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THOTH or DJEHUTI (/ˈθoʊθ/ or /ˈtoʊt/ ; from Greek Θώθ thṓth, from Egyptian ḏḥwty, perhaps pronounced */tʃʼiħautiː/ or */ɟiħautiː/, depending on the phonological interpretation of Egyptian's emphatic consonants ) was one of the deities of the Egyptian pantheon
Egyptian pantheon
. In art, he was often depicted as a man with the head of an ibis or a baboon , animals sacred to him. His feminine counterpart was Seshat
Seshat
, and his wife was Ma\'at .

Thoth's chief temple was located in the city of Khmun , later called Hermopolis Magna during the Greco-Roman era (in reference to him through the Greeks\' interpretation that he was the same as their god Hermes
Hermes
) and Shmounein in the Coptic rendering, and was partially destroyed in 1826 CE. In that city, he led the Ogdoad pantheon of eight principal deities. He also had numerous shrines within the cities of Abydos , Hesert, Urit, Per -Ab, Rekhui, Ta-ur, Sep, Hat, Pselket, Talmsis, Antcha-Mutet, Bah, Amen-heri-ab, and Ta-kens.

Thoth
Thoth
played many vital and prominent roles in Egyptian mythology
Egyptian mythology
, such as maintaining the universe, and being one of the two deities (the other being Ma\'at ) who stood on either side of Ra\'s boat . In the later history of ancient Egypt, Thoth
Thoth
became heavily associated with the arbitration of godly disputes, the arts of magic, the system of writing, the development of science, and the judgment of the dead.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name

* 1.1 Etymology * 1.2 Further names and spellings

* 2 Depictions * 3 Attributes * 4 Mythology * 5 History * 6 Modern cultural references * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 Bibliography * 11 External links

NAME

ETYMOLOGY

, or

Common names for Thoth
Thoth
in hieroglyphs

The Egyptian pronunciation of ḏḥwty is not fully known, but may be reconstructed as *ḏiḥautī, based on the Ancient Greek borrowing Thōth (Θώθ ) or Theut and the fact that it transliterated into Sahidic Coptic variously as Thoout, Thōth, Thoot, Thaut, as well as Bohairic Coptic Thōout. The final -y may even have been pronounced as a consonant , not a vowel. However, many write "Djehuty", inserting the letter 'e' automatically between consonants in Egyptian words, and writing 'w' as 'u', as a convention of convenience for English speakers, not the transliteration employed by Egyptologists.

According to Theodor Hopfner, Thoth's Egyptian name written as ḏḥwty originated from ḏḥw, claimed to be the oldest known name for the ibis although normally written as hbj. The addition of -ty denotes that he possessed the attributes of the ibis. Hence his name means "He who is like the ibis". Thoout, Thoth
Thoth
Deux fois Grand, le Second Hermés, N372.2A, Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn Museum

FURTHER NAMES AND SPELLINGS

Djehuty is sometimes alternatively rendered as JEHUTI, JEHUTY, TAHUTI, TEHUTI, ZEHUTI, TECHU, or TETU. Greek versions THOT, THOUT and Thoth
Thoth
are derived from the letters ḏḥwty.

Not counting differences in spelling, Thoth
Thoth
had many names and titles, like other goddesses and gods. (Similarly, each Pharaoh
Pharaoh
, considered a god himself, had five different names used in public. )

Among the names used are A, Sheps, Lord of Khemennu, Asten, Khenti, Mehi, Hab, and A'an.

In addition, Thoth
Thoth
was also known by specific aspects of himself, for instance the moon god Iah
Iah
-Djehuty, representing the Moon
Moon
for the entire month,. The Greeks related Thoth
Thoth
to their god Hermes
Hermes
due to his similar attributes and functions. One of Thoth's titles, "Thrice great" (see Titles ) was translated to the Greek τρισμέγιστος (trismégistos), making Hermes
Hermes
Trismegistus .

DEPICTIONS

Stela showing a male adorer standing before 2 Ibises of Thoth. Limestone, sunken relief. Early 19th Dynasty. From Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London Depiction of Thoth
Thoth
as a baboon (c. 1400 BC), in the British Museum
British Museum

Thoth
Thoth
has been depicted in many ways depending on the era and on the aspect the artist wished to convey. Usually, he is depicted in his human form with the head of an ibis . In this form, he can be represented as the reckoner of times and seasons by a headdress of the lunar disk sitting on top of a crescent moon resting on his head. When depicted as a form of Shu or Ankher, he was depicted to be wearing the respective god's headdress. Sometimes he was also seen in art to be wearing the Atef crown or the United Crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt . When not depicted in this common form, he sometimes takes the form of the ibis directly.

