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สรณะ, ที่พึ่ง ที่ระลึก RTGS: sarana, thi phueng thi raluek

Vietnamese Quy y

Glossary of Buddhism

Buddhists take refuge in the Three Jewels
Three Jewels
or Triple Gem (also known as the "Three Refuges"). The Three Jewels
Three Jewels
are:

the Buddha, the fully enlightened one the Dharma, the teachings expounded by the Buddha the Sangha, the monastic order of Buddhism
Buddhism
that practice the Dharma

Refuge is common to all major schools of Buddhism. Pali
Pali
texts employ the Brahmanical motif of a group of three refuges, as found in Rig Veda 9.97.47, Rig Veda
Rig Veda
6.46.9 and Chandogya Upanishad
Chandogya Upanishad
2.22.3-4.[1]

Contents

1 Faith (saddha) 2 Precepts 3 Wording 4 Three Roots 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Faith (saddha)[edit]

Veneration of the Three Jewels, Chorasan, Gandhara, 2nd century AD, schist – Ethnological Museum of Berlin.

Main article: Faith in Buddhism Faith is an important teaching element in both Theravada
Theravada
and Mahayana traditions. In contrast to perceived Western notions of faith, faith in Buddhism
Buddhism
arises from accumulated experience and reasoning. In the Kalama Sutra, the Buddha explicitly argues against simply following authority or tradition, particularly those of religions contemporary to the Buddha's time.[2] There remains value for a degree of trusting confidence and belief in Buddhism, primarily in the spiritual attainment and salvation or enlightenment. Faith in Buddhism centres on belief in the Three Jewels. Precepts[edit] For someone who wishes to study and practice Buddhism, the five ethical precepts encouraged are to voluntarily undertake the practice to:

refrain from killing.[3][4][5] refrain from stealing.[3][4][5] refrain from lying.[3][4][5] refrain from consuming intoxicants.[3][4][5] refrain from improper sexual conduct.[3][4][5]

Note: The precepts may be listed in order of the gravity of harmful actions guarded against. Improper sexual conduct can roughly mean 'hurtful or harmful' sexual conduct. For those interested in slightly more advanced practices, on full moon, new moon, and sometimes other quarter moon days, it is encouraged to undertake the eight ethical precepts, which also includes:

refrain from eating after noon[3][4][5] refrain from singing, dancing, music, watching entertainment, wearing jewelry, using perfumes and colognes, and wearing make-up.[3][4][5] refrain from sleeping on high and luxurious beddings[3][4][5]

Wording[edit]

This section contains too many or too-lengthy quotations for an encyclopedic entry. Please help improve the article by presenting facts as a neutrally-worded summary with appropriate citations. Consider transferring direct quotations to Wikiquote. (November 2017)

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
version:

बुद्धं शरणं गच्छामि। धर्मं शरणं गच्छामि। संघं शरणं गच्छामि।

Buddhaṃ śaraṇaṃ gacchāmi. Dharmaṃ śaraṇaṃ gacchāmi. Saṃghaṃ śaraṇaṃ gacchāmi.

I take refuge in the Buddha. I take refuge in the Dharma. I take refuge in the Sangha.

Pāli (Theravāda) version:

बुद्धं सरणं गच्छामि। धम्मं सरणं गच्छामि। सङ्घं सरणं गच्छामि।

Buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi. Dhammaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi. Saṅghaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi.

I go to the Buddha for refuge. I go to the Dhamma for refuge. I go to the Sangha
Sangha
for refuge.

Khmer characters:

ពុទ្ធំ សរណំ គច្ឆាមិ ។ ធម្មំ សរណំ គច្ឆាមិ ។ សង្ឃំ សរណំ គច្ឆាមិ ។ To the Buddha for refuge I go To the Dharma
Dharma
for refuge I go To the Sangha
Sangha
for refuge I go

Uyghur version:

Namo but. Namo dram. Namo sang.

Chinese version:

南無皈依佛 南無皈依法 南無皈依僧 To the Buddha for refuge I go. To the Dharma
Dharma
for refuge I go. To the Sangha
Sangha
for refuge I go.

However, some substitute the above with a (Mahāyāna) version taken from the Avatamsaka Sutra
Avatamsaka Sutra
which reads:

自皈依佛,當願眾生,體解大道,發無上心。 (I take refuge in the Buddha, wishing for all sentient beings to understand the great way and make the greatest vow.) 自皈依法,當願眾生,深入經藏,智慧如海。 (I take refuge in the Dharma, wishing for all sentient beings to deeply delve into the Sutra
Sutra
Pitaka, gaining an ocean of knowledge.) 自皈依僧,當願眾生,統理大眾,一切無礙。 (I take refuge in the Sangha, wishing all sentient beings to lead the congregation in harmony, entirely without obstruction.)

