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A TUNA is a saltwater fish that belongs to the tribe THUNNINI, a sub-grouping of the mackerel family (Scombridae) – which together with the tunas, also includes the bonitos , mackerels , and Spanish mackerels . Thunnini comprises fifteen species across five genera , the sizes of which vary greatly, ranging from the bullet tuna (max. length: 50 cm (1.6 ft), weight: 1.8 kg (4 lb)) up to the Atlantic bluefin tuna (max. length: 4.6 m (15 ft), weight: 684 kg (1,508 lb)). The bluefin averages 2 m (6.6 ft), and is believed to live for up to 50 years.

Tuna
Tuna
and mackerel sharks are the only species of fish that can maintain a body temperature higher than that of the surrounding water. An active and agile predator, the tuna has a sleek, streamlined body, and is among the fastest-swimming pelagic fish – the yellowfin tuna , for example, is capable of speeds of up to 75 km/h (47 mph). Found in warm seas, it is extensively fished commercially, and is popular as a game fish. As a result of over-fishing, stocks of some tuna species such as the southern bluefin tuna have been reduced dangerously close to the point of extinction .

This article is one of a series on

COMMERCIAL FISH

LARGE PELAGIC

billfish , bonito mackerel , salmon shark , tuna

-------------------------

FORAGE

anchovy , herring menhaden , sardine shad , sprat

-------------------------

DEMERSAL

cod , eel , flatfish pollock , ray -------------------------

MIXED

carp , tilapia

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 Taxonomy

* 2.1 True tuna species * 2.2 Other tuna species

* 3 Biology

* 3.1 Description * 3.2 Physiology

* 4 Fishing
Fishing
industry

* 4.1 Commercial fishing
Commercial fishing
* 4.2 Fishing
Fishing
methods * 4.3 Association with whaling * 4.4 Association with dolphins * 4.5 Aquaculture
Aquaculture

* 5 As food

* 5.1 Canned * 5.2 Nutrition and health * 5.3 Mercury levels

* 6 Management and conservation * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further references

* 10 External links

* 10.1 News

ETYMOLOGY

The term tuna ultimately derives from Thunnus, the Middle Latin form of the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: θύννος (thýnnos) "tunny-fish" – which is in turn derived from θύνω (thýnō), "rush, dart along".

However, the immediate source for the word tuna in English is American Spanish < Spanish atún < Andalusian Arabic at-tūn, assimilated from al-tūn التون : 'tuna fish' < Greco-Latin thunnus mentioned above.

TAXONOMY

The Thunnini tribe is a monophyletic clade comprising fifteen species in five genera :

* family Scombridae
Scombridae

* TRIBE THUNNINI: THE TUNAS

* genus Allothunnus : slender tunas * genus Auxis : frigate tunas * genus Euthynnus : little tunas * genus Katsuwonus : skipjack tunas

* genus Thunnus : albacores, true tunas

* subgenus Thunnus ( Thunnus ): bluefin group * subgenus Thunnus (Neothunnus ): yellowfin group

The cladogram is a tool for visualizing and comparing the evolutionary relationships between taxa , and is read left-to-right as if on a timeline. The following cladogram illustrates the relationship between the tunas and other tribes of the family Scombridae. For example, the cladogram illustrates that the skipjack tunas are more closely related to the true tunas than are the slender tunas (the most primitive of the tunas), and that the next nearest relatives of the tunas are the bonitos of the Sardini
Sardini
tribe.

The Tunas: Thunnini tribe, within the Family Scombridae

family Scombridae
Scombridae

subfamily

Gasterochismatinae

Butterfly kingfishes (1 genus)

subfamily

Scombrinae

tribe Scombrini

Mackerels (2 genera)

tribe Scomberomorini

Spanish mackerels (3 genera)

tribe Sardini
Sardini

Bonitos (4 genera)

tribe THUNNINI,

TUNAS

Allothunnus , slender tunas

Auxis , frigate tunas

Euthynnus , little tunas

Katsuwonus , skipjack tunas

Thunnus , true tunas

subgenus Thunnus

bluefin group

subgenus Neothunnus

yellowfin group

Cladogram: Tunas are classified into the tribe Thunnini (bottom-center in the above diagram) – one of four tribes in the family Scombridae.

