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Thrace
Thrace
(/θreɪs/; Modern Greek: Θράκη, Thráke; Bulgarian: Тракия, Trakiya; Turkish: Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece
Greece
and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains
Balkan Mountains
to the north, the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
to the south and the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the east. It comprises southeastern Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(Northern Thrace), northeastern Greece (Western Thrace) and the European part of Turkey
Turkey
(Eastern Thrace). In antiquity, it was also referred to as Europe, prior to the extension of the term to describe the whole continent.[1][2] The name Thrace
Thrace
comes from the Thracians, an ancient Indo-European people inhabiting Southeastern Europe.

Contents

1 Etymology

1.1 Mythology

2 Geography

2.1 Borders 2.2 Cities of Thrace

3 Demographics and religion

3.1 Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
mythology

4 History

4.1 Ancient and Roman history 4.2 Medieval history 4.3 Ottoman period 4.4 Modern history

5 Notable Thracians 6 Thracian gods 7 Legacy 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

Etymology[edit] The word Thrace
Thrace
was established by the Greeks for referring to the Thracian tribes, from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Thrake (Θρᾴκη),[3] descending from Thrāix (Θρᾷξ).[4] The name of the continent Europe
Europe
first referred to Thrace
Thrace
proper, prior to extending its meaning to the whole continent. The region could have been named after the principal river there, Hebros, possibly from the Indo-European arg "white river" (the opposite of Vardar, meaning "black river"),[5] . According to an alternative theory, Hebros means "goat" in Thracian.[6] In Turkey, it is commonly referred to as Rumeli, Land of the Romans, owing to this region being the last part of the Eastern Roman Empire that was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. Mythology[edit] The name appears to derive from an ancient heroine and sorceress Thrace, who was the daughter of Oceanus
Oceanus
and Parthenope, and sister of Europa. Geography[edit] Borders[edit] The historical boundaries of Thrace
Thrace
have varied. The ancient Greeks employed the term "Thrace" to refer to all of the territory which lay north of Thessaly
Thessaly
inhabited by the Thracians,[7] a region which "had no definite boundaries" and to which other regions (like Macedonia and even Scythia) were added.[8] In one ancient Greek source, the very Earth is divided into "Asia, Libya, Europa and Thracia".[8] As the Greeks gained knowledge of world geography, "Thrace" came to designate the area bordered by the Danube
Danube
on the north, by the Euxine Sea (Black Sea) on the east, by northern Macedonia in the south and by Illyria
Illyria
to the west.[8] This largely coincided with the Thracian Odrysian kingdom, whose borders varied over time. After the Macedonian conquest, this region's former border with Macedonia was shifted from the Struma River
Struma River
to the Mesta River.[9][10] This usage lasted until the Roman conquest. Henceforth, (classical) Thrace
Thrace
referred only to the tract of land largely covering the same extent of space as the modern geographical region.[clarification needed] In its early period, the Roman province of Thrace
Thrace
was of this extent, but after the administrative reforms of the late 3rd century, Thracia's much reduced territory became the six small provinces which constituted the Diocese of Thrace. The medieval Byzantine theme of Thrace
Thrace
contained only what today is Eastern Thrace. Cities of Thrace[edit] Main article: List of cities of Thrace The largest cities of Thrace
Thrace
are: Plovdiv, Burgas, Stara Zagora, Haskovo, Yambol, Komotini, Alexandroupoli, Xanthi, Edirne, Istanbul, Çorlu, Kırklareli
Kırklareli
and Tekirdağ. Demographics and religion[edit] Main articles: Demographics of Bulgaria, Demographics of Greece, and Demographics of Turkey See also: Thracian Bulgarians
Thracian Bulgarians
and Turks of Western Thrace Most of the Bulgarian and Greek population are Orthodox Christians, while most of the Turkish inhabitants of Thrace
Thrace
are Sunni Muslims. Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
mythology[edit] Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
mythology provides the Thracians
Thracians
with a mythical ancestor Thrax, the son of the war-god Ares, who was said to reside in Thrace. The Thracians
Thracians
appear in Homer's Iliad
Iliad
as Trojan allies, led by Acamas and Peiros. Later in the Iliad, Rhesus, another Thracian king, makes an appearance. Cisseus, father-in-law to the Trojan elder Antenor, is also given as a Thracian king. Homeric Thrace
Thrace
was vaguely defined, and stretched from the River Axios in the west to the Hellespont
Hellespont
and Black Sea
Black Sea
in the east. The Catalogue of Ships mentions three separate contingents from Thrace: Thracians led by Acamas and Peiros, from Aenus; Cicones
Cicones
led by Euphemus, from southern Thrace, near Ismaros; and from the city of Sestus, on the Thracian (northern) side of the Hellespont, which formed part of the contingent led by Asius. Ancient Thrace
Thrace
was home to numerous other tribes, such as the Edones, Bisaltae, Cicones, and Bistones in addition to the tribe that Homer
Homer
specifically calls the “Thracians”. Greek mythology
Greek mythology
is replete with Thracian kings, including Diomedes, Tereus, Lycurgus, Phineus, Tegyrius, Eumolpus, Polymnestor, Poltys, and Oeagrus (father of Orpheus). Thrace
Thrace
is mentioned in Ovid's Metamorphoses, in the episode of Philomela, Procne, and Tereus: Tereus, the King of Thrace, lusts after his sister-in-law, Philomela. He kidnaps her, holds her captive, rapes her, and cuts out her tongue. Philomela manages to get free, however. She and her sister, Procne, plot to get revenge, by killing her son Itys
Itys
(by Tereus) and serving him to his father for dinner. At the end of the myth, all three turn into birds – Procne
Procne
into a swallow, Philomela into a nightingale, and Tereus
Tereus
into a hoopoe. History[edit] See also: History of Western Thrace
Western Thrace
and History of East Thrace Ancient and Roman history[edit] Main article: Thracians

Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak.

The indigenous population of Thrace
Thrace
was a people called the Thracians, divided into numerous tribal groups. The region was controlled by the Persian Empire at its greatest extent,[11] and Thracian soldiers were known to be used in the Persian armies. Later on, Thracian troops were known to accompany neighboring ruler Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
when he crossed the Hellespont
Hellespont
which abuts Thrace, during the invasion of the Persian Empire itself. The Thracians
Thracians
did not describe themselves by name; terms such as Thrace
Thrace
and Thracians
Thracians
are simply the names given them by the Greeks.[12] Divided into separate tribes, the Thracians
Thracians
did not form any lasting political organizations until the founding of the Odrysian
Odrysian
state in the 4th century BC. Like Illyrians, the locally ruled Thracian tribes of the mountainous regions maintained a warrior tradition, while the tribes based in the plains were purportedly more peaceable. Recently discovered funeral mounds in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
suggest that Thracian kings did rule regions of Thrace
Thrace
with distinct Thracian national identity. During this period, a subculture of celibate ascetics called the Ctistae lived in Thrace, where they served as philosophers, priests and prophets. Sections of Thrace
Thrace
particularly in the south started to become hellenized before the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
as a significant amount of Athenian and Ionian colonies were set up in Thrace
Thrace
before the war and Spartan and other Doric colonists followed suit after the war. The special interest of Athens to Thrace
Thrace
is underlined by the numerous finds of Athenian silverware in Thracian tombs.[13] In 168 BC, after the Third Macedonian war and the subjugation of Macedonia to the Romans, Thrace
Thrace
also lost its independence and became tributary to Rome. Towards the end of the 1st century BC Thrace
Thrace
lost its status as a client kingdom as the Romans began to directly appoint their kings. [14] This situation lasted until 46 AD, when the Romans finally turned Thrace
Thrace
into a Roman province (Romana provincia Thracia)[15] During the Roman domination, within the geographical borders of ancient Thrace, there were two separate Roman provinces, namely Thrace ("provincia Thracia") and Lower Moesia
Moesia
(" Moesia
Moesia
inferior"). Later, in the times of Diocletian, the two provinces were joined and formed the so-called "Dioecesis Thracia".[16] The establishment of Roman colonies and mostly several Greek cities, as was Nicopolis, Topeiros, Traianoupolis, Plotinoupolis and Hadrianoupolis resulted from the Roman Empire's urbanization. It is noteworthy that the Roman provincial policy in Thrace
Thrace
favored mainly not the Romanization but the Hellenization of the country, which had started as early as the Archaic period through the Greek colonisation and was completed by the end of Roman Antiquity.[17] As regards the competition between the Greek and Latin language, the very high rate of Greek inscriptions in Thrace
Thrace
extending south of Haemus mountains proves the complete language Hellenization of this region. The boundaries between the Greek and Latin speaking Thrace
Thrace
are placed just above the northern foothills of Haemus mountains.[18] During the imperial period many Thracians
Thracians
– particularly members of the local aristocracy of the cities – had been granted the right of the Roman citizenship (civitas Romana) with all his privileges. Epigraphic evidence show a large increase in such naturalizations in the times of Trajan and Hadrian, while in 212 AD the emperor Caracalla granted, with his well-known decree (constitutio Antoniniana), the Roman citizenship to all the free habitants of the Roman Empire. [19] During the same period (in the 1st-2nd century AD), a remarkable presence of Thracians
Thracians
is testified by the inscriptions outside the borders (extra fines) both in the Greek territory [20] and in all the Roman provinces, especially in the provinces of Eastern Roman Empire. [21] Medieval history[edit] Main articles: Macedonia (theme)
Macedonia (theme)
and Thrace
Thrace
(theme) By the mid 5th century, as the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
began to crumble, Thracia fell from the authority of Rome and into the hands of Germanic tribal rulers. With the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Thracia turned into a battleground territory for the better part of the next 1,000 years. The surviving eastern portion of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the Balkans, later known as the Byzantine Empire, retained control over Thrace
Thrace
until the 8th century when the northern half of the entire region was incorporated into the First Bulgarian Empire
First Bulgarian Empire
and the remainder was reorganized in the Thracian theme. The Empire regained the lost regions in the late 10th century until the Bulgarians regained control of the northern half at the end of the 12th century. Throughout the 13th century and the first half of the 14th century, the region was changing in the hands of the Bulgarian and the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
(excluding Constantinople). In 1265 the area suffered a Mongol raid from the Golden Horde, led by Nogai Khan, and between 1305 and 1307 was raided by the Catalan company.[22] Ottoman period[edit]

Flag of rebels of Thrace
Thrace
during the Greek War of Independence.

In 1352, the Ottoman Turks conducted their first incursion into the region subduing it completely within a matter of two decades and occupying it for five centuries. In 1821, several parts of Thrace, such as Lavara, Maroneia, Sozopolis, Aenos, Callipolis and Samothraki rebelled during the Greek War of Independence. Modern history[edit]

Proposal to cede Eastern Thrace
Eastern Thrace
to Greece
Greece
during World War I. This photocopy came from a larger color map.

With the Congress of Berlin
Congress of Berlin
in 1878, Northern Thrace
Northern Thrace
was incorporated into the semi-autonomous Ottoman province of Eastern Rumelia, which united with Bulgaria
Bulgaria
in 1885. The rest of Thrace
Thrace
was divided among Bulgaria, Greece
Greece
and Turkey
Turkey
at the beginning of the 20th century, following the Balkan Wars, World War I
World War I
and the Greco-Turkish War. In Summer 1934, up to 10.000 Jews[23] were maltreated, bereaved and then forced to quit the region (see 1934 Thrace
Thrace
pogroms). Today, Thracian is a geographical term used in Greece, Turkey
Turkey
and Bulgaria. Notable Thracians[edit]

