Three Kingdoms (AD 184/220–280) was the tripartite division of
China between the states of Wei (魏), Shu (蜀), and Wu (吳). It
started with the dissolution of the
Han dynasty and was followed by
the Jin dynasty. The term "Three Kingdoms" is something of a misnomer,
since each state was eventually headed not by a king, but by an
emperor who claimed suzerainty over all China. Nevertheless, the
term "Three Kingdoms" has become standard among sinologists. To
further distinguish the three states from other historical Chinese
states of similar names, historians have added a relevant character:
Wei is also known as
Cao Wei (曹魏), Shu is also known as Shu
Han (蜀漢), and Wu is also known as Dong (or Eastern) Wu (東吳).
Academically, the period of the
Three Kingdoms refers to the period
between the foundation of the state of Wei in AD 220 and the conquest
of the state of Wu by the Jin dynasty in 280. The earlier,
"unofficial" part of the period, from 184 to 220, was marked by
chaotic infighting between warlords in various parts of China. The
middle part of the period, from 220 to 263, was marked by a more
militarily stable arrangement between three rival states of Wei, Shu,
and Wu. The later part of the era was marked by the conquest of Shu by
Wei (263), the usurpation of Wei by the Jin dynasty (266), and the
conquest of Wu by the Jin (280).
Three Kingdoms period is one of the bloodiest in Chinese history.
A nationwide census taken in AD 280, following the reunification of
Three Kingdoms under the Jin shows a total of 2,459,840 households
and 16,163,863 individuals which was only a fraction of the 10,677,960
households, and 56,486,856 individuals reported during the Han era.
While the census may not have been particularly accurate due to a
multitude of factors of the times, the Jin in AD 280 did make an
attempt to account for all individuals where they could.
Technology advanced significantly during this period. Shu chancellor
Zhuge Liang invented the wooden ox, suggested to be an early form
of the wheelbarrow, and improved on the repeating crossbow. Wei
Ma Jun is considered by many to be the equal of
his predecessor Zhang Heng. He invented a hydraulic-powered,
mechanical puppet theatre designed for Emperor Ming of Wei,
square-pallet chain pumps for irrigation of gardens in Luoyang, and
the ingenious design of the south-pointing chariot, a non-magnetic
directional compass operated by differential gears.
Although relatively short, this historical period has been greatly
romanticized in the cultures of China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. It
has been celebrated and popularized in operas, folk stories, novels
and in more recent times, films, television, and video games. The best
known of these is Luo Guanzhong's Romance of the Three Kingdoms, a
Ming dynasty historical novel based on events in the Three Kingdoms
period. The authoritative historical record of the era is Chen
Shou's Records of the Three Kingdoms, along with Pei Songzhi's later
annotations of the text.
2.1 Yellow Turban Rebellion
Dong Zhuo in power
2.3 Collapse of central power
2.3.1 Xu and Yan provinces
2.3.2 Huai River
2.3.3 Emperor Xian's fate
2.3.5 South of the Yangtze
2.3.6 Jing Province
2.3.7 Battle of Red Cliffs
2.4 Final years of the dynasty
2.5 Emergence of the tripartite
2.6 The three states
2.7 Decline and end
2.7.1 Fall of Shu
2.7.2 Fall of Wei
2.7.3 Fall of Wu
5 Legacy in popular culture
6 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
Three Kingdoms period (220 CE-280 CE) bronze mirror with Taoist
deities and animals design, Honolulu Academy of Arts
There is no set time period for the era, and many arbitrary
definitions are given. The strictest rule of dating would be to deem
the era to be from the point where all three states coexisted as
independent states (229, with the proclamation of the
Eastern Wu ruler
as emperor) up until the downfall of the
Shu-Han states (at which
point, only two states continued to exist rather than three). Mao
Zonggang, a commentator on the Romance of the Three Kingdoms, mentions
in his commentary on Chapter 120 of the novel that:
The three kingdoms formed when the Han royal house declined. The Han
royal house declined when the eunuchs abused the sovereign and
officials subverted the government.
In doing so, he suggests that the historiography of the Three Kingdoms
should begin at the rise of the
Ten Eunuchs to power. He further
argues that the
Romance of the Three Kingdoms
Romance of the Three Kingdoms defines the end of the
era as 280, the downfall of Wu, justifying:
As the novel focuses on Han, it could have ended with the fall of Han.
But Wei usurped Han. To end the tale before Han's enemy had itself met
its fate would be to leave the reader unsatisfied. The novel could
have ended with the fall of Wei, but Han's ally was Wu. To end the
tale before Han's ally had fallen would be to leave the reader with an
incomplete picture. So the tale had to end with the fall of Wu.
Chinese historians have different views about the starting point of
Three Kingdoms period during the final years of the Han dynasty,
such as the
Yellow Turban Rebellion
Yellow Turban Rebellion in 184; the year after the
beginning of the rebellion, 185;
Dong Zhuo deposing and murdering
Emperor Shao of Han and establishing
Emperor Xian of Han
Emperor Xian of Han in
Dong Zhuo sacking
Luoyang and moving the capital to
Chang'an in 190; or
Cao Cao placing the emperor under his control
Xuchang in 196.
Yellow Turban Rebellion
Main article: Yellow Turban Rebellion
Three Kingdoms era decorated brick taken from the wall of an
underground tomb, with miniature paintings depicting people in
The power of the Eastern
Han dynasty went into depression and steadily
declined from a variety of political and economic problems after the
death of Emperor He in 105 AD. A series of Han emperors ascended the
throne while still youths, and de facto imperial power often rested
with the emperors' older relatives. As these relatives occasionally
were loath to give up their influence, emperors would, upon reaching
maturity, be forced to rely on political alliances with senior
officials and eunuchs to achieve control of the government. Political
posturing and infighting between imperial relatives and eunuch
officials was a constant problem in Chinese government at the
time. During the reigns of Emperor Huan (r. 146–168) and Emperor
Ling (r. 168–189), leading officials' dissatisfaction with the
eunuchs' usurpations of power reached a peak, and many began to openly
protest against them. The first and second protests met with failure,
and the court eunuchs persuaded the emperor to execute many of the
protesting scholars. Some local rulers seized the opportunity to exert
despotic control over their lands and citizens, since many feared to
speak out in the oppressive political climate. Emperors Huan and
Ling's reigns were recorded as particularly dark periods of Han
dynasty rule. In addition to political oppression and mismanagement,
China experienced a number of natural disasters during this period,
and local rebellions sprung up throughout the country.