Tibetan : The basic refuge in Tibetan is:

སངས་རྒྱས་ལ་སྐྱབས་སུ་མཆིའོ། ཆོས་ལ་སྐྱབས་སུ་མཆིའོ། དགེ་འདུན་ལ་སྐྱབས་སུ་མཆིའོ།

Sang-gyé la kyap-su chio (I go for refuge to the Buddha) Chö la kyap-su chio (I go for refuge to the Dharma) Gendün la kyap-su chio (I go for refuge to the Sangha)

A Mahayana
Mahayana
refuge in Tibetan:

སངས་རྒྱས་ཆོས་དང་ཚོགས་ཀྱི་མཆོག་རྣམས་ལ། བྱང་ཆུབ་བར་དུ་སྐྱབས་སུ་མཆི། བདག་གིས་སྦྱིན་སོགས་བགྱི་པ་འདི་དག་གིས། འགྲོ་ལ་ཕན་ཕྱིར་སངས་རྒྱས་འགྲུབ་པར་ཤོག

Sang gyé chö dang tsok kyi chok nam la Jang chup bar du kyap su chi Dak gi jin sok gyi pa di dak gi Dro la pen chir sang gyé drup par shok

In the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha
Sangha
most excellent, I take refuge until enlightenment. By the merit of generosity and so on, May I achieve Buddhahood
Buddhahood
to benefit all sentient beings.

Thai version:

พุทธัง สรณัง คัจฉามิ ธัมมัง สรณัง คัจฉามิ สังฆัง สรณัง คัจฉามิ

Buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi. Dhammaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi. Saṅghaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi.

To the Buddha I go for refuge. To the Dhamma I go for refuge. To the Sangha
Sangha
I go for refuge.

Thai chant for three times by adding ทุติยัมปิ, (Duthiyampi, For the second time) or ตติยัมปิ (Tatiyampi, For the third time) preceding each sentence of each set of asking triple gems for refuge. Three Roots[edit] Main article: Three Roots

Symbol of the Three Jewels

In Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
there are three refuge formulations, the Outer, Inner, and Secret forms of the Three Jewels. The 'Outer' form is the 'Triple Gem', (Sanskrit:triratna), the 'Inner' is the Three Roots
Three Roots
and the 'Secret' form is the 'Three Bodies' or trikaya of a Buddha. These alternative refuge formulations are employed by those undertaking Deity Yoga
Deity Yoga
and other tantric practices within the Tibetan Buddhist Vajrayana
Vajrayana
tradition as a means of recognizing Buddha Nature.

  Tibetan Buddhist
Tibetan Buddhist
Refuge Formulations

Outer or 'Three Jewels' Buddha Dharma Sangha

Inner or 'Three Roots' Lama
Lama
(Guru) Yidam
Yidam
(Ista-devata) Khandroma (Dakini)[6]

Secret or 'Trikaya' Dharmakaya Sambhogakaya Nirmanakaya

Three Vajras Mind Speech Body

seed syllable blue hum red ah white om

Three refuge motivation levels are: 1) suffering rebirth's fear motivates with the idea of happiness, 2) knowing rebirth won’t bring freedoms motivates attaining nirvana, while 3) seeing other’s suffering motivates establishing them all in Buddhahood.[7] Happiness is temporary, lifetimes are impermanent and ultimately refuge is taken until reaching unsurpassed awakening.[8][clarification needed] See also[edit]

Dharmapala

Notes[edit]

^ Shults, Brett (May 2014). "On the Buddha's Use of Some Brahmanical Motifs in Pali
Pali
Texts". Journal of the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies. 6: 119.  ^ "Kalama Sutta: The Buddha's Charter of Free Inquiry". 4 February 2013.  ^ a b c d e f g h "The Eight Precepts: attha-sila". www.accesstoinsight.org.  ^ a b c d e f g h " Uposatha
Uposatha
Sila: The Eight-Precept Observance". www.accesstoinsight.org.  ^ a b c d e f g h Sāmi, Dhamma. "The 8 precepts". en.dhammadana.org.  ^ In Sarma traditions, this root is the Chokyong (Skt: dharmapāla, Wylie: chos-kyong) ^ Rinpoche, Patrul. Words of My Perfect Teacher: A Complete Translation of a Classic Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
(Sacred Literature) (2011 ed.). Yale University Press. pp. 176–177. ISBN 0-300-16532-3.  ^ Dorje, Choying Tobden; Zangpo, Ngawang (June 2, 2015). The Complete Nyingma Tradition
Tradition
from Sutra
Sutra
to Tantra, Books 1 to 10: Foundations of the Buddhist Path (First ed.). Snow Lion. pp. 224–227. ISBN 1-55939-435-8. 

References[edit]

Sangharakshita, Going for Refuge. Windhorse Publications. (1997) Ceremony for Taking Refuge and Precepts by Ven. Thubten Chodron

External links[edit]

A Buddhist View on Refuge Refuge: A Safe and Meaningful Direction in Life by Dr. Alexander Berzin Refuge Vows (including commentary by Dr. Alexander Berzin) Taking the refuges and precepts online by Bhikkhu
Bhikkhu
Samahita Vajrayana
Vajrayana
refuge prayer audio The Threefold Refuge (tisarana) Five Precepts (pañca-sila) Abhisanda Sutta (Anguttara Nikaya) Saranagamana (Khuddakapatha) Going for Refuge and Taking the Precepts by Bhikkhu
Bhikkhu
Bodhi Refuge: An Introduction to the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha
Sangha
by Thanissaro Bhikkhu Refuge Tree Thangkas by Dharmapala
Dharmapala
Thangka
Thangka
Centre

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