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A system of plant taxonomy, the Thorne system of plant classification was devised by the American botanist Robert F. Thorne
Robert F. Thorne
(1920–2015) in 1968,[1] and he continued to issue revisions over many years (1968–2007).[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] Some versions of the system are available online. The Bioinformatics Working Group Center for the Study of Digital Libraries at Texas A&M University lists the March 1999 version[9] (and other classification systems).[10] James Reveal's course lecture notes (1999) also gives an account of the Thorne system at that time, with an extensive listing of synonyms, both nomenclatural and taxonomic, for each name in the system[11] together with several other classification systems.[12] For a discussion of the various suffixes used for superorders (-florae vs. -anae), see Brummitt 1992,[13] and Thorne 1992.[5] In this latter paper, Thorne sets out his reasons for abandoning -florae for -anae, following contemporary practice.

Contents

1 1968 system

1.1 Monocotyledons

2 1992 system

2.1 Summary 2.2 Magnoliidae 2.3 Liliidae

3 2007 system 4 References 5 Bibliography

5.1 Works by Thorne

1968 system[edit] Monocotyledons[edit] Superorders

superorder Alimatiflorae superorder Triuridiflorae superorder Liliiflorae

order Liliales

superorder Ariflorae superorder Commeliniflorae

1992 system[edit] The 1992 system lists 69 orders and 440 families Summary[edit]

class Magnoliopsida
Magnoliopsida
[= angiosperms ]

subclass Magnoliidae [= dicotyledons ]

superorder Magnolianae superorder Nymphaeanae superorder Rafflesianae superorder Caryophyllanae superorder Theanae superorder Celastranae superorder Malvanae superorder Violanae superorder Santalanae superorder Geranianae superorder Rutanae superorder Proteanae superorder Rosanae superorder Cornanae superorder Asteranae superorder Solananae superorder Loasanae superorder Myrtanae superorder Gentiananae

subclass Liliidae [= monocotyledons ]

superorder Lilianae superorder Hydatellanae superorder Triuridanae superorder Alismatanae superorder Aranae superorder Cyclanthanae superorder Pandananae superorder Arecanae superorder Commelinanae

Magnoliidae[edit]

subclass Magnoliidae [= dicotyledons ]

superorder Magnolianae

order Magnoliales

family Winteraceae family Illiciaceae family Schisandraceae family Magnoliaceae family Degeneriaceae family Himantandraceae family Eupomatiaceae family Annonaceae family Aristolochiaceae family Myristicaceae family Canellaceae family Austrobaileyaceae family Amborellaceae family Trimeniaceae family Chloranthaceae family Monimiaceae family Gomortegaceae family Calycanthaceae family Lauraceae family Hernandiaceae family Lactoridaceae family Saururaceae family Piperaceae

order Ceratophyllales

family Ceratophyllaceae

order Nelumbonales

family Nelumbonaceae

order Paeoniales

family Paeoniaceae family Glaucidiaceae

order Berberidales

family Menispermaceae family Lardizabalaceae family Sargentodoxaceae family Berberidaceae family Hydrastidaceae family Ranunculaceae family Circaeasteraceae family Papaveraceae

superorder Nymphaeanae

order Nymphaeales

family Cabombaceae family Nymphaeaceae

superorder Rafflesianae

order Rafflesiales

family Hydnoraceae family Rafflesiaceae

superorder Caryophyllanae

order Caryophyllales

family Caryophyllaceae family Portulacaceae family Hectorellaceae family Basellaceae family Didiereaceae family Cactaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Petiveriaceae family Agdestidaceae family Barbeuiaceae family Achatocarpaceae family Stegnospermataceae family Nyctaginaceae family Aizoaceae family Halophytaceae family Molluginaceae family Chenopodiaceae family Amaranthaceae

superorder Theanae

order Theales

family Dilleniaceae family Actinidiaceae family Paracryphiaceae family Stachyuraceae family Theaceae family Asteropeiaceae family Tetrameristaceae family Pellicieraceae family Chrysobalanaceae family Symplocaceae family Caryocaraceae family Marcgraviaceae family Oncothecaceae family Aquifoliaceae family Phellinaceae family Sphenostemonaceae family Sarraceniaceae family Pentaphylacaceae family Clethraceae family Cyrillaceae family Ochnaceae family Quiinaceae family Scytopetalaceