The THREE SOVEREIGNS AND FIVE EMPERORS were a group of mythological
rulers or deities in ancient northern
The dates of these mythological figures may be fictitious, but according to some accounts and reconstructions, they preceded the Xia Dynasty (which itself is prehistoric , without writing, and which is likewise also documented only in much later written sources).
* 1 Description * 2 The Four/Five shi
* 3 Variations
* 3.1 Family tree of ancient Five Emperors
* 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading
The Three Sovereigns, sometimes known as the Three August Ones, were said to be god-kings , demigods or god emperors who used their abilities to improve the lives of their people and impart to them essential skills and knowledge. The Five Emperors are portrayed as exemplary sages who possessed great moral character and lived to a great age and ruled over a period of great peace. The Three Sovereigns are ascribed various identities in different Chinese historical texts.
These kings are said to have helped introduce the use of fire, taught
people how to build houses and invented farming. The Yellow Emperor\'s
wife is credited with the invention of silk culture. The discovery of
medicine, the invention of the calendar and Chinese script are also
credited to the kings. After their era,
Yu the Great
According to a modern theory with roots in the late 19th century, the
The Chinese character for emperor, huangdi (皇帝), derives from
this, as the first user of this title
Qin Shi Huang
THE FOUR/FIVE SHI
A related concept appears in the legend of the Four shi (四氏) who
took part in creating the world. The four members are
Depending on the source, there are many variations of who classifies
as the Three Sovereigns or the Five Emperors. There are at least six
to seven known variations. Many of the sources listed below were
written in much later periods, centuries and even millennia after the
supposed existence of these figures, and instead of historical fact,
they may reflect a desire in later time periods to create a fictitious
ancestry traceable to ancient culture heroes . The Emperors were
asserted as ancestors of the Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties. The
following appear in different groupings of the Three Sovereigns: Fuxi
The following appear in different groupings of the Five Emperors:
SOURCE THREE SOVEREIGNS FIVE EMPERORS
Records of the Grand Historian
Sovereign series (帝王世系)
Diwang shiji (帝王世紀)
Comments of a Recluse, Qianfulun (潛夫論)
Zizhi tongjian waiji, (資治通鑒外紀)
FAMILY TREE OF ANCIENT FIVE EMPERORS
FAMILY TREE OF ANCIENT FIVE EMPERORS
(4) KU 嚳
Gu of Shu 古蜀王
(5) ZHI 挚
Lao Tong 老童
Zhurong 祝融 Wuhui 吳回
(8) YU 禹
(7) SHUN 舜
Kunwu 昆吾 Shen H 參胡 Peng Zu 彭祖 Hui Ren 會人 Ji Lian 季連 ?Cao 曹
The Hall of the Three Sovereigns (三皇殿) in Changchun Si, a
Taoist temple in
Historian's depiction of the
Another depiction of the
* ^ Hucker, Charles (1995). China's Imperial Past: An Introduction
to Chinese History and Culture.
Stanford University Press . p. 22.
ISBN 9780804723534 .
* ^ A B Morton, W. Scott Morton. Morton, William Scott. Lewis
Charlton M. (2005). China: its history and culture. McGraw-Hill. ISBN
0-07-141279-4 , ISBN 978-0-07-141279-7 , p. 14.
* ^ Mircea Eliade, Charles J. Adams, The Encyclopedia of religion,
Volume 9, Macmillan, 1987, p. 133.
* ^ A B 王恆偉. (2005) (2006) 中國歷史講堂 #1
遠古至春秋. 中華書局. ISBN 962-8885-24-3 , p. 13.
* ^ 王恆偉. (2005) (2006) 中國歷史講堂 #1 遠古至春秋.
中華書局. ISBN 962-8885-24-3 . p 4–7.
* ^ A B C D E F G H 劉煒/著. (2002) Chinese civilization in a
new light. Commercial press publishing. ISBN 962-07-5314-3 , p. 142.
* ^ William Edward Soothill; Dorothea Lady Hosie; G. F. Hudson
(2002). The Hall of Light: A Study of Early Chinese Kingship. James
Clarke & Co. pp. 146–. ISBN 978-0-227-17123-3 .
* ^ A B ”CHINAKNOWLEDGE”, Chinese History - The Three Augusts
and Five Emperors 三皇五帝
* Allen, Herbert J. (translator) (1894). "Ssŭma Ch\'ien\'s Historical Records, Introductory Chapter". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 26 (02): 269–295. doi :10.1017/S0035869X00143916 . More than one of number= and issue= specified (help ) * Legge, James (translator) (1865). "The Annals of the Bamboo Books: The reigns of Huang-te, Che, Chuen-heuh and Hëen-Yuen; The reigns of Yaou and Shun". The Chinese Classics, volume 3, part 1. pp. 108–116.
None known DYNASTIES IN CHINESE HISTORY
2852–2205 BC Succeeded by
* v * t * e
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