TRUE TUNA SPECIES

Relative sizes of various tunas, with the Atlantic bluefin tuna (top) at about 8 ft (2.4 m) in this sample

The "true" tunas are those that belong to the genus Thunnus. Until recently, it was thought that there were seven Thunnus species, and that Atlantic bluefin tuna and Pacific bluefin tuna
Pacific bluefin tuna
were subspecies of a single species. In 1999, Collette established that based on both molecular and morphological considerations, they are in fact distinct species.

The genus Thunnus is further classified into two subgenera : Thunnus ( Thunnus ) (the bluefin group), and Thunnus (Neothunnus ) (the yellowfin group).

THUNNUS , THE TRUE TUNAS

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME Maximum length Common length Maximum weight Maximum age Trophic level SOURCE IUCN
IUCN
STATUS

THUNNUS (THUNNUS ) – THE BLUEFIN GROUP

Albacore
Albacore
tuna T. alalunga (Bonnaterre , 1788) 1.4 m (4.6 ft) 1.0 m (3.3 ft) 60.3 kg (133 lb) 9–13 yrs 4.31

Near threatened

Southern bluefin tuna T. maccoyii (Castelnau , 1872) 2.45 m (8.0 ft) 1.6 m (5.2 ft) 260 kg (570 lb) 20–40 yrs 3.93

Critically endangered

Bigeye tuna T. obesus (Lowe, 1839) 2.5 m (8.2 ft) 1.8 m (5.9 ft) 210 kg (460 lb) 5–16 yrs 4.49

Vulnerable

Pacific bluefin tuna
Pacific bluefin tuna
T. orientalis (Temminck ">3.0 m (9.8 ft) 2.0 m (6.6 ft) 450 kg (990 lb) 15–26 yrs 4.21

Vulnerable

Atlantic bluefin tuna T. thynnus (Linnaeus , 1758) 4.6 m (15 ft) 2.0 m (6.6 ft) 684 kg (1,508 lb) 35–50 yrs 4.43

Endangered

THUNNUS (NEOTHUNNUS ) – THE YELLOWFIN GROUP

Blackfin tuna
Blackfin tuna
T. atlanticus (Lesson , 1831) 1.1 m (3.6 ft) 0.7 m (2.3 ft) 22.4 kg (49 lb) 4.13

Least concern

Longtail tuna T. tonggol (Bleeker , 1851) 1.45 m (4.8 ft) 0.7 m (2.3 ft) 35.9 kg (79 lb) 18 years 4.50

Data deficient

Yellowfin tuna T. albacares (Bonnaterre , 1788) 2.4 m (7.9 ft) 1.5 m (4.9 ft) 200 kg (440 lb) 5–9 yrs 4.34

Near threatened

OTHER TUNA SPECIES

The Thunnini tribe also includes seven additional species of tuna across four genera. They are:

OTHER TUNA SPECIES

COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME Maximum length Common length Maximum weight Maximum age Trophic level SOURCE IUCN
IUCN
STATUS

Slender tuna Allothunnus fallai (Serventy, 1948) 1.05 m (3.4 ft) 0.86 m (2.8 ft) 13.7 kg (30 lb) 3.74

Least concern

Bullet tuna Auxis rochei (Risso, 1810) 0.5 m (1.6 ft) 0.35 m (1.1 ft) 1.8 kg (4.0 lb) 5 years 4.13

Least concern

Frigate tuna Auxis thazard (Lacépède , 1800) 0.65 m (2.1 ft) 0.35 m (1.1 ft) 1.7 kg (3.7 lb) 5 years 4.34

Least concern

Mackerel
Mackerel
tuna , Kawakawa Euthynnus affinis (Cantor, 1849) 1.0 m (3.3 ft) 0.6 m (2.0 ft) 13.6 kg (30 lb) 6 years 4.50

Least concern

Little tunny Euthynnus alletteratus (Rafinesque, 1810) 1.2 m (3.9 ft) 0.8 m (2.6 ft) 16.5 kg (36 lb) 10 years 4.13

