar * Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744–1803), German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic, introduces the Zeitgeist in "Kritische Wälder" (1769), served as General Superintendent in Weimar * Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland (1762–1836), German physician, most eminent practical physician of his time in Germany, born in Langensalza * Napoléon Bonaparte (1769–1821), French military and political leader, twin battle of Jena-Auerstedt , October 14, 1806, met Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Goethe
at the governor's palace in Erfurt
Erfurt
in the presence of Talleyrand
Talleyrand
, October 2, 1808 («Vous êtes un homme. Quel âge avez-vous ? – Soixante ans. – Vous êtes bien conservé. Vous avez écrit des tragédies ? ») (« Voilà un homme ») * Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
(1770–1831), German philosopher, author of the Phenomenology of Spirit , extraordinary Professor at University of Jena
University of Jena
* Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
(1816–1888), German maker of optical instruments commonly known for the company he founded, Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Jena
Jena
, born in Weimar * Karl Marx
Karl Marx
(1818–1883), German philosopher, economist, social scientist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist, PhD awarded by University of Jena
University of Jena
* Johannes Brahms
Johannes Brahms
(1833–1897), German composer and pianist, frequent sojourns at Meiningen *