Orpheus
Orpheus
was, in Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
mythology, the chief representative of the art of song and playing the lyre. Protagoras
Protagoras
was a Greek philosopher from Abdera, Thrace (c. 490–420 BC.) An expert in rhetorics and subjects connected to virtue and political life, often regarded as the first sophist. He is known primarily for three claims: (1) that man is the measure of all things, often interpreted as a sort of moral relativism, (2) that he could make the "worse (or weaker) argument appear the better (or stronger)" (see Sophism), and (3) that one could not tell if the gods existed or not (see Agnosticism). Herodicus
Herodicus
was a Greek physician of the fifth century BC who is considered the founder of sports medicine. He is believed to have been one of Hippocrates' tutors. Democritus
Democritus
was a Greek philosopher and mathematician from Abdera, Thrace
Thrace
(c. 460–370 BC.) His main contribution is the atomic theory, the belief that all matter is made up of various imperishable indivisible elements which he called atoms. Spartacus
Spartacus
was a Thracian who led a large slave uprising in what is now Italy in 73–71 BC. His army of escaped gladiators and slaves defeated several Roman legions
Roman legions
in what is known as the Third Servile War. A number of Roman emperors of the 3rd–5th century were of Thraco-Roman
Thraco-Roman
backgrounds (Maximinus Thrax, Licinius, Galerius, Aureolus, Leo the Thracian, etc.). These emperors were elevated via a military career, from the condition of common soldiers in one of the Roman legions
Roman legions
to the foremost positions of political power.

Thracian gods[edit] Two main gods of the Bessi
Bessi
Thracians
Thracians
were Dionysus
Dionysus
(worshiped as Zagreus) and Bendis. Zagreus was worshipped by followers of Orphism (the name given to a set of religious beliefs and practices associated with literature ascribed to the mythical poet Orpheus), whose late Orphic hymns invoke his name. Actually Zagreus was a Thracian god prototype later known as Dionysus – the god of joy, wine and ecstasy in the Greek and Bacchus in the Roman mythology. Holidays (mysteries) dedicated to Dionysus
Dionysus
in Greece
Greece
were called Dionysii; in Rome they were known as Bacchanalia and in Thrace
Thrace
as Rozalii. Orphic mysteries held in honor of Dionysus- Zagreus were performed only by devoted unmarried men. They were called a-bii, which means "not alive" because they did not lead an ordinary life. The mysteries were held in secret places far from the eyes of the ordinary people and were accompanied by choral songs and mimic games. The culmination of the mysteries was the symbolic death of the king-priest, identified with Zagreus who according to myth was torn apart by the Titans. Following the "death", the mother goddess was also symbolically born. The first part was carried out through a sacrifice of a bull, horse, goat or even people and the latter through a sexual orgy. Later on, Orphic mysteries became a part of the Bacchanalia. Wine and fire were essential to the cult of Dionysus. The act of wine producing itself was recognized as a tale of the life and sorrow of the god. Picking and smashing the vines represent the way that the Titans tore Dionysus
Dionysus
apart. That is why vinification was a mystery that was accompanied by sad songs. Bendis
Bendis
was a goddess worshiped in Southwestern Thrace. She was typically presented as a hunter, wrapped with leather with boots and a fox fur hat. She holds a spear, a bow or a net and she is often accompanied by a hunting dog. In Greek mythology
Greek mythology
boots are a symbol of speed. Bendis
Bendis
is different from her Greek analogies in that she wears a fox hat. Vine and Haberlea rhodopensis (Orpheus' flower) were objects of cult for the Bessi. Wine and flame were believed to cause euphoria. Svetonii Tranquil and Herodotus described rituals in which worshippers would divine by pouring wine on the altar and observing the height of the blaze. Other tribes would also burn a sacrificial animal on the altar. They believed that if the flames were vigorous, the year would be fruitful. Legacy[edit] The Trakiya Heights
Trakiya Heights
in Antarctica
Antarctica
"are named after the historical region."[24] See also[edit]

1934 Thrace
Thrace
Pogroms 1989 expulsion of Turks from Bulgaria Celtic settlement of Eastern Europe Dacia Dardania Hawks of Thrace Macedon Moesia Moesogoths Music of Thrace Paionia The Destruction of Thracian Bulgarians
Thracian Bulgarians
in 1913 Turkish Republic of Thrace Turks of Western Thrace

