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THRACE (/ˈθreɪs/ ; Modern Greek : Θράκη, _Thráke_; Bulgarian : Тракия, _Trakiya_; Turkish : _Trakya_) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe
Europe
, now split between Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, Greece
Greece
and Turkey
Turkey
, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the east. It comprises southeastern Bulgaria
Bulgaria
( Northern Thrace ), northeastern Greece
Greece
( Western Thrace ) and the European part of Turkey
Turkey
(Eastern Thrace
Thrace
).

In antiquity, it was also referred to as "Europe", prior to the extension of the term to describe the whole continent. The name _Thrace_ comes from the Thracians , an ancient Indo-European people inhabiting Southeastern Europe.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 1.1 Mythology

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Borders * 2.2 Cities of Thrace
Thrace

* 3 Demographics and religion

* 3.1 Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
mythology

* 4 History

* 4.1 Ancient and Roman history * 4.2 Medieval history * 4.3 Ottoman period * 4.4 Modern history

* 5 Notable Thracians * 6 Thracian gods * 7 Legacy * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The word itself was established by the Greeks for referring to the Thracian tribes, from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Thrake (Θρᾴκη), descending from _Thrāix_ (Θρᾷξ). The name of the continent Europe
Europe
first referred to Thrace
Thrace
proper, prior to extending its meaning to the whole continent. The region obviously took the name of the principal river there, Hebros , probably from the Indo-European _arg_ "white river" (the opposite of Vardar
Vardar
, meaning "black river"), according to an alternative theory, Hebros means "goat" in Thracian .

In Turkey, it is commonly referred to as _ Rumeli
Rumeli
_, _Land of the Romans_, owing to this region being the last part of the Eastern Roman Empire that was conquered by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
.

MYTHOLOGY

The name appears to derive from an ancient heroine and sorceress Thrace
Thrace
, who was the daughter of Oceanus
Oceanus
and Parthenope, and sister of Europa .

GEOGRAPHY

BORDERS

The historical boundaries of Thrace
Thrace
have varied. The ancient Greeks employed the term "Thrace" to refer to all of the territory which lay north of Thessaly inhabited by the Thracians , a region which "had no definite boundaries" and to which other regions (like Macedonia and even Scythia
Scythia
) were added. In one ancient Greek source, the very Earth is divided into "Asia, Libya, Europa and Thracia". As the Greeks gained knowledge of world geography, "Thrace" came to designate the area bordered by the Danube
Danube
on the north, by the Euxine Sea (Black Sea) on the east, by northern Macedonia in the south and by Illyria
Illyria
to the west. This largely coincided with the Thracian Odrysian kingdom
Odrysian kingdom
, whose borders varied over time. After the Macedonian conquest, this region's former border with Macedonia was shifted from the Struma River to the Mesta River . This usage lasted until the Roman conquest. Henceforth, (classical) Thrace
Thrace
referred only to the tract of land largely covering the same extent of space as the modern geographical region. In its early period, the Roman province of Thrace was of this extent, but after the administrative reforms of the late 3rd century, Thracia's much reduced territory became the six small provinces which constituted the Diocese of Thrace . The medieval Byzantine theme of Thrace
Thrace
contained only what today is Eastern Thrace .

CITIES OF THRACE

Main article: List of cities of Thrace

The largest cities of Thrace
Thrace
are: Plovdiv
Plovdiv
, Burgas
Burgas
, Stara Zagora
Stara Zagora
, Haskovo , Yambol
Yambol
, Komotini
Komotini
, Alexandroupoli
Alexandroupoli
, Xanthi
Xanthi
, Edirne , Çorlu and Tekirdağ .

DEMOGRAPHICS AND RELIGION

Main articles: Demographics of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, Demographics of Greece
Greece
, and Demographics of Turkey
Turkey
See also: Thracian Bulgarians , Thracian Greeks , Thracian Turks , and Turks of Western Thrace

Most of the Bulgarian and Greek population are Christians, while most of the Turkish inhabitants of Thrace
Thrace
are Muslims.

ANCIENT GREEK MYTHOLOGY

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
mythology provides the Thracians with a mythical ancestor Thrax , the son of the war-god Ares
Ares
, who was said to reside in Thrace. The Thracians appear in Homer
Homer
's _ Iliad
Iliad
_ as Trojan allies, led by Acamas and Peiros . Later in the _Iliad_, Rhesus , another Thracian king, makes an appearance. Cisseus , father-in-law to the Trojan elder Antenor , is also given as a Thracian king.

Homeric Thrace
Thrace
was vaguely defined, and stretched from the River Axios in the west to the Hellespont and Black Sea
Black Sea
in the east. The Catalogue of Ships
Catalogue of Ships
mentions three separate contingents from Thrace: Thracians led by Acamas and Peiros, from Aenus ; Cicones led by Euphemus , from southern Thrace, near Ismaros ; and from the city of Sestus , on the Thracian (northern) side of the Hellespont, which formed part of the contingent led by Asius . Ancient Thrace
Thrace
was home to numerous other tribes, such as the Edones , Bisaltae , Cicones , and Bistones in addition to the tribe that Homer
Homer
specifically calls the “Thracians”.