In the third month of 184, Zhang Jiao, leader of the Way of Supreme
Taoist movement, along with his two brothers Zhang Liang and
Zhang Bao, led the movement's followers in a rebellion against the
government that was called the Yellow Turban Rebellion. Their movement
quickly attracted followers and soon numbered several hundred thousand
and received support from many parts of China. They had 36 bases
throughout China, with large bases having 10,000 or more followers and
minor bases having 6,000 to 7,000, similar to Han armies. Their motto
"The firmament[a] has perished, the Yellow Sky[b] will soon rise; in
this year of jiazi, let there be prosperity in the world!"
Emperor Ling dispatched generals Huangfu Song, Lu Zhi, and Zhu Jun to
lead the Han armies against the rebels, and decreed that local
governments had to supply soldiers to assist in their efforts. It is
at this point that the historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms
begins its narrative. The Yellow Turbans were ultimately defeated and
its surviving followers dispersed throughout China, but due to the
turbulent situation throughout the empire, many were able to survive
as bandits in mountainous areas, thus continuing their ability to
contribute to the turmoil of the era.
Map of Chinese provinces in the prelude of Three Kingdom period
(In the late
Han dynasty period, 189 AD).
With the widespread increase in bandits across the Chinese nation, the
Han army had no way to repel each and every raiding party. In 188,
Emperor Ling accepted a memorial from Liu Yan suggesting he grant
direct administrative power over feudal provinces and direct command
of regional military to local governors, as well as promoting them in
rank and filling such positions with members of the Liu family or
court officials. This move made provinces (zhou) official
administrative units, and although they had power to combat
rebellions, the later intragovernmental chaos allowed these local
governors to easily rule independently of the central government. Liu
Yan was also promoted as governor of Yi Province[d]. Soon after this
move, Liu Yan severed all of his region's ties to the Han imperial
court, and several other areas followed suit.
Dong Zhuo in power
In the same year, Emperor Ling died, and another struggle began
between the court eunuchs for control of the imperial family. Court
Jian Shuo planned to kill General-in-Chief He Jin, a relative
of the imperial family, and to replace the crown prince
Liu Bian with
his younger brother Liu Xie, the Prince of Chenliu (in present-day
Kaifeng), though his plan was unsuccessful.
Liu Bian took the Han
throne as Emperor Shao, and
He Jin plotted with warlord
Yuan Shao to
assassinate the Ten Attendants, a clique of ten eunuchs led by Zhang
Rang who controlled much of the imperial court.
He Jin also ordered
Dong Zhuo, the frontier general in Liang Province, and Ding Yuan,
Inspector of Bing Province,[e] to bring troops to the capital to
reinforce his position of authority. The eunuchs learned of He Jin's
plot, and had him assassinated before
Dong Zhuo reached the capital
Luoyang. When Yuan Shao's troops reached Luoyang, they stormed the
palace complex, killing the
Ten Attendants and 2,000 of the eunuchs'
supporters. Though this move effectively ended the century-long feud
between the eunuchs and the imperial family, this event prompted the
Dong Zhuo to the outskirts of
Luoyang from the northwest
boundary of China.
On the evening of 24 September 189, General
Dong Zhuo observed that
Luoyang was set ablaze—as a result of a power struggle between the
eunuchs and civil service—and commanded his army forward to strike
down the disorder. As the emperor had lost any remaining military
or political power,
Dong Zhuo seized the de facto control of the
government located at Luoyang. On 28 September,
Dong Zhuo deposed
Liu Bian from the imperial Han throne in favor of Liu Xie. In the
following weeks, rebellions broke out throughout all of China.
In East China, in an attempt to restore the power of the Han, a large
Dong Zhuo began to rise, with leaders such as Yuan
Shao, Yuan Shu, and Cao Cao. Many provincial officials were
compelled to join or risk elimination. In 191, Sun Jian (Yuan
Shu's subordinate) led an army against
Dong Zhuo and drove him from
Luoyang to Chang'an. In the following year (192), Lü Bu, Dong
Zhuo's former bodyguard, assassinated Dong Zhuo.
Collapse of central power
A portrait of
Cao Cao from Sancai Tuhui
In 192, there was some talk among the coalition of appointing Liu Yu,
an imperial relative, as emperor, and gradually its members began to
fall out. Most of the warlords in the coalition, with a few
exceptions, sought the increase of personal military power in the time
of instability instead of seriously wishing to restore the Han
dynasty's authority. The Han empire was divided between a number of
regional warlords. As a result of the complete collapse of the central
government and eastern alliance, the North
China Plain fell into
warfare and anarchy with many contenders vying for success or
survival. Emperor Xian fell into the hands of various warlords of
Dong Zhuo, confident in his success, was slain by his follower Lü Bu,
who plotted with minister Wang Yun. Lü Bu, in turn, was attacked by
Dong Zhuo's subordinates: Li Jue, Guo Si, Zhang Ji and Fan Chou. Wang
Yun and his whole family were executed.
Lü Bu fled to Zhang Yang, a
northern warlord, and remained with him for a time before briefly
joining Yuan Shao, but it was clear that
Lü Bu was far too
independent to serve another.
Yuan Shao operated from Ye city in Ji Province, extending his power
north of the Yellow River. Han Fu had formerly been the Governor
of Ji Province, but he came under the control of
Yuan Shao and was
replaced by him.
Between the Yellow and Huai rivers, a conflict had erupted between
Yuan Shu, Cao Cao, Tao Qian (Governor of Xu Province), Lü Bu, and Liu
Bei (a man with a poor background who claimed imperial descent).
Cao Cao forced the Yellow Turbans to surrender in 192, drove Yuan
Shu to the south of the
Huai River in 193, inflicted devastation
upon Tao Qian in 194, received the surrender of
Liu Bei in
196, and captured and executed
Lü Bu in 198. Cao was now in
complete control of the southern part of the North
In the northeast,
Gongsun Du held control of southern Manchuria, where
he had established a state. He was succeeded by his son Gongsun
Kang in 204. In the north across the frontier, since the fall of
imperial control, the region had become chaotic as the Xiongnu
remnants came into conflict with the Xianbei. In Liang Province
(present-day Gansu), rebellion had erupted in 184. In the west,
Liu Yan had been Governor of Yi Province since his appointment in
188. He was succeeded by his son Liu Zhang in 194. Directly
north of Liu Zhang's territory, Zhang Lu (leader of the Five Pecks of
Rice) led a theocratic government at
Hanzhong commandary (on the upper
Liu Biao held control over his province as the
Governor of Jing Province.