He also appears as a dog-faced baboon or a man with the head of a baboon when he is A'an, the god of equilibrium. In the form of A'ah-Djehuty he took a more human-looking form. These forms are all symbolic and are metaphors for Thoth's attributes. The Egyptians did not believe these gods actually looked like humans with animal heads. For example, Ma'at
Ma'at
is often depicted with an ostrich feather, "the feather of truth," on her head, or with a feather for a head.

ATTRIBUTES

Lee Lawrie , Thoth
Thoth
(1939). Library of Congress John Adams Building , Washington, D.C.

Thoth's roles in Egyptian mythology
Egyptian mythology
were many. He served as a mediating power, especially between good and evil , making sure neither had a decisive victory over the other. He also served as scribe of the gods, credited with the invention of writing and alphabets (i.e. hieroglyphs ) themselves. In the underworld , Duat , he appeared as an ape, A\'an , the god of equilibrium, who reported when the scales weighing the deceased's heart against the feather, representing the principle of Ma'at, was exactly even.

The ancient Egyptians regarded Thoth
Thoth
as One, self-begotten, and self-produced. He was the master of both physical and moral (i.e. divine ) law, making proper use of Ma'at. He is credited with making the calculations for the establishment of the heavens, stars, Earth, and everything in them. Compare this to how his feminine counterpart, Ma'at
Ma'at
was the force which maintained the Universe. He is said to direct the motions of the heavenly bodies. Without his words, the Egyptians believed, the gods would not exist. His power was unlimited in the Underworld
Underworld
and rivalled that of Ra and Osiris.

The Egyptians credited him as the author of all works of science, religion, philosophy, and magic. The Greeks further declared him the inventor of astronomy , astrology , the science of numbers , mathematics , geometry , land surveying , medicine , botany , theology , civilized government, the alphabet, reading, writing, and oratory . They further claimed he was the true author of every work of every branch of knowledge, human and divine.

MYTHOLOGY

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This detail scene, from the Papyrus
Papyrus
of Hunefer (c. 1275 BCE), shows the scribe Hunefer's heart being weighed on the scale of Maat against the feather of truth, by the jackal-headed Anubis
Anubis
. The ibis-headed Thoth, scribe of the gods, records the result. If his heart equals exactly the weight of the feather, Hunefer is allowed to pass into the afterlife. If not, he is eaten by the waiting chimeric devouring creature Ammit
Ammit
composed of the deadly crocodile, lion, and hippopotamus. Vignettes such as these were a common illustration in Egyptian books of the dead.

Thoth
Thoth
has played a prominent role in many of the Egyptian myths. Displaying his role as arbitrator, he had overseen the three epic battles between good and evil. All three battles are fundamentally the same and belong to different periods. The first battle took place between Ra and Apep , the second between Heru-Bekhutet and Set , and the third between Horus
Horus
and Set . In each instance, the former god represented order while the latter represented chaos. If one god was seriously injured, Thoth
Thoth
would heal them to prevent either from overtaking the other.

Thoth
Thoth
was also prominent in the Asarian myth, being of great aid to Isis
Isis
. After Isis/Aset gathered together the pieces of Asar's dismembered body, he gave her the words to resurrect him so she could be impregnated and bring forth Horus. After a battle between Horus
Horus
and Set in which the latter plucked out Horus' eye, Thoth's counsel provided him the wisdom he needed to recover it. Thoth
Thoth
was the god who always speaks the words that fulfill the wishes of Ra.

This mythology also credits him with the creation of the 365-day calendar. Originally, according to the myth, the year was only 360 days long and Nut was sterile during these days, unable to bear children. Thoth
Thoth
gambled with the Moon
Moon
for 1/72nd of its light (360/72 = 5), or 5 days, and won. During these 5 days, Nut and Geb gave birth to Ausar (Osiris), Set, Auset (Isis), and Nebt-Het (Nephthys).

HISTORY

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Thoth, sitting on his throne

Thoth
Thoth
was originally a moon god. The moon not only provides light at night, allowing time to still be measured without the sun, but its phases and prominence gave it a significant importance in early astrology/astronomy. The cycles of the moon also organized much of Egyptian society's rituals and events, both civil and religious. Consequently, Thoth
Thoth
gradually became seen as a god of wisdom , magic , and the measurement and regulation of events and of time. He was thus said to be the secretary and counselor of the sun god Ra, and with Ma'at
Ma'at
(truth/order) stood next to Ra on the nightly voyage across the sky.