Greek mythology is replete with Thracian kings, including Diomedes , Tereus , Lycurgus , Phineus , Tegyrius , Eumolpus , Polymnestor , Poltys , and Oeagrus (father of Orpheus ).

Thrace
Thrace
is mentioned in Ovid
Ovid
's _ Metamorphoses _, in the episode of Philomela , Procne , and Tereus : Tereus, the King of Thrace, lusts after his sister-in-law, Philomela. He kidnaps her, holds her captive, rapes her, and cuts out her tongue. Philomela manages to get free, however. She and her sister, Procne, plot to get revenge, by killing her son Itys (by Tereus) and serving him to his father for dinner. At the end of the myth, all three turn into birds – Procne into a swallow , Philomela into a nightingale , and Tereus into a hoopoe .

HISTORY

See also: History of Western Thrace and History of East Thrace

ANCIENT AND ROMAN HISTORY

Main article: Thracians Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak

The indigenous population of Thrace
Thrace
was a people called the Thracians , divided into numerous tribal groups. The region was controlled by the Persian Empire at its greatest extent, and Thracian soldiers were known to be used in the Persian armies. Later on, Thracian troops were known to accompany neighboring ruler Alexander the Great when he crossed the Hellespont which abuts Thrace, during the invasion of the Persian Empire itself.

The Thracians did not describe themselves by name; terms such as _Thrace_ and _Thracians_ are simply the names given them by the Greeks.

Divided into separate tribes, the Thracians did not form any lasting political organizations until the founding of the Odrysian
Odrysian
state in the 4th century BC. Like Illyrians , the locally ruled Thracian tribes of the mountainous regions maintained a warrior tradition, while the tribes based in the plains were purportedly more peaceable. Recently discovered funeral mounds in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
suggest that Thracian kings did rule regions of Thrace
Thrace
with distinct Thracian national identity.

During this period, a subculture of celibate ascetics called the Ctistae lived in Thrace, where they served as philosophers, priests and prophets.

Sections of Thrace
Thrace
particularly in the south started to become hellenized before the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
as a significant amount of Athenian and Ionian colonies were set up in Thrace
Thrace
before the war and Spartan and other Doric colonists followed suit after the war. The special interest of Athens to Thrace
Thrace
is underlined by the numerous finds of Athenian silverware in Thracian tombs. In 168 BC, after the Third Macedonian war and the subjugation of Macedonia to the Romans, Thrace
Thrace
also lost its independence and became tributary to Rome. Towards the end of the 1st century BC Thrace
Thrace
lost its status as a client kingdom as the Romans began to directly appoint their kings. This situation lasted until 46 AD, when the Romans finally turned Thrace
Thrace
into a Roman province (Romana provincia Thracia)

During the Roman domination, within the geographical borders of ancient Thrace, there were two separate Roman provinces, namely Thrace ("provincia Thracia") and Lower Moesia (" Moesia inferior"). Later, in the times of Diocletian, the two provinces were joined and formed the so-called "Dioecesis Thracia". The establishment of Roman colonies and mostly several Greek cities, as was Nicopolis, Topeiros, Traianoupolis, Plotinoupolis and Hadrianoupolis resulted from the Roman Empire's urbanization. It is noteworthy that the Roman provincial policy in Thrace
Thrace
favored mainly not the Romanization but the Hellenization of the country, which had started as early as the Archaic period through the Greek colonisation and was completed by the end of Roman Antiquity. As regards the competition between the Greek and Latin language, the very high rate of Greek inscriptions in Thrace extending south of Haemus mountains proves the complete language Hellenization of this region. The boundaries between the Greek and Latin speaking Thrace
Thrace
are placed just above the northern foothills of Haemus mountains.

During the imperial period many Thracians – particularly members of the local aristocracy of the cities – had been granted the right of the Roman citizenship (civitas Romana) with all his privileges. Epigraphic evidence show a large increase in such naturalizations in the times of Trajan and Hadrian, while in 212 AD the emperor Caracalla granted, with his well-known decree (constitutio Antoniniana), the Roman citizenship to all the free habitants of the Roman Empire. During the same period (in the 1st-2nd century AD), a remarkable presence of Thracians is testified by the inscriptions outside the borders (extra fines) both in the Greek territory and in all the Roman provinces, especially in the provinces of Eastern Roman Empire.

MEDIEVAL HISTORY

Main articles: Macedonia (theme) and Thrace (theme)

By the mid 5th century, as the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
began to crumble, Thracia fell from the authority of Rome and into the hands of Germanic tribal rulers. With the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Thracia turned into a battleground territory for the better part of the next 1,000 years. The surviving eastern portion of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the Balkans, later known as the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, retained control over Thrace
Thrace
until the 8th century when the northern half of the entire region was incorporated into the First Bulgarian Empire and the remainder was reorganized in the Thracian theme . The Empire regained the lost regions in the late 10th century until the Bulgarians regained control of the northern half at the end of the 12th century. Throughout the 13th century and the first half of the 14th century, the region was changing in the hands of the Bulgarian and the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
(excluding Constantinople). In 1265 the area suffered a Mongol raid from the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
, led by Nogai Khan
Nogai Khan
, and between 1305 and 1307 was raided by the Catalan company .