Sun Quan held control over the lower
Xu and Yan provinces
Chariot Procession, bronze sculptures,
Eastern Han dynasty, 25 – 220
AD, Gansu Provincial Museum
Cao Cao went to war with Tao Qian of Xu Province, because
Tao's subordinate Zhang Kai had murdered Cao Cao's father Cao Song.
Tao Qian received the support of
Liu Bei and Gongsun Zan, but even
then it seemed as if Cao Cao's superior forces would overrun Xu
Cao Cao received word that
Lü Bu had seized Yan
Province in his absence, and accordingly he retreated, putting a halt
to hostilities with Tao Qian for the time being. Tao Qian died in the
same year, leaving his province to Liu Bei. A year later, in 195, Cao
Cao managed to drive
Lü Bu out of Yan Province.
Lü Bu fled to Xu
Province and was received by Liu Bei, and an uneasy alliance began
between the two.
Lü Bu betrayed
Liu Bei and seized Xu Province, forming an
alliance with Yuan Shu's remnant forces. Liu Bei, together with his
Zhang Fei and Guan Yu, fled to Cao Cao, who accepted him.
Soon, preparations were made for an attack on Lü Bu, and the combined
Cao Cao and
Liu Bei invaded Xu Province. Lü Bu's men
deserted him, Yuan Shu's forces never arrived as reinforcements, and
he was bound by his own subordinates Song Xian (宋憲) and Wei Xu
(魏續) and executed on Cao Cao's order.
Main article: Campaign against Yuan Shu
Yuan Shu, after being driven south in 193, established himself at his
new capital Shouchun (present-day Anhui). He attempted to regain
lost territory north of the Huai River. In 197, Yuan Shu declared
himself emperor of his own dynasty. The move was a strategic
blunder, as it drew the ire of many warlords across the land,
including Yuan Shu's own subordinates who almost all abandoned
him. Abandoned by almost all his allies and followers, he perished
Emperor Xian's fate
In August 195, Emperor Xian fled the tyranny of Li Jue at
made a year long hazardous journey east in search of supporters. In
196, Emperor Xian came under the protection and control of Cao Cao
after he had succeeded in fleeing from the warlords of Chang'an.
Establishing the imperial court at
Xuchang in Henan, Cao Cao—who now
held the de facto control—rigorously followed the formalities of the
court and justified his actions as a loyal minister of the Han. By
then, most of the smaller contenders for power had either been
absorbed by larger ones or destroyed. This was an extremely important
Cao Cao following the suggestion from his primary adviser,
Xun Yu, commenting that by supporting the authentic emperor, Cao Cao
would have the formal legal authority to control the other warlords
and force them to comply in order to restore the Han dynasty.
Sculpture of a foreign soldier, Three Kingdoms, 3rd century AD, China,
possibly depictive of a Tocharian or Indo-Scythian, but most likely a
Cao Cao, whose zone of control was the precursor to the state of Cao
Wei, had raised an army in 189. In several strategic movements and
battles, he controlled Yan Province and defeated several factions of
the Yellow Turban rebels. This earned him the aid of other local
militaries controlled by
Zhang Miao and Chen Gong, who joined his
cause to create his first sizable army. He continued the effort and
absorbed approximately 300,000 Yellow Turban rebels into his army as
well as a number of clan-based military groups from the eastern side
of Qing Province. He developed military agricultural colonies
(tuntian) to support his army. Although the system imposed a heavy tax
on hired civilian farmers (40% to 60% of agricultural production), the
farmers were more than pleased to be able to work with relative
stability and professional military protection in a time of chaos.
This was later said to be his second important policy for success.
In 200, Dong Cheng, an imperial relative, received a secret edict from
Emperor Xian to assassinate Cao Cao. He collaborated with
Liu Bei on
this effort, but
Cao Cao soon found out about the plot and had Dong
Cheng and his conspirators executed, with only
Liu Bei surviving and
fleeing to join
Yuan Shao in the north.
After settling the nearby provinces, including a rebellion led by
former Yellow Turbans, and internal affairs with the court, Cao Cao
turned his attention north to Yuan Shao, who himself had eliminated
his northern rival Gongsun Zan that same year. Yuan Shao, himself of
higher nobility than Cao Cao, amassed a large army and camped along
the northern bank of the Yellow River.
In the summer of 200, after months of preparations, the armies of Cao
Yuan Shao clashed at the
Battle of Guandu
Battle of Guandu (near present-day
Kaifeng). Cao Cao's army was heavily outnumbered by Yuan Shao.
Due to a raid in Yuan's supply train, Yuan's army fell into disorder
as they fled back north.
Cao Cao took advantage of Yuan Shao's death in 202, which resulted in
division among his sons, and advanced to the north. In 204, after
the Battle of Ye,
Cao Cao captured the city of Ye. By the end of
207, after a victorious campaign beyond the frontier against the
Wuhuan culminating in the Battle of White Wolf Mountain, Cao Cao
achieved complete dominance of the North
China Plain. He now
controlled China's heartland, including Yuan Shao's former territory,
and half of the Chinese population.
South of the Yangtze
Eastern Han (25–220 AD) ceramic prancing horse with a
ceramic cavalryman on horseback in the background
Three Kingdoms (220–280 AD) green-glazed celadon pottery figurine
of a roofed water well with a pulley system and ceramic vessels lying
near the well's edge.
In 193, Huang Zu led the forces of
Liu Biao in a campaign against Sun
Jian (Yuan Shu's subordinate general) and killed him. In 194, Sun
Ce (aged 18) came into the military service under Yuan Shu. He was
given the command of some troops who formerly had been commanded by
his late father Sun Jian. In the south, he defeated the warlords
of Yang Province, including Liu Yao, Wang Lang, and Yan
Baihu. In 198,
Sun Ce (aged 23) declared his
independence from Yuan Shu who recently had declared himself
emperor. He held control over Danyang, Wu, and Kuaiji commandaries
Nanjing to the
Hangzhou Bay and some outposts at the
Fujian coast), while expanding westward in a series of campaigns.
By 200, he had conquered Yuzhang commandary (at present-day Lake
Poyang in Jiangxi) and Lujiang (north of the Yangtze). In 200, Sun
Ce was ambushed and assassinated by the former retainers of a defeated
rival from Wu.