Notes[edit]

^ Greek goddess Europa adorns new five-euro note ^ Pagden, Anthony (2002). "Europe: Conceptualizing a Continent" (PDF). The idea of Europe: from antiquity to the European Union. Washington, DC; Cambridge; New York: Woodrow Wilson Center Press ; Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780511496813.  ^ Θρᾴκη. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project ^ Θρᾷξ. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project ^ Pieter, Jan. Thracians
Thracians
and Mycenaeans: Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress.  ^ "The Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Project".  ^ Swinburne Carr, Thomas. The history and geography of Greece. p. 56.  ^ a b c Smith, Sir William (1857). Dictionary of Greek and Roman geography. London. p. 1176.  ^ Johann Joachim Eschenburg, Nathan Welby Fiske. Manual of classical literature. p. 20 n.  ^ Adam, Alexander. A summary of geography and history, both ancient and modern. p. 344.  ^ Joseph Roisman,Ian Worthington. "A companion to Ancient Macedonia" John Wiley & Sons, 2011. ISBN 144435163X p 343 ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond ,ISBN 0-521-22717-8,1992,page 597: "We have no way of knowing what the Thracians
Thracians
called themselves and if indeed they had a common name...Thus the name of Thracians
Thracians
and that of their country were given by the Greeks to a group of tribes occupying the territory..." ^ A. Sideris, Theseus in Thrace. The Silver Lining on the Clouds of the Athenian-Thracian Relations in the 5th Century BC (Sofia 2015), pp. 13-14, 79-82. ^ D. C. Samsaris, Le royaume client thrace aux temps de Tibere et la tutelle romaine de Trebellenus Rufus (Le stade transitif de la clientele a la provincialisation de la Thrace), Dodona 17 (1), 1988, p. 159-168 ^ [1] D. C. Samsaris, The Hellenization of Thrace
Thrace
during the Greek and Roman Antiquity (Diss. in Greek), Thessaloniki 1980, p. 26-36 ^ D. C. Samsaris, Historical Geography of Western Thrace
Western Thrace
during the Roman Antiquity (in Greek), Thessaloniki 2005, p. 7-14 ^ [2] D. C. Samsaris, The Hellenization of Thrace, passim ^ [3] D. C. Samsaris, The Hellenization of Thrace, p. 320-330 ^ D. C. Samsaris, Surveys in the history, topography and cults of the Roman provinces of Macedonia and Thrace
Thrace
(in Greek), Thessaloniki 1984, p. 131-302 ^ D. C. Samsaris, Les Thraces dans l’ Empire romain d’ Orient (Le territoire de la Grèce actuelle). Etude ethno-démographique, sociale, prosopographique et anthroponymique, Jannina (Université) 1993, pp. 372 ^ D. C. Samsaris, Les Thraces dans l’ Empire romain d’ Orient (Asie Mineure, Syrie, Palestine et Arabie). Etude ethno-démographique et sociale, VIe Symposium Internazionale di Tracologia (Firenze 11-13 maggio 1989), Roma 1992, p. 184-204 [= Dodona 19(1990), fasc. 1, p. 5-30] ^ La Venjança catalana. Gran Enciclopèdia Catalana. ^ see footnote 4 ^ Trakiya Heights. SCAR Composite Antarctic Gazetteer.

References[edit]

Hoddinott, R. F., The Thracians, 1981. Ilieva, Sonya, Thracology, 2001

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Thrace.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ancient Thrace
Thrace
and Ancient Thracians.

Ethnological Museum of Thrace, comprehensive website on Thracian history and culture. Bulgaria's Thracian Heritage. including images of the comprehensive art collection of Thracian gold found on the territory of contemporary Bulgaria. Information on Ancient Thrace The People of the God-Sun Ar and Areia (modern Thrace) [4]

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 246534538 GND: 4078277-3 NDL: 00577011

Coordinates: 42°N 26°E / 42°N

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