Thoth
Thoth
became credited by the ancient Egyptians as the inventor of writing, and was also considered to have been the scribe of the underworld; and the Moon
Moon
became occasionally considered a separate entity, now that Thoth
Thoth
had less association with it and more with wisdom. For this reason Thoth
Thoth
was universally worshipped by ancient Egyptian scribes. Many scribes had a painting or a picture of Thoth
Thoth
in their "office". Likewise, one of the symbols for scribes was that of the ibis.

In art, Thoth
Thoth
was usually depicted with the head of an ibis, possibly because the Egyptians saw curve of the ibis' beak as a symbol of the crescent moon. Sometimes, he was depicted as a baboon holding up a crescent moon, as the baboon was seen as a nocturnal and intelligent creature. The association with baboons led to him occasionally being said to have as a consort Astennu , one of the (male) baboons at the place of judgment in the underworld. On other occasions, Astennu was said to be Thoth
Thoth
himself.

During the late period of Egyptian history , a cult of Thoth
Thoth
gained prominence due to its main centre, Khmun ( Hermopolis Magna ), also becoming the capital. Millions of dead ibis were mummified and buried in his honour. The rise of his cult also led to his cult seeking to adjust mythology to give Thoth
Thoth
a greater role.

Thoth
Thoth
was inserted in many tales as the wise counselor and persuader, and his association with learning and measurement led him to be connected with Seshat
Seshat
, the earlier deification of wisdom, who was said to be his daughter, or variably his wife. Thoth's qualities also led to him being identified by the Greeks with their closest matching god Hermes, with whom Thoth
Thoth
was eventually combined as Hermes Trismegistus, also leading to the Greeks' naming Thoth's cult centre as Hermopolis, meaning city of Hermes.

It is also considered that Thoth
Thoth
was the scribe of the gods rather than a messenger. Anpu (or Hermanubis ) was viewed as the messenger of the gods, as he travelled in and out of the Underworld
Underworld
and presented himself to the gods and to humans. It is more widely accepted that Thoth
Thoth
was a record keeper, not a divine messenger. In the Papyrus
Papyrus
of Ani copy of the Egyptian Book of the Dead the scribe proclaims "I am thy writing palette , O Thoth, and I have brought unto thee thine ink-jar. I am not of those who work iniquity in their secret places; let not evil happen unto me." Chapter XXXb (Budge) of the Book
Book
of the Dead is by the oldest tradition said to be the work of Thoth
Thoth
himself.

There was also an Egyptian pharaoh of the Sixteenth dynasty named Djehuty (Thoth) after him, and who reigned for three years.

MODERN CULTURAL REFERENCES

See also: Ancient Egyptian deities in popular culture § Thoth
Thoth

Thoth
Thoth
has been seen as a god of wisdom and has been used in modern literature, especially since the early 20th century when ancient Egyptian ideas were quite popular.

* Aleister Crowley
Aleister Crowley
named his Egyptian style Tarot deck "The Book
Book
of Thoth
Thoth
", in reference to the theory that Tarot cards were the Egyptian book of Thoth. * H. P. Lovecraft
H. P. Lovecraft
also used the word "Thoth" as the basis for his god, " Yog-Sothoth
Yog-Sothoth
", a god of knowledge. * In Mika Waltari 's The Egyptian , the illegitimate son of Sinuhe is named after Thoth, much to the surprise of his father. * Thoth
Thoth
is mentioned as one of the pantheon in the 1831 issue of The Wicked + The Divine . * Thoth
Thoth
appears as Mr. Ibis
Ibis
in Neil Gaiman
Neil Gaiman
's American Gods
American Gods
. * The principle mecha in Zone of the Enders is named Jehuty. * Thoth
Thoth
is a playable character in the battle arena game Smite . * In the 2016 film Gods of Egypt , Thoth
Thoth
is played by Chadwick Boseman . * Thoth
Thoth
is the name of a psychically generated entity in the anime JoJo\'s Bizarre Adventure .

SEE ALSO

* Eye of Horus
Horus
* The Book of Thoth * Thout , the first month of the Coptic calendar

NOTES

* ^ Not to be confused with the deity Khnum .