Sun Quan (aged 18) succeeded him and quickly established his
authority. By 203, he was expanding westward. In 208, Sun Quan
defeated Huang Zu (Liu Biao's subordinate commander) around
present-day Wuhan. He now held control over the territories south
of the Yangtze (below Wuhan, Poyang region, and Hangzhou Bay). His
navy established local superiority over the Yangtze. Nevertheless,
he would soon come under the threat of Cao Cao's larger armies.
During Dong Zhuo's reign over the Han government,
Liu Biao had been
appointed as the Governor of Jing Province. His territory was
located around his capital Xiangyang and the territory to the south
around the Han and Yangtze River. Beyond his eastern border was
the territory of Sun Quan.
In 200, during the time of the campaign around Guandu between Cao Cao
and Yuan Shao, Liu Bei's forces had been defeated by a detachment of
Cao Cao's army, forcing
Liu Bei to flee and seek refuge with Liu Biao
in Jing Province. In this exile,
Liu Bei maintained his followers
who had accompanied him and made new connections within Liu Biao's
entourage. It was during this time that
Liu Bei also met Zhuge
In the autumn of 208,
Liu Biao died and was succeeded by his youngest
son Liu Zong over the eldest son Liu Ji through political
Liu Bei had become the head of the opposition to a
surrender when Cao Cao's army marched southward to Jing. After the
advice of his supporters, Liu Zong surrendered to Cao Cao. Cao Cao
took control of the province and began appointing scholars and
officials from Liu Biao's court to the local government.
Meanwhile, Liu Ji had joined
Liu Bei to establish a line of defense at
Yangtze River against the surrender to Cao Cao, but they suffered
defeat at the hands of Cao Cao. In the aftermath, they retreated
and sought support from Sun Quan.
Guan Yu (Liu Bei's subordinate
lieutenant) had managed to retrieve most of Jing Province's fleet from
the Han River.
Cao Cao occupied the naval base at Jiangling on the
Yangtze River. He would now begin proceeding eastwards towards Sun
Quan with his armies and new fleet, while sending messengers to demand
Sun Quan's surrender.
Battle of Red Cliffs
Main article: Battle of Red Cliffs
One traditional site of Red Cliffs (Chinese: 赤壁), whose actual
location is a matter of intense debate
Cao Cao marched south with his army hoping to quickly unify
the empire. Liu Biao's son Liu Cong surrendered Jing Province and Cao
was able to capture a sizable fleet at Jiangling. Sun Quan, the
Sun Ce in the lower Yangtze, continued to resist. His
Lu Su secured an alliance with Liu Bei, himself a recent
refugee from the north, and
Zhou Yu was placed in command of Sun
Quan's navy, along with a veteran general who served the Sun family,
Cheng Pu. Their combined armies of 50,000 met Cao Cao's fleet and
200,000-strong force at Red Cliffs that winter. After an initial
skirmish, an attack beginning with a plan to set fire to Cao Cao's
fleet was set in motion to lead to the decisive defeat of Cao Cao,
forcing him to retreat in disarray back to the north. The allied
victory at Red Cliffs ensured the survival of
Liu Bei and Sun Quan,
and provided the basis for the states of Shu and Wu.
Final years of the dynasty
Fresco of a tomb in
Luoyang dated to the
Cao Wei period (220–266
AD), showing seated men wearing
Hanfu silk robes
Zhou Yu captured Jiangling, establishing the south's complete
dominance over the Yangtze River. Meanwhile,
Liu Bei and his
Zhuge Liang captured the
Xiang River basin
commandaries, establishing control over the southern territories of
Sun Quan was forced to cede the territory around
Jiangling to Liu Bei, because he could not establish a proper
authority over it after Zhou Yu's death in 210.
Cao Cao defeated a warlord coalition in the Wei valley, ending
in the Battle of Huayin, capturing the territory around Chang'an.
Liu Bei accepted an invitation from Liu Zhang to come to Yi
province for aiding the latter against a threat from the north, namely
Zhang Lu of Hanzhong.
Liu Bei met people within Liu Zhang's court
who wished that he would replace Liu Zhang as the ruler of Yi
Province. A year after his arrival,
Liu Bei came into conflict
with Liu Zhang and turned against him. In summer of 214, Liu Bei
received the surrender of Liu Zhang, capturing Yi province, and
established his regime at Chengdu. In 215,
Cao Cao captured
Hanzhong after attacking and receiving the surrender of Zhang Lu.
He had launched the attack from
Chang'an through the Qinling Mountain
passes to Hanzhong. The conquest threatened Liu Bei's territory
located directly to the south.
Cao Cao progressively increased his
titles and power under the puppet Emperor Xian. He became the
Chancellor in 208, the Duke of Wei in 214, and the King of Wei in
217. He also compelled
Sun Quan to accept suzerainty to Wei, but
it had no real effect in practice.
Liu Bei had captured Yi province from Liu Zhang in 214, Sun
Quan—who had been engaged with
Cao Cao in the southeast at the
region between the Huai and Yangtze rivers during the intervening
years—turned his attention to the middle Yangtze.
Cao Cao and
Sun Quan had gained no success in breaking each other's positions.
Liu Fu, an administrator under Cao Cao, had established agricultural
Hefei and Shouchun to defend Cao's territory near the
Sun Quan resented the fact that Liu Bei, a weaker
ally, had gained so much territory west of him and demanded a larger
share of the
Xiang River basin. In 215, Lü Meng's (Sun Quan's
officer) was sent to capture Jing province's southern commanderies,
Guan Yu (Liu Bei's general) launched a counterattack. Later
Liu Bei and
Sun Quan reached a settlement that the Xiang
River would serve as the border between their territories.
In the south,
Sun Quan had sent He Qin, Lu Xun, and others to expand
and conquer territory in what are now southern
Zhejiang and Fujian
Liu Bei seized
Hanzhong by defeating and killing General
Xiahou Yuan, who served Cao Cao.
Cao Cao sent reinforcements in an
unsuccessful attempt to reclaim the territory.
Liu Bei had now
secured his territory against the north and declared himself the King
of Hanzhong. In the east,
Sun Quan attempted to capture
Cao Cao, but he did not succeed.
Lu Su had been chief commander for
Sun Quan in Jing Province,
their policy was to maintain the alliance with
Liu Bei while Cao Cao
was still a threat. This changed when
Sun Quan appointed Lü Meng
Lu Su died in 217. In 219,
Guan Yu sailed from Jiangling up
the Han River towards the city of Fan (near Xianyang), but was unable
to capture it. In the autumn of 219, Lü Meng launched a surprise
attack by sailing up the Yangtze towards Jiangling, resulting in its
Guan Yu was unable to hold his position as most of his
army surrendered. He was captured and executed on Sun Quan's
Cao Cao regained the Han valley, while
Sun Quan captured all
the territory east of the Yangtze Gorges.
