THULUTH (Persian : ثلث sols, Turkish : Sülüs, from Arabic
: ثلث ṯuluṯ "one-third") is a script variety of Islamic
calligraphy invented by
Ibn Muqlah Shirazi . The straight angular
Kufic were replaced in the new script by curved and oblique
lines. In Thuluth, one-third of each letter slopes, from which the
name (meaning "a third" in Arabic) comes. An alternative theory to the
meaning is that the smallest width of the letter is one third of the
widest part. It is an elegant, cursive script, used in medieval times
on mosque decorations. Various calligraphic styles evolved from
Thuluth through slight changes of form.
* 1 History
* 2 Artists
* 3 Usage
* 4 Style
* 5 Scripts developed from
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 8 External links
Fragments of repeated Shi'i blessings (al-salam 'alayka) in
Arabic directed to Husayn, the Prophet Muhammad's grandson through his
son-in-law 'Ali. He is addressed by his many names and epithets, such
as the "servant of God" (abd Allah), "son of the Prophet" (ibn rasul),
"goodness of God" (khayrat Allah), "son of the Leader of the Faithful"
(ibn amir al-mu'minin), and "son of Fatimah, the radiant" (ibn Fatimah
al-zahra'). Script: Indian thuluth. Muhammed's name with Salat
phrase in Thuluth.
The greatest contributions to the evolution of the
occurred in the
Ottoman Empire in three successive steps that Ottoman
art historians call "calligraphical revolutions":
* The first revolution occurred in the 15th century and was
initiated by the master calligrapher
Şeyh Hamdullah .
* The second revolution resulted from the work of the Ottoman
Hâfız Osman in the 17th century.
* Finally, in the late 19th century,
Mehmed Şevkî Efendi gave the
script the distinctive shape it has today.
The best known artist to write the
Thuluth script at its zenith is
said to be Mustafa Râkım Efendi (1757–1826), a painter who set a
standard in Ottoman calligraphy which many believe has not been
surpassed to this day. calligraphic panel written by Mustafa
Thuluth was used to write the headings of surahs , Qur\'anic
chapters. Some of the oldest copies of the
Qur'an were written in
Thuluth. Later copies were written in a combination of
either Naskh or
Muhaqqaq . After the 15th century Naskh came to be
The script is used in the
Flag of Saudi Arabia
Flag of Saudi Arabia where its text,
Tawhid , is written in Thuluth.
An important aspect of
Thuluth script is the use of harakat ("hareke"
in Turkish) to represent vowel sounds and of certain other stylistic
marks to beautify the script. The rules governing the former are
similar to the rules for any
Arabic script. The stylistic marks have
their own rules regarding placement and grouping which allow for great
creativity as to shape and orientation. For example, one grouping
technique is to separate the marks written below letters from those
SCRIPTS DEVELOPED FROM THULUTH
Since its creation,
Thuluth has given rise to a variety of scripts
used in calligraphy and over time has allowed numerous modifications.
Jeli Thuluth was developed for use in large panels, such as those on
Muhaqqaq script was developed by widening the horizontal
sections of the letters in Thuluth. Naskh script introduced a number
of modifications resulting in smaller size and greater delicacy. Tevki
is a smaller version of Thuluth.
Ruq\'ah was probably derived from the
Thuluth and Naskh styles, the
latter itself having originated from Thuluth.
* ^ Hüseyin Kutlu: Hat sanatı kalemi şevk edebilmektir - Kalem
* ^ hamdullah1500s
* ^ Kitap Sanatı
* ^ Ali, Wijdan. "From the Literal to the Spiritual: The
Development of Prophet Muhammad\'s Portrayal from 13th Century
Ilkhanid Miniatures to 17th Century Ottoman Art". In Proceedings of
the 11th International Congress of Turkish Art, eds. M. Kiel, N.
Landman, and H. Theunissen. No. 7, 1–24. Utrecht, The Netherlands,
August 23–28, 1999, p. 7
* ^ Mehmed Şevki Efendi « Sanat Tarihi
* ^ Türk Ýslam Sanatlarý - Tezyini Sanatlar
* ^ Journal of Ottoman Calligraphy :: RAKIM: “Mustafa Rakim”
(1757 - 1826) :: April :: 2006
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