REFERENCES

* ^ Wilkison, Richard H. (2003). The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt, p. 166 * ^ Bleeker, C. J. (1973). Hathor
Hathor
and Thoth: Two Key Figures of the Ancient Egyptian Religion, pp. 121–123 * ^ Thutmose III: A New Biography By Eric H Cline, David O'Connor University of Michigan Press (January 5, 2006)p. 127 * ^ National Geographic Society: Egypt's Nile Valley Supplement Map. (Produced by the Cartographic Division) * ^ National Geographic Society: Egypt's Nile Valley Supplement Map: Western Desert portion. (Produced by the Cartographic Division) * ^ Miroslav Verner, Temple of the World: Sanctuaries, Cults, and Mysteries of Ancient Egypt (2013) 149 * ^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Thoth
Thoth
was said to be born from the skull of set also said to be born from the heart of Ra.p. 401) * ^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 400) * ^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 405) * ^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 414) * ^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians p. 403) * ^ Hieroglyphs
Hieroglyphs
verified, in part, in (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 402) and (Collier and Manley p. 161) * ^ Information taken from phonetic symbols for Djehuty, and explanations on how to pronounce based upon modern rules, revealed in (Collier and Manley pp. 2–4, 161) * ^ (Collier and Manley p. 4) * ^ Hopfner, Theodor, b. 1886. Der tierkult der alten Agypter nach den griechisch-romischen berichten und den wichtigeren denkmalern. Wien, In kommission bei A. Holder, 1913. Call#= 060 VPD v.57 * ^ A B (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 402) * ^ (Collier and Manley p. 20) * ^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 pp. 402–3) * ^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 pp. 412–3) * ^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians p. 402) * ^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 415) * ^ A B C D E (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 401) * ^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 403) * ^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 plate between pp. 408–9) * ^ Allen, James P. (2000). Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs
Hieroglyphs
, p. 44. * ^ Allen, op. cit., p. 115 * ^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 416) * ^ (Budge Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 405) * ^ A B (Budge Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 408) * ^ A B (Budge Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 414) * ^ (Budge Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 403) * ^ A B (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 407) * ^ (Budge Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 401) * ^ (Budge Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 pp. 407–8) * ^ (Hall The Hermetic Marriage p. 224) * ^ Assmann, Jan, The Search for God in Ancient Egypt, 2001, pp. 80–81 * ^ Wilkinson, Richard H., The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt, 2003, p. 217 * ^ The Book of the Dead
Book of the Dead
by E. A. Wallis Budge
E. A. Wallis Budge
, 1895, Gramercy, 1999, p. 562, ISBN 0-517-12283-9 * ^ The Book of the Dead
Book of the Dead
by E. A. Wallis Budge
E. A. Wallis Budge
, 1895, Gramercy, 1999, p. 282, ISBN 0-517-12283-9 * ^ Steadman, John L. (2015-09-01). H. P. Lovecraft
H. P. Lovecraft
and the Black Magickal Tradition: The Master of Horror\'s Influence on Modern Occultism. Weiser Books. ISBN 9781633410008 . * ^ Lee, Benjamin (November 13, 2015). "Gods of Egypt posters spark anger with \'whitewashed\' cast". The Guardian
The Guardian
. London. Retrieved 1 January 2017.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Bleeker, Claas Jouco. 1973. Hathor
Hathor
and Thoth: Two Key Figures of the Ancient Egyptian Religion. Studies in the History of Religions 26. Leiden: E. J. Brill. * Boylan, Patrick. 1922. Thoth, the Hermes
Hermes
of Egypt: A Study of Some Aspects of Theological Thought in Ancient Egypt. London: Oxford University Press . (Reprinted Chicago: Ares Publishers inc., 1979). * Budge, E. A. Wallis. Egyptian Religion. Kessinger Publishing, 1900. * Budge, E. A. Wallis. The Gods of the Egyptians Volume 1 of 2. New York: Dover Publications, 1969 (original in 1904). * Jaroslav Černý . 1948. " Thoth
Thoth
as Creator of Languages." Journal of Egyptian Archæology 34:121–122. * Collier, Mark and Manley, Bill. How to Read Egyptian Hieroglyphs
Hieroglyphs
: Revised Edition. Berkeley: University of California Press
University of California Press
, 1998. * Fowden, Garth. 1986. The Egyptian Hermes: A Historical Approach to the Late Mind. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
. (Reprinted Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993). ISBN 0-691-02498-7 . * The Book
Book
of Thoth, by Aleister Crowley. (200 signed copies, 1944) Reprinted by Samuel Wiser, Inc 1969, first paperback edition, 1974 (accompanied by The Thoth
Thoth
Tarot Deck, by Aleister Crowley
Aleister Crowley
Wendrich, Willeke. UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology. Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures, UC Los Angeles.