Emergence of the tripartite
A stone-carved head of a Chinese dragon, from the Three Kingdoms
At the beginning of 220,
Cao Cao died and was succeeded by his son Cao
Pi. On 11 December, Emperor Xian abdicated and
Cao Pi ascended the
imperial throne by proclaiming the heavenly mandate as the Emperor of
Wei. On 15 May 221,
Liu Bei responded by proclaiming himself as
the Emperor of Han. His state would become generally known as Shu
Sun Quan continued to recognize his de jure suzerainty to Wei
and was enfeoffed as the King of Wu.
At the end of 221, Shu invaded Wu in response for Guan Yu's killing
and the loss of Jing Province by Wu. In the spring of 222, Liu Bei
arrived at the scene to personally take command of the invasion.
Sun Quan dispatched Lu Xun to command over the defense of Wu against
the invasion by Shu. In the sixth month of 222, waiting until Liu
Bei was committed along the Yangtze below the Yangtze Gorges against
the advice of his subordinates, Lu Xun launched a series of fire
attacks against the flank of Liu Bei's extended position which caused
disorder in the Shu army and Liu Bei's retreat to Bodi (near
present-day Fengjie). Afterwards in 222,
Sun Quan renounced his
suzerainty to Wei and declared the independence of Wu. In 223, Liu
Bei perished at Bodi.
Zhuge Liang now acted as a regent for Liu
Shan (aged 17) and held control of the Shu government. Shu and Wu
resumed their diplomatic relations by re-establishing peace and
alliance in the winter of 223. On 23 June 229,
Sun Quan proclaimed
himself as the Emperor of Wu.
Shu controlled the upper Han valley and the territory west of the
Yangtze Gorges. The Qinling Mountains divided Shu and Wei. Wei
held control over the Wei and Huai valley, where agricultural
garrisons were established at Shouchun and
Hefei to defend Huai.
Sun Quan controlled all of the Yangtze valley. The territory
between the Huai and Yangtze was a desolate area, where a
largely-static frontier between Wei and Wu had formed at the lower Han
The three states
Eastern Han glazed ceramic statue of a horse with bridle and halter
headgear, from Sichuan, late 2nd century to early 3rd century AD
Main article: Shu Han
Zhuge Liang's Southern Campaign
Zhuge Liang's Southern Campaign and Zhuge Liang's Northern
Liu Shan rose to the throne of Shu following his father's
defeat and death. From 224 to 225, during his southward campaigns,
Zhuge Liang conquered the southern territories up to
Lake Dian in
Zhuge Liang transferred his main Shu armies to Hanzhong, and
opened up the battle for the northwest with Wei. The next year, he
Zhao Yun to attack from Ji Gorge as a diversion while Zhuge
himself led the main force to Mount Qi. The vanguard
Ma Su suffered a
tactical defeat at Jieting and the Shu army was forced to withdraw. In
the next six years
Zhuge Liang attempted several more offensives, but
supply problems limited the capacity for success. In 234 he led his
last great northern offensive, reaching the Battle of Wuzhang Plains
south of the Wei River. Due to the death of
Zhuge Liang (234), the Shu
army was forced once again to withdraw, but were pursued by Wei. The
Shu forces began to withdraw;
Sima Yi deduced Zhuge Liang's demise and
ordered an attack. Shu struck back almost immediately, causing Sima Yi
to second guess and allow Shu to withdraw successfully.
Main article: Eastern Wu
Pottery dwelling around a large courtyard, a siheyuan. Unearthed in
1967 in a tomb of
Hubei built during the kingdom of Eastern Wu, Three
Kingdoms period, National Museum of China, Beijing
Painted lacquerware dishes from the tomb of
Zhu Ran (182–249) in
Eastern Wu period, showing figures wearing silk Hanfu
Sun Quan turned to the aborigines of the southeast, whom the Chinese
collectively called the "Shanyue". A collection of successes against
the rebellious tribesmen culminated in the victory of 224. In that
Zhuge Ke ended a three-year siege of Danyang with the surrender
of 100,000 Shanyue. Of these, 40,000 were drafted as auxiliaries into
the Wu army. Meanwhile, Shu was also experiencing troubles with the
indigenous tribes of their south. The southwestern
Nanman peoples rose
in revolt against Shu authority, captured and looted cities in Yi
Province. Zhuge Liang, recognizing the importance of stability in the
south, ordered the advance of the Shu armies in three columns against
the Nanman. He fought a number of engagements against the chieftain
Meng Huo, at the end of which
Meng Huo submitted. A tribesman was
allowed to reside at the Shu capital
Chengdu as an official and the
Nanman formed their own battalions within the Shu army.
In the times of Zhuge Liang's northern offensives, the state of Wu had
always been on the defensive against invasions from the north. The
Hefei was the scene of many bitter battles and under
constant pressure from Wei after the Battle of Red Cliffs. Warfare had
grown so intense that many of the residents chose to migrate and
resettle south of the Yangtze River. After Zhuge Liang's death,
attacks on the southern
Huai River region intensified but nonetheless,
Wei could not break through the line of the river defenses erected by
Wu, which included the Ruxu fortress.
Sun Quan's long reign is regarded as a time of plenty for his southern
state. Migrations from the north and the settlement of the Shanyue
increased manpower for agriculture, especially along the lower reaches
of the Yangtze and in
Kuaiji Commandery along the southern shore of
Hangzhou Bay. River transport blossomed, with the construction of the
Zhedong and Jiangnan canals. Trade with Shu flourished, with a huge
influx of Shu cotton and the development of celadon and metal
industries. Sea journeys were made to
Manchuria and the island of
Taiwan. In the south, Wu merchants reached Linyi (Southern Vietnam)
and Funan Kingdom. As the economy prospered, so too did the arts and
culture. In the Yangtze delta, the first Buddhist influences reached
the south from Luoyang.