Least concern

Black skipjack tuna Euthynnus lineatus (Kishinouye, 1920) 0.84 m (2.8 ft) 0.6 m (2.0 ft) 11.8 kg (26 lb) 3.83

Least concern

Skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus , 1758) 1.1 m (3.6 ft) 0.8 m (2.6 ft) 34.5 kg (76 lb) 6–12 yrs 3.75

Least concern

BIOLOGY

See also: Thunnus Bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus showing finlets and keels. Finlets are found between the last dorsal and/or anal fin and the caudal fin. They are rayless and non-retractable. Drawing by Dr Tony Ayling

DESCRIPTION

The tuna is a sleek and streamlined fish, adapted for speed. It has two closely spaced dorsal fins on its back; The first is "depressible" – it can be laid down, flush, in a groove that runs along its back. Seven to ten yellow finlets run from the dorsal fins to the tail, which is lunate – curved like a crescent moon – and tapered to pointy tips. The caudal peduncle , to which the tail is attached, is quite thin, with three stabilizing horizontal keels on each side. The tuna's dorsal side is generally a metallic dark blue, while the ventral side, or underside, is silvery or whitish, for camouflage .

PHYSIOLOGY

Thunnus are widely but sparsely distributed throughout the oceans of the world, generally in tropical and temperate waters at latitudes ranging between about 45° north and south of the equator. All tunas are able to maintain the temperature of certain parts of their body above the temperature of ambient seawater. For example, bluefin can maintain a core body temperature of 25–33 °C (77–91 °F), in water as cold as 6 °C (43 °F). However, unlike "typical" endothermic creatures such as mammals and birds, tuna do not maintain temperature within a relatively narrow range.

Tunas achieve endothermy by conserving the heat generated through normal metabolism . In all tunas, the heart operates at ambient temperature , as it receives cooled blood, and coronary circulation is directly from the gills . The rete mirabile ("wonderful net"), the intertwining of veins and arteries in the body's periphery, allows nearly all of the metabolic heat from venous blood to be "re-claimed" and transferred to the arterial blood via a counter-current exchange system, thus mitigating the effects of surface cooling. This allows the tuna to elevate the temperatures of the highly-aerobic tissues of the skeletal muscles, eyes and brain, which supports faster swimming speeds and reduced energy expenditure, and which enables them to survive in cooler waters over a wider range of ocean environments than those of other fish.

Also unlike most fish, which have white flesh, the muscle tissue of tuna ranges from pink to dark red. The red myotomal muscles derive their color from myoglobin , an oxygen-binding molecule, which tuna express in quantities far higher than most other fish. The oxygen-rich blood further enables energy delivery to their muscles.

For powerful swimming animals like dolphins and tuna, cavitation may be detrimental, because it limits their maximum swimming speed. Even if they have the power to swim faster, dolphins may have to restrict their speed, because collapsing cavitation bubbles on their tail are too painful. Cavitation
Cavitation
also slows tuna, but for a different reason. Unlike dolphins, these fish do not feel the bubbles, because they have bony fins without nerve endings. Nevertheless, they cannot swim faster because the cavitation bubbles create a vapor film around their fins that limits their speed. Lesions have been found on tuna that are consistent with cavitation damage.

FISHING INDUSTRY

Maximum reported sizes of tuna species

COMMERCIAL FISHING

Tuna
Tuna
is an important commercial fish . The International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF) compiled a detailed scientific report on the state of global tuna stocks in 2009, which includes regular updates. According to the ISSF, the most important species for commercial and recreational tuna fisheries are yellowfin (Thunnus albacares), bigeye (T. obesus), bluefin (T. thynnus, T. orientalis, and T. macoyii), albacore (T. alalunga), and skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis).

The report further states:

Between 1940 and the mid-1960s, the annual world catch of the five principal market species of tunas rose from about 300 thousand tons to about 1 million tons, most of it taken by hook and line. With the development of purse-seine nets, now the predominant gear, catches have risen to more than 4 million tons annually during the last few years. Of these catches, about 68 percent are from the Pacific Ocean, 22 percent from the Indian Ocean, and the remaining 10 percent from the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea. Skipjack makes up about 60 percent of the catch, followed by yellowfin (24 percent), bigeye (10 percent), albacore (5 percent), and bluefin the remainder. Purse-seines take about 62 percent of the world production, longline about 14 percent, pole and line about 11 percent, and a variety of other gears the remainder 3.