* v * t * e

Ancient Egyptian religion
Ancient Egyptian religion

MYTHOLOGY

* Paganism
Paganism
* Pantheism
Pantheism
* Polytheism
Polytheism
* Emanationism * Soul * Neter-khertet * Aaru
Aaru
* Duat * Isfet * Numerology
Numerology

DEITIES

* Aker * Akhty * Ammit
Ammit
* Amun
Amun
* Amunet * Am-heh
Am-heh
* Anat
Anat
* Andjety
Andjety
* Anhur
Anhur
* Anput
Anput
* Anti * Anubis
Anubis
* Anuket
Anuket
* Apedemak
Apedemak
* Apep * Apis * Apt * Aqen * Arensnuphis * Ash * Astarte
Astarte
* Aten
Aten
* Atum
Atum
* Babi * Banebdjedet
Banebdjedet
* Bastet
Bastet
* Bat * Bata * Ba-Pef * Bes
Bes
* Buchis * Dedun

* Four sons of Horus
Horus

* Duamutef
Duamutef
* Hapi * Imset * Qebehsenuef
Qebehsenuef

* Geb * Ha * Hapi * Hathor
Hathor
* Hatmehit
Hatmehit
* Hedetet * Heh * Heka * Hemen * Hemsut * Heqet * Hermanubis * Hesat * Horus
Horus
* Heryshaf * Hu * Iabet * Iah
Iah
* Iat * Ihy * Imentet * Imhotep
Imhotep
* Isis
Isis
* Iunit * Iusaaset * Kebechet * Kek * Khensit * Khenti-Amentiu * Khenti-kheti * Khepri * Kherty * Khnum * Khonsu * Kothar-wa-Khasis * Maahes * Ma\'at * Mandulis * Medjed * Mafdet * Mehen
Mehen
* Mehet-Weret * Mehit * Menhit * Meret * Meretseger * Meskhenet * Min * Mnevis * Montu
Montu
* Mut
Mut
* Nebethetepet
Nebethetepet
* Nebtuwi * Nefertem
Nefertem
* Nehebkau * Nehmetawy
Nehmetawy
* Neith
Neith
* Nekhbet * Neper * Nephthys
Nephthys
* Nu * Nut * Osiris
Osiris
* Pakhet * Petbe * Ptah
Ptah
* Qebui * Qetesh * Ra * Raet-Tawy * Rem * Renenutet
Renenutet
* Renpet * Repyt
Repyt
* Resheph
Resheph
* Sah * Satis * Sekhmet
Sekhmet
* Seker
Seker
* Serapis * Serket
Serket
* Seshat
Seshat
* Set * Shai * Shed * Shesmetet * Shezmu * Shu * Sia * Sobek
Sobek
* Sopdet
Sopdet
* Sopdu * Souls of Pe and Nekhen * Tatenen
Tatenen
* Taweret
Taweret
* Ta-Bitjet * Tefnut * Tenenet

* Thoth
Thoth

* Hermes
Hermes
Trismegistus

* Tjenenyet * Tutu * Unut * Wadjet * Wadj-wer * Weneg * Wepset * Wepwawet * Werethekau * Wosret

CREATURES

* Aani * Abtu * Bennu * Griffin
Griffin
* Hieracosphinx * Medjed * El Naddaha * Serpopard
Serpopard
* Sha * Sphinx
Sphinx
* Uraeus

SYMBOLS

* Ankh
Ankh
* Atef * Atet * Benben
Benben
* Book of Thoth * Cartouche
Cartouche
* Crook and flail
Crook and flail
* Deshret
Deshret
* Djed
Djed
* Egyptian obelisk * Egyptian pool * Ennead
Ennead
* Eye of Horus
Horus
* Eye of Ra * Flooding of the Nile
Flooding of the Nile
* Hedjet
Hedjet
* Heku * Hemhem crown * Hennu * Imiut fetish * Khepresh * Kneph * Maat
Maat
Kheru * Matet boat * Mortuary temple
Mortuary temple
* Nebu * Nemes * Neshmet * Ogdoad * Ouroboros
Ouroboros
* Pschent
Pschent
* Pyramid power * Scarab * Seqtet boat * Serekh
Serekh
* Shen ring * The Indestructibles * Tyet * Ushabti * Was-sceptre
Was-sceptre
* Winged sun

WRITINGS

* Amduat * Books of Breathing
Books of Breathing
* Book of Caverns * Book of the Dead
Book of the Dead
* Book of the Earth * Book of Gates * Coffin Texts * Enigmatic Book of the Netherworld * Litany of the Eye of Horus
Horus
* Litany of Re * Pyramid Texts

BELIEFS

* Atenism
Atenism
* Curse of the Pharaohs * Funerals * Offering formula * Philosophy * Temples

* Book
Book
* Ancient Egypt portal

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 5726575 * GND :

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