Main article: Cao Wei
Cao Pi died (aged 40) and was succeeded by his eldest son Cao
Rui (aged 22). Minister Chen Qun, General Cao Zhen, General Cao
Xiu, and General Sima Yi[f] were appointed as regents, even though Cao
Rui was able to manage the government in practice. Eventually the
former three died, leaving only
Sima Yi as the senior minister and
military commander. In 226,
Sima Yi successfully defended
Xiangyang against an offensive from Wu; this battle was the first time
he had command in the field. In 227,
Sima Yi was appointed to a
Chang'an where he managed the military affairs along the Han
Sima Yi was dispatched to command a military campaign against
Gongsun Yuan of Manchuria, resulting in Sima Yi's capture of his
capital Xiangping and massacre of his government. Between 244 and
Guanqiu Jian was dispatched to invade Goguryeo and
severely devastated that state. The northeastern frontier of Wei
was now secured from any possible threats.
Cao Rui perished at age 35. He was succeeded by his
adopted son Cao Fang (aged 7), who was a close member of the imperial
Cao Rui had appointed
Cao Shuang and
Sima Yi to be Cao
Fang's regents, even though he had contemplated to establish a regency
council dominated by imperial family members.
Cao Shuang held the
principal control over the court. Meanwhile,
Sima Yi was received
the honorific title of Grand Tutor, but had virtually no influence at
Decline and end
The arrest of Consort Dong, with
Emperor Xian of Han
Emperor Xian of Han helpless in the
background; a depiction from a
Qing dynasty printed version of Romance
of the Three Kingdoms.
From the late 230s, tensions began to become visible between the
imperial Cao clan and the Sima clan. Following the death of Cao Zhen,
factionalism was evident between
Cao Shuang and the Grand Tutor Sima
Yi. In deliberations,
Cao Shuang placed his own supporters in
important posts and excluded Sima Yi, whom he regarded as a dangerous
threat. The power of the Sima clan, one of the great landowning
families of the Han dynasty, was bolstered by Sima Yi's military
Sima Yi was an extremely capable strategist
and politician. In 238 he crushed the rebellion of
Gongsun Yuan and
Liaodong region directly under central control.
Ultimately, he outmaneuvered
Cao Shuang in power play. Taking
advantage of an excursion by the imperial clansmen to the Gaoping
Sima Yi undertook a putsch in Luoyang, forcing Cao Shuang's
faction from authority. Many protested against the overwhelming power
of the Sima family; notable among these were the Seven Sages of the
Bamboo Grove. One of the sages, Xi Kang, was executed as part of the
purges after Cao Shuang's downfall.
Fall of Shu
Main article: Conquest of Shu by Wei
The decreasing strength of the Cao clan was mirrored by the decline of
Shu. After Zhuge Liang's death, his position as chancellor fell to
Fei Yi and Dong Yun, in that order. But after 258, Shu
politics became increasingly controlled by the eunuch faction, led by
Huang Hao, and corruption rose. Despite the energetic efforts of Jiang
Wei, Zhuge Liang's protege, Shu was unable to secure any decisive
achievement. In 263, Wei launched a three-pronged attack and the Shu
army was forced into general retreat from Hanzhong. Jiang Wei
hurriedly held a position at Jiange but he was outflanked by the Wei
commander Deng Ai, who force-marched his army from Yinping through
territory formerly considered impassable. By the winter of the year,
Chengdu fell due to the strategic invasion of Wei by Deng
Ai who invaded
Chengdu personally. The emperor
Liu Shan thus
surrendered. The state of Shu had come to an end after 43 years. Liu
Shan was reinstated to the Wei capital of
Luoyang and was given the
new title of the "Duke of Anle". Directly translated, it meant the
"Duke of Safety and Happiness" and was a trivial position with no
Fall of Wei
Cao Huan succeeded to the throne in 260 after
Cao Mao was killed in a
failed coup against Sima Zhao. Soon after,
Sima Zhao died and his
title as Duke of Jìn was inherited by his son Sima Yan. Sima Yan
immediately began plotting to become emperor but faced stiff
opposition. Following advice from his advisors,
Cao Huan decided the
best course of action would be to abdicate, unlike his predecessor Cao
Mao. Sima Yan seized the throne in 266 after forcing Cao Huan's
abdication, effectively overthrowing the Wei dynasty and establishing
the successor Jin dynasty. This situation was similar to the deposal
Emperor Xian of Han
Emperor Xian of Han by
Cao Pi 40 years earlier.
Fall of Wu
Main article: Conquest of Wu by Jin
A celadon candle lamp in the shape of a bixie, a mythological
lion-like creature, Western Jin period, 266–316 AD
Following Sun Quan's death and the ascension of the young
Sun Liang to
the throne in 252, the state of Wu went into steady decline.
Successful Wei suppression of rebellions in the southern Huai River
Sima Zhao and
Sima Shi reduced any opportunity of Wu
influence. The fall of Shu signalled a change in Wei politics. After
Liu Shan surrendered to Wei, Sima Yan (grandson of Sima Yi), overthrew
the Wei emperor and proclaimed his own dynasty of Jin in 266, ending
46 years of Cao dominion in the north. After Jin's rise, emperor Sun
Xiu of Wu died, and his ministers gave the throne to Sun Hao. Sun Hao
was a promising young man, but upon ascension he became a tyrant,
killing or exiling all who dared oppose him in the court. In 269 Yang
Hu, a Jin commander in the south, started preparing for the invasion
of Wu by ordering the construction of a fleet and the training of
Sichuan under Wang Jun. Four years later, Lu Kang, the last
great general of Wu, died leaving no competent successor. The planned
Jin offensive finally came at the end of 279. Sima Yan launched five
simultaneous offensives along the
Yangtze River from Jianye
(present-day Nanjing) to Jiangling while the
Sichuan fleet sailed
downriver to Jing Province. Under the strain of such an enormous
attack, the Wu forces collapsed and Jianye fell in the third month of
Sun Hao surrendered and was given a fiefdom on which to live out
his days. This marked the end of the
Three Kingdoms era, and the
beginning of a break in the forthcoming 300 years of disunity.
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Painted lacquerware table from the tomb of
Zhu Ran (182–249) in
Eastern Wu period, showing figures wearing silk Hanfu
After the Yellow Turban Rebellion, serious famine followed in the
Central Plains of China. After his coming to power,
Dong Zhuo gave
full swing to his army to plunder, and to rape women. When the
Guandong Coalition was starting the campaign against Dong Zhuo, he
embarked upon a scorched earth campaign, proclaiming that "all the
Luoyang be forced to move to Chang'an, all the palaces,
temples, official residences and homes be burnt, no one should stay
within that area of 200 li". Considering the hardships of that time
this amounted to a death sentence for many, and cries of discontent
rose as the population of
Luoyang decreased sharply. When Cao Cao
attacked Xu Province, it was said that "hundreds of thousands of men
and women were buried alive, even dogs and chickens did not survive.