The Australian government alleged in 2006 that Japan
Japan
had illegally overfished southern bluefin by taking 12,000 to 20,000 tonnes per year instead of the agreed upon 6,000 tonnes; the value of such overfishing would be as much as US$2 billion. Such overfishing has severely damaged bluefin stocks. According to the WWF , "Japan's huge appetite for tuna will take the most sought-after stocks to the brink of commercial extinction unless fisheries agree on more rigid quotas". Japan's Fisheries
Fisheries
Research Agency counters that Australian and New Zealand tuna fishing companies under-report their total catches of southern bluefin tuna and ignore internationally mandated total allowable catch totals.

In recent years, opening day fish auctions at Tokyo's Tsukiji fish market have seen record-setting prices for bluefin tuna, reflecting market demand. In each of 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, new record prices have been set for a single fish – the current record is 155.4 million japanese yen (US $1.76 million) for a 221 kg (487 lb) bluefin, or a unit price of JP¥ 703,167/kg (US$3,603/lb). The opening auction price for 2014 plummeted to less than 5% of the previous year's price, which had drawn complaints for climbing "way out of line". A summary of record-setting auctions are shown in the following table (highlighted values indicate new world records):

RECORD BLUEFIN TUNA AUCTIONS AT TOKYO\'S TSUKIJI FISH MARKET

(HIGHLIGHTED FIELD INDICATES NEW RECORD PRICE FOR A SINGLE FISH)

YEAR Total weight TOTAL SALE UNIT PRICE SOURCE

( JP ¥ ) ( US $ ) ( ¥ / KG ) ( $ / LB )

2001 202 kg (445 lb) ¥ 20.2 MILLION $173,600 ¥ 100,000 / KG $386 / LB

2010 232 kg (511 lb) ¥ 16.28 million $175,000 ¥ 70,172 / kg $343 / lb

2011 342 kg (754 lb) ¥ 32.49 MILLION $396,000 ¥ 95,000 / kg $528 / LB

2012 269 kg (593 lb) ¥ 56.49 MILLION $736,000 ¥ 210,000 / KG $1,247 / LB

2013 221 kg (487 lb) ¥ 155.4 MILLION $1.76 MILLION ¥ 703,167 / KG $3,603 / LB

In November 2011, a different record was set when a fisherman in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
caught an 881-pound tuna. It was captured inadvertently using a dragnet. Due to the laws and restrictions on tuna fishing in the United States, federal authorities impounded the fish because it was not caught with a rod and reel. Because of the tuna's deteriorated condition as a result of the trawl net, the fish sold for just under $5,000.

*

Tuna
Tuna
being weighed on Greek quay-side *

Tuna
Tuna
at Tsukiji fish market , Tokyo *

Tuna
Tuna
cut in half for processing at Tsukuji fish market

FISHING METHODS

External video Tuna
Tuna
pole and line fishing BBC
BBC
Two

Besides for edible purposes, many species of tuna are caught frequently as a game fish, often for recreation or for contests in which money is awarded depending on how heavy the fish weighs in at. Larger specimens are notorious for putting up a fight while hooked, and have been known to injure people who try to catch them, as well as damage their equipment.

* Phoenician technique for trapping and catching Atlantic bluefin tuna called Almadraba , still used today in Portugal, Spain, Morocco ">

CANNED

Canned tuna on sale at a supermarket

Canned tuna was first produced in Australia in 1903, quickly becoming popular. Tuna
Tuna
can be canned in edible oils , in brine , in water, and in various sauces. Tuna
Tuna
may be processed to be "chunked" or "flaked". When canned the product is often referred to as "tuna fish", a calque from the German Thunfisch. In the United States, 52% of canned tuna is used for sandwiches ; 22% for salads; and 15% for casseroles and dried and pre-packaged meal kits such as General Mills
General Mills
's Tuna
Tuna
Helper line.