OTTOMAN PERIOD

Flag of rebels of Thrace
Thrace
during the Greek War of Independence

In 1352, the Ottoman Turks conducted their first incursion into the region subduing it completely within a matter of two decades and occupying it for five centuries. In 1821, several parts of Thrace, such as Lavara , Maroneia , Sozopolis , Aenos , Callipolis and Samothraki
Samothraki
rebelled during the Greek War of Independence .

MODERN HISTORY

Proposal to cede Eastern Thrace to Greece
Greece
during World War I
World War I
. This photocopy came from a larger color map.

With the Congress of Berlin in 1878, Northern Thrace was incorporated into the semi-autonomous Ottoman province of Eastern Rumelia , which united with Bulgaria
Bulgaria
in 1885. The rest of Thrace
Thrace
was divided among Bulgaria, Greece
Greece
and Turkey
Turkey
at the beginning of the 20th century, following the Balkan Wars
Balkan Wars
, World War I
World War I
and the Greco-Turkish War . In Summer 1934, up to 10.000 Jews were maltreated, bereaved and then forced to quit the region (→ 1934 Thrace pogroms ).

Today, _Thracian_ is a geographical term used in Greece, Turkey
Turkey
and Bulgaria.

NOTABLE THRACIANS

* Orpheus was, in Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
mythology , the chief representative of the art of song and playing the lyre . * Protagoras was a Greek philosopher from Abdera, Thrace (c. 490–420 BC.) An expert in rhetorics and subjects connected to virtue and political life, often regarded as the first sophist . He is known primarily for three claims: (1) that man is the measure of all things, often interpreted as a sort of moral relativism , (2) that he could make the "worse (or weaker) argument appear the better (or stronger)" (see Sophism ), and (3) that one could not tell if the gods existed or not (see Agnosticism
Agnosticism
). * Herodicus was a Greek physician of the fifth century BC who is considered the founder of sports medicine . He is believed to have been one of Hippocrates
Hippocrates
' tutors. * Democritus was a Greek philosopher and mathematician from Abdera, Thrace
Thrace
(c. 460–370 BC.) His main contribution is the atomic theory , the belief that all matter is made up of various imperishable indivisible elements which he called atoms . * Spartacus
Spartacus
was a Thracian who led a large slave uprising in what is now Italy in 73–71 BC. His army of escaped gladiators and slaves defeated several Roman legions in what is known as the Third Servile War . * A number of Roman emperors of the 3rd–5th century were of Thraco-Roman backgrounds ( Maximinus Thrax , Licinius
Licinius
, Galerius
Galerius
, Aureolus , Leo the Thracian , etc.). These emperors were elevated via a military career, from the condition of common soldiers in one of the Roman legions to the foremost positions of political power .

THRACIAN GODS

Two main gods of the Bessi
Bessi
Thracians were Dionysus (worshiped as Zagreus ) and Bendis . Zagreus was worshipped by followers of Orphism (the name given to a set of religious beliefs and practices associated with literature ascribed to the mythical poet Orpheus ), whose late Orphic hymns invoke his name. Actually Zagreus was a Thracian god prototype later known as Dionysus – the god of joy, wine and ecstasy in the Greek and Bacchus in the Roman mythology.

Holidays (mysteries) dedicated to Dionysus in Greece
Greece
were called Dionysii; in Rome they were known as Bacchanalia and in Thrace
Thrace
as Rozalii. Orphic mysteries held in honor of Dionysus- Zagreus were performed only by devoted unmarried men. They were called a-bii, which means "not alive" because they did not lead an ordinary life. The mysteries were held in secret places far from the eyes of the ordinary people and were accompanied by choral songs and mimic games. The culmination of the mysteries was the symbolic death of the king-priest, identified with Zagreus who according to myth was torn apart by the Titans. Following the "death", the mother goddess was also symbolically born. The first part was carried out through a sacrifice of a bull, horse, goat or even people and the latter through a sexual orgy. Later on, Orphic mysteries became a part of the Bacchanalia.

Wine and fire were essential to the cult of Dionysus. The act of wine producing itself was recognized as a tale of the life and sorrow of the god. Picking and smashing the vines represent the way that the Titans tore Dionysus apart. That is why vinification was a mystery that was accompanied by sad songs.

Bendis was a goddess worshiped in Southwestern Thrace. She was typically presented as a hunter, wrapped with leather with boots and a fox fur hat. She holds a spear, a bow or a net and she is often accompanied by a hunting dog. In Greek mythology boots are a symbol of speed. Bendis is different from her Greek analogies in that she wears a fox hat.

Vine and _Haberlea rhodopensis_ (Orpheus' flower) were objects of cult for the Bessi. Wine and flame were believed to cause euphoria. Svetonii Tranquil and Herodotus described rituals in which worshippers would divine by pouring wine on the altar and observing the height of the blaze. Other tribes would also burn a sacrificial animal on the altar. They believed that if the flames were vigorous, the year would be fruitful.