Si River was blocked. From then on, these five towns never
recovered." When Li Jue and his army were advancing
Guanzhong area, "there remained hundreds of thousands of
people, but Li Jue allowed his army to plunder the cities and the
people, thus making the people have nothing but eat each other to
The following table shows the severe decrease of population during
that period. From the late
Eastern Han to the Western Jin dynasty,
despite the length of about 125 years, the peak population only
equaled 35.3% of the peak population during the
Eastern Han dynasty.
Western Jin dynasty
Western Jin dynasty to the Sui dynasty, the population never
recovered. It also should be noted that high militarization of the
population was common. For example, the population of Shu was 900,000,
but the military numbered over 100,000, taking up more than 10% of the
Records of the Three Kingdoms
Records of the Three Kingdoms contains population
figures for the Three Kingdoms. As with many Chinese historical
population figures, these numbers are likely to be less than the
actual populations, since census and tax records went hand in hand,
and tax evaders were often not on records.
Three Kingdoms Period Populations
Eastern Han dynasty, 156
Shu Han, 221
Shu Han, 263
At Shu's demise, the population contained 102,000 armed soldiers and
40,000 various officials.
Eastern Wu, 238
Eastern Wu, 280
At Wu's demise, the population had 32,000 officials, 230,000 soldiers,
and 5,000 imperial concubines.
Cao Wei, 260
Western Jin dynasty, 280
After reuniting China, the Jin dynasty's population was greatest
around this time.
From Zou Jiwan (Chinese: 鄒紀萬), Zhongguo Tongshi – Weijin
Nanbeichao Shi 中國通史·魏晉南北朝史, (1992).
While it is clear that warfare undoubtedly took many lives during this
period, the census figures do not support the idea that tens of
millions were wiped out solely from warfare. Other factors such as
mass famines and diseases, due to the collapse of sustaining
governance and migrations out of
China must be taken into account.
In the late
Eastern Han dynasty, due to natural disasters and social
unrest, the economy was badly depressed, leading to the massive waste
of farmland. Some local landlords and aristocracy established their
own strongholds to defend themselves and developed agriculture, which
gradually evolved into a self-sufficient manorial system. The system
of strongholds and manors also had effects on the economical mode of
following dynasties. In addition, because of the collapse of the
imperial court, those worn copper coins were not melted and reminted
and many privately minted coins appeared. In the Three Kingdoms
period, newly minted coins never made their way into currency. Due to
the collapse of the coinage,
Cao Wei officially declared silk cloth
and grains as the main currencies in 221.
In economic terms the division of the
Three Kingdoms reflected a
reality that long endured. Even during the Northern Song dynasty, 700
years after the
Three Kingdoms period, it was possible to think of
China as being composed of three great regional markets. (The status
of the northwest was slightly ambivalent, as it had links with the
northern region and Sichuan). These geographical divisions are
underscored by the fact that the main communication routes between the
three main regions were all man-made: the Grand Canal linking north
and south, the hauling-way through the
Three Gorges of the Yangtze
River linking southern
Sichuan and the gallery roads
Sichuan with the northwest. The break into three separate
entities was quite natural and even anticipated by such political
foresight as that of
Zhuge Liang (see Longzhong Plan).
Cao Cao, the founder of the Wei kingdom and his four sons were
influential poets, especially
Cao Zhi (192-232) and Cao Pi
Cao Pi wrote the earliest work of literary criticism,
the Essay on Literature. Cao Zhi, together with Xu Gan, spnsored a
resurgence of the Jian'nan style of lyric poetry.
Cao Zhi is
considered by most modern critics to be the most important Chinese
Qu Yuan and Tao Qian. 
Chen Shou's Records of the Three Kingdoms, as annotated by Pei Songzhi
is the official history of the three states. The literary scholar
Victor Mair remarks that "among its biographies is to be found some of
the most interesting writing in the dynastic histories." 
Legacy in popular culture
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Further information: List of media adaptations of Romance of the Three
Numerous people and affairs from the period later became Chinese
legends. The most complete and influential example is the historical
novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, written by
Luo Guanzhong during
the Ming dynasty. Possibly due to the popularity of Romance of the
Three Kingdoms, the
Three Kingdoms era is one of the most well-known
non-modern Chinese eras in terms of iconic characters, deeds and
exploits. This is reflected in the way that fictional accounts of the
Three Kingdoms, mostly based on the novel, play a significant role in
East Asian popular culture. Books, television dramas, films, cartoons,
anime, games, and music on the topic are still regularly produced in
mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea,
Vietnam and Japan.
Conflicts at the end of the Han dynasty
Dong Zhuo (Xingyang)
Cao Cao vs. Zhang Xiu
China (Liyang * Ye * Nanpi * White Wolf Mtn.)
China (Tong Pass * Jicheng * Lucheng * Qi Mtns. * Yangping)
Jing Province (215)
Jing Province (219)
Three Kingdoms →
Wars of the Three Kingdoms
← End of Han dynasty
Invasion of Wu
Jiang's Expeditions (Didao)
Fall of Shu
Fall of Wu
Battle of Hulao Pass
End of the Han dynasty
Game of the Three Kingdoms
List of tributaries of Imperial China
Period of Disunity
Personages of the Three Kingdoms
Rafe de Crespigny
Records of the Three Kingdoms
Romance of the Three Kingdoms
Six Dynasties poetry
Timeline of the
Three Kingdoms period
Military history of the Three Kingdoms
^ Referring to the
Han dynasty government
^ Referring to the Yellow Turban Rebellion
Book of Han
Book of Han – Record of Emperor Xiaoling and the Zizhi Tongjian
-Guanghe Year 6 record that Zhang Jiao declared himself Yellow Emperor
and took their movement's name from a headscarf worn by followers
[yellow signifying the Yellow Emperor and imperial authority].
^ Roughly covering the
^ The area between present-day
Baoding and Taiyuan
^ Earlier, in 217,
Sima Yi had become a member of the heir apparent
Cao Pi's entourage. He steadily rose in position during Cao Pi's
reign. (Crespigny 1991,31)
^ Theobald (2000).
^ Tanner, Harold Miles (13 March 2009). China: A History.
Indianapolis, Indiana: Hackett Publishing. pp. 141–142.
^ Ward (2008), p. 15.
^ San (2014), p. 145.
^ Nicola Di Cosmo and Robin D. S. Yates. Military Culture in Imperial
China. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674031098.