In the United States, only Albacore
Albacore
can legally be sold in canned form as "white meat tuna"; in other countries, yellowfin is also acceptable. While in the early 1980s canned tuna in Australia was most likely Southern bluefin , as of 2003 it was usually yellowfin, skipjack, or tongol (labelled "northern bluefin").

As tunas are often caught far from where they are processed, poor interim conservation can lead to spoilage. Tuna
Tuna
is typically gutted by hand, and later pre-cooked for prescribed times of 45 minutes to three hours. The fish are then cleaned and filleted , canned, and sealed, with the dark lateral blood meat often separately canned for pet food. The sealed can is then heated under pressure (called retort cooking ) for 2 to 4 hours. This process kills any bacteria, but retains the histamine that can produce rancid flavors. The international standard sets the maximum histamine level at 200 milligrams per kilogram. An Australian study of 53 varieties of unflavored canned tuna found none to exceed the safe histamine level, although some had "off" flavors.

Australian standards once required cans of tuna to contain at least 51% tuna, but these regulations were dropped in 2003. The remaining weight is usually oil or water. In the US, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates canned tuna (see part c).

* Sushi
Sushi
* Tuna salad * Tuna
Tuna
steak served in a French bistro * Tekkadon
Tekkadon
* Katsuobushi
Katsuobushi
shavings * Mojama

NUTRITION AND HEALTH

Tuna, light, canned in oil, drained solids NUTRITIONAL VALUE PER 100 G (3.5 OZ)

ENERGY 830 kJ (200 kcal)

CARBOHYDRATES 0 g

FAT 8 g

PROTEIN 29 g

VITAMINS

VITAMIN A EQUIV. (3%) 23 μg

CHOLINE (6%) 29 mg

VITAMIN D (45%) 269 IU

MINERALS

CALCIUM (1%) 13 mg

IRON (11%) 1.4 mg

MAGNESIUM (9%) 31 mg

PHOSPHORUS (44%) 311 mg

POTASSIUM (4%) 207 mg

ZINC (9%) 0.9 mg

OTHER CONSTITUENTS

WATER 60 g

* Units * μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams * IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Tuna
Tuna
can be a good source of omega-3 fatty acids . It can contain 300 milligrams (0.011 oz) per serving. However, the level of omega-3 oils found in canned tuna is highly variable, since some common manufacturing methods destroy much of the omega-3 oils in the fish. Tuna
Tuna
is also a good source of protein .

MERCURY LEVELS

See also: Mercury in fish
Mercury in fish

Mercury content in tuna can vary widely. For instance, testing by Rutgers University reportedly found that a can of StarKist had 10 times more mercury than another can of similarly identified tuna. This has prompted a Rutgers University scientist whose staff conducted the mercury analysis to say, "That's one of the reasons pregnant women have to be really careful ... If you happen to get a couple or three cans in the high range at a critical period when you are pregnant, it would not be good." Among those calling for improved warnings about mercury in tuna is the American Medical Association
American Medical Association
, which adopted a policy that physicians should help make their patients more aware of the potential risks.

A study published in 2008 found that mercury distribution in the meat of farmed tuna is inversely related to the lipid content, suggesting that higher lipid concentration within edible tissues of tuna raised in captivity might, other factors remaining equal, have a diluting effect on mercury content. These findings suggest that choosing to consume a type of tuna that has a relatively higher natural fat content might help reduce the amount of mercury intake, compared to consuming tuna with a low fat content.

Due to their high position in the food chain and the subsequent accumulation of heavy metals from their diet, mercury levels can be high in larger species such as bluefin and albacore .

In 2009 a California appeals court upheld a ruling that canned tuna does not need warning labels as the methylmercury is naturally occurring.

In March 2004, the United States FDA issued guidelines recommending that pregnant women, nursing mothers, and children limit their intake of tuna and other predatory fish. The Environmental Protection Agency provides guidelines on how much canned tuna is safe to eat. Roughly speaking, the guidelines recommend one 6-ounce (170 g) can of light tuna per week for individuals weighing less than 110 pounds (50 kg), and two cans per week for those who weigh more.

In 2007 it was reported that some canned light tuna such as yellowfin tuna is significantly higher in mercury than skipjack, and caused Consumers Union and other activist groups to advise pregnant women to refrain from consuming canned tuna.

The Eastern little tuna ( Euthynnus affinis ) has been available for decades as a low-mercury, less expensive canned tuna. However, of the five major species of canned tuna imported by the United States it is the least commercially attractive, primarily due to its dark color and more pronounced 'fishy' flavor. Its use has traditionally been restricted to institutional (non-retail) commerce.

A January 2008 investigation conducted by The New York Times
The New York Times
found potentially dangerous levels of mercury in certain varieties of sushi tuna, reporting levels "so high that the Food and Drug Administration could take legal action to remove the fish from the market."

A book by Jane Hightower, Diagnosis Mercury: Money, Politics and Poison , published in 2008, discusses human exposure to mercury through eating large predatory fish such as large tuna.

MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION

Life cycle

The main tuna fishery management bodies are the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries
Fisheries
Commission , the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission , the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission , the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas , and the Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna
Tuna
. The five gathered for the first time in Kobe
Kobe
, Japan
Japan
in January 2007. Environmental organizations made submissions on risks to fisheries and species. The meeting concluded with an action plan drafted by some 60 countries or areas. Concrete steps include issuing certificates of origin to prevent illegal fishing and greater transparency in the setting of regional fishing quotas. The delegates were scheduled to meet at another joint meeting in January or February 2009 in Europe.

In 2010, Greenpeace
Greenpeace
International added the albacore , bigeye tuna , Pacific bluefin tuna
Pacific bluefin tuna
, Atlantic bluefin tuna , southern bluefin tuna , and yellowfin tuna to its seafood red list, which are fish "commonly sold in supermarkets around the world, and which have a very high risk of being sourced from unsustainable fisheries."

Bluefin tuna have been widely accepted as being severely overfished , with some stocks at risk of collapse. According to the International Seafood
Seafood
Sustainability Foundation (a global, nonprofit partnership between the tuna industry, scientists, and the World Wide Fund for Nature ), Indian Ocean yellowfin tuna, Pacific Ocean (eastern and western) bigeye tuna , and North Atlantic albacore tuna are all overfished. In April 2009, no stock of skipjack tuna (which makes up roughly 60% of all tuna fished worldwide) was considered to be overfished. However, the BBC
BBC
documentary South Pacific , which first aired in May 2009, stated that, should fishing in the Pacific continue at its current rate, populations of all tuna species could collapse within five years. It highlighted huge Japanese and European tuna fishing vessels, sent to the South Pacific international waters after overfishing their own fish stocks to the point of collapse.

A 2010 tuna fishery assessment report, released in January 2012 by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community, supported this finding, recommending that all tuna fishing should be reduced or limited to current levels and that limits on skipjack fishing be considered.

Research indicates that increasing ocean temperatures are taking a toll on the tuna in the Indian Ocean, where rapid warming of the ocean has resulted in a reduction of marine phytoplankton . The bigeye tuna catch rates have also declined abruptly during the past half century, mostly due to increased industrial fisheries, with the ocean warming adding further stress to the fish species.