^ Hans Bielenstein. Chinese historical demography A.D. 2-1982.
Östasiatiska museet. p 17
^ Tseng, Jane (20 January 2015). "This Man Is Riding a Masterpiece
Like Zhuge Liang's on the Street!". The Vision Times. Retrieved 31
March 2015. the wooden ox (literally wooden ox and flowing horse) was
first created by chancellor
Zhuge Liang during the Three Kingdoms
^ Breverton, Terry (2013). Breverton's Encyclopedia of Inventions
(Unabridged ed.). Quercus. ISBN 1623652340.
^ Szczepanski, Kallie. "The Invention of the Crossbow". About.com.
Retrieved 31 March 2015. Repeating crossbows, called zhuge nu in
Chinese, could shoot multiple bolts before needing to be reloaded.
Traditional sources attributed this invention to a Three Kingdoms
period tactician named
Zhuge Liang (181–234 AD), but the discovery
of the Qinjiazui repeating crossbow from 500 years before Zhuge's
lifetime proves that he was not the original inventor. It seems likely
that he improved significantly on the design. Later crossbows could
fire as many as 10 bolts in 15 seconds before being reloaded.
^ Hong-Sen Yan (2007). Reconstruction Designs of Lost Ancient Chinese
Machinery (Online-Ausg. ed.). Dordrecht: Springer Science &
Business Media. p. 129. ISBN 1402064608.
^ Xiong, Victor Cunrui (2009). Historical Dictionary of Medieval
China. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press. p. 351.
^ "Romance of the Three Kingdoms: China's Greatest Epic
三國志演義". Yellow Bridge. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
^ a b Roberts, Moss (1991). Three Kingdoms: A Historical Novel.
California: University of
^ Guo Jian (郭建) (1999). 千秋興亡 [Rise and Fall over Thousands
of Autumns]. Changchun: 長春出版社 (
^ Jiang Lang (姜狼) (2011). 184–280:三國原來這樣 [184–280:
It Turns out the
Three Kingdoms Were like This]. Beijing:
現代出版社 (Modern Press).
^ Han Guopan (韓國磐) (1983). 魏晉南北朝史綱 [Historical
Highlights of the Six Dynasties]. Beijing: 人民出版社 (People's
^ Zhang Binsheng (張儐生) (1982). 魏晉南北朝政治史
[Administrative History of the Six Dynasties]. Taipei:
中國文化大學 (Chinese Culture University Press).
^ Gao Min (高敏), ed. (1998). 中國經濟通史
魏晉南北朝經濟卷 [The Complete Economic History of China:
Economy of the Six Dynasties]. Hong Kong: 經濟日報出版社
(Economics Daily Press).
^ Luo Kun (羅琨); et al. (1998). 中國軍事通史 三國軍事史
[The Complete Military History of China:
Three Kingdoms Military
History]. Beijing: 軍事科學出版社 (Military Science
^ Zhu Dawei (朱大渭); et al. (1998). 魏晉南北朝社會生活史
[The Social History of the Six Dynasties]. Beijing:
中國社會科學出版社 (Chinese Academy of Social
^ Zhang Wenqiang (張文強) (1994). 中國魏晉南北朝軍事史
Six Dynasties Military History]. Beijing: 人民出版社
^ Zhang Chengzong (張承宗); Wei Xiangdong (魏向東) (2001).
中國風俗通史 魏晉南北朝卷 [The Complete History of Chinese
Customs: Six Dynasties]. Shanghai: 上海藝文出版社 (Shanghai
^ He Dezhang (何德章) (1994). 中國魏晉南北朝政治史
Six Dynasties Administrative
History (This Nation's Total History in 100 Volumes, no 7)]. Beijing:
人民出版社 (People's Press).
^ Wang Lihua (王利華); et al. (2009). 中國農業通史
魏晉南北朝卷 [The Complete History of Chinese Agriculture: Six
Dynasties]. Beijing: 中國農業出版社 (Chinese Agricultural
^ Theobald, Ulrich (28 June 2011). "The Yellow Turban Uprising".
Chinaknowledge. Retrieved 7 March 2015. The reasons for the uprising
are to be sought in the aggravating economic situation for many
peasants. Endebted to rich landowners, peasants could often only
survive when selling their land and becoming tenant farmers.
Additionally to the high rent for the fields the worked, tenant
farmers had to deliver corvée labour for their master and had to
serve for all kinds of means, often as soldiers for small private
armies. A further problem was that the central government was very
weak after the death of Emperor He 漢和帝 (r. 88–105). Only
children or very young persons were enthroned, and the factual
politics lay in the hands of the empresses and their families, or
those of eunuchs. Taxes were often not sufficient to cover the
expenses of the government. Local officials were not correctly
appointed, offices were sold, and the local governments did not care
for a regular administration. This was especially to be seen in the
missing administration of the state granaries. In case of drought or
natural disasters, there were no means of relief to be delivered to
the hungry population. Peasants left their lands and wandered around
in search for food and labour.
^ a b c de Crespigny 1991, 1.
^ a b de Crespigny 1991, 1–2.
^ a b c d e f de Crespigny 1991, 2.
^ a b c de Crespigny 1991, 2–3.
^ a b de Crespigny 1991, 3–4.
^ a b c d e f de Crespigny 1991, 3.
^ a b c d e de Crespigny 1991, 6.
^ a b de Crespigny 1991, 7–8.
^ a b c d e f g h de Crespigny 1991, 7.
^ a b c d e f g h de Crespigny 1991, 4.
^ de Crespigny 1991, 4 & 6.
^ Crespigny 1991, 8.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p de Crespigny 1991, 8.
^ a b c d de Crespigny 1991, 21.
^ de Crespigny 1991, 8 & 21.
^ a b de Crespigny 1991, 9.
^ a b c d e f g h i j de Crespigny 1991, 10.
^ a b c d de Crespigny 1991, 10–11 & 21–22.
^ a b c de Crespigny 1991, 10–11.
^ a b c d e f de Crespigny 1991, 11.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m de Crespigny 1991, 12.
^ de Crespigny 1991, 11–12.
^ de Crespigny 1991, 12–13.
^ de Crespigny 1991, 13 & 20.
^ de Crespigny 1991, 12–13 & 22.
^ a b de Crespigny 1991, 22.
^ de Crespigny 1991, 13 & 16.
^ de Crespigny 1991, 16.
^ a b c d e de Crespigny 1991, 13.
^ a b c de Crespigny 1991, 31.
^ a b c d e f g h i j de Crespigny 1991, 32.
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