SEE ALSO

* Environmental impact of fishing * Got Mercury? * Natal homing

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C Graham, Jeffrey B.; Dickson, Kathryn A. (2004). "Tuna Comparative Physiology" (PDF). The Journal of Experimental Biology. 207: 4015–4024. doi :10.1242/jeb.01267 . Retrieved 20 September 2012. * ^ Block, Barbara A.; Booth, David; Carey, Francis G. (1992). "Direct measurement of swimming speeds and depth of blue marlin" (PDF). Journal of Experimental Biology. Company of Biologists Ltd. 166: 267–284. ISSN 0022-0949 . Retrieved 19 September 2012. * ^ A B C Collette B and 8 others (2011). " Thunnus maccoyii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature . Retrieved 9 January 2015. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) "This species has been intensively fished since the early 1950s. Its generation length is conservatively estimated to be 12 years. Estimated spawning stock biomass has declined approximately 85% over the past 36 years (1973–2009) and there is no sign that the spawning stock is rebuilding. It is therefore listed as Critically Endangered. Implementation of effective conservation and management measures are urgently needed." * ^ θύννος in Liddell, Henry George ; Scott, Robert (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, revised and augmented throughout by Jones, Sir Henry Stuart , with the assistance of McKenzie, Roderick. Oxford: Clarendon Press. In the Perseus Digital Library , Tufts University. * ^ θύνω in Liddell and Scott . * ^ Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. "American Heritage Dictionary Entry: tuna". ahdictionary.com. * ^ Collette, B.B. (1999). "Mackerels, molecules, and morphology". In Séret, B.; Sire, J.Y. Proceedings. 5th Indo-Pacific Fish Conference: Nouméa, New Caledonia, 3–8 November 1997. Paris: Société Française d'Ichtyologie pp. 149–164. ISBN 978-2-9507330-5-4 . * ^ Tanaka, Y.; Satoh, K.; Iwahashi, M.; Yamada, H. (2006). "Growth-dependent recruitment of Pacific bluefin tuna
Pacific bluefin tuna
Thunnus orientalis in the northwestern Pacific Ocean". Marine Ecology Progress Series. 319: 225–235. doi :10.3354/meps319225 . * ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Thunnus alalunga" in FishBase
FishBase
. January 2012 version. * ^ A B Collette B and 35 others (2011). " Thunnus alalunga". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature . Retrieved 9 January 2015. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Thunnus maccoyii" in FishBase
FishBase
. January 2012 version. * ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). " Thunnus obesus" in FishBase
FishBase
. January 2012 version. * ^ A B Collette B and 31 others (2011). " Thunnus obesus". IUCN
IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature . Retrieved 9 January 2015. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Thunnus orientalis" in FishBase
FishBase
. January 2012 version. * ^ A B Collette B and 6 others (2014). " Thunnus orientalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature . Retrieved 9 January 2015. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Thunnus thynnus" in FishBase
FishBase
. January 2012 version. * ^ A B Collette B and 23 others (2011). " Thunnus thynnus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature . Retrieved 9 January 2015. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Thunnus atlanticus" in FishBase
FishBase
. January 2012 version. * ^ Collette B and 18 others (2011). " Thunnus atlanticus". IUCN
IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature . Retrieved 9 January 2015. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Thunnus tonggol" in FishBase
FishBase
. January 2012 version. * ^ A B Collette B and 7 others (2011). " Thunnus tonggol". IUCN
IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature . Retrieved 9 January 2015. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Thunnus albacares" in FishBase
FishBase
. January 2012 version. * ^ A B Collette B and 35 others (2011). " Thunnus albacares". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature . Retrieved 9 January 2015. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Allothunnus fallai" in FishBase
FishBase
. January 2012 version. * ^ Collette B and 18 others (2011). " Allothunnus fallai". IUCN
IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature . Retrieved 18 September 2012. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). " Auxis rochei" in FishBase
FishBase
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FURTHER REFERENCES

* Clover, Charles. 2004. The End of the Line: How Overfishing
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Is Changing the World and What We Eat . Ebury Press, London. ISBN 0-09-189780-7 * FAO
FAO
: Species
Species
Catalog Vol. 2 Scombrids of the World. FAO
FAO
Fisheries Synopsis No. 125, Volume 2. FIR/S125 Vol. 2.ISBN 92-5-101381-0 * FAO
FAO
: Review of the state of world marine fishery resources: Tuna and tuna-like species - Global, 2005 Rome. * Majkowski, Jacek (1995) " Tuna
Tuna
and tuna-like species" In: Review of the state of world marine fishery resources, FAO
FAO
Fisheries
Fisheries
technical paper 457, FAO, Rome. ISBN 978-92-5-107023-9 . * Majkowski J, Arrizabalaga H, Carocci F and Murua H (2011) "Tuna and tuna-like species" In: Review of the state of world marine fishery resources, pages 227–244, FAO
FAO
Fisheries
Fisheries
technical paper 569, FAO, Rome. ISBN 978-92-5-107023-9 . * Standard of Identity for Canned Tuna
Tuna
(United States), Code of Federal Regulations: 21 CFR 161.190 - Canned tuna. * Viñas J and Tudela S (2009) "A validated methodology for genetic identification of tuna species (genus Thunnus)" PLoS One, 4(10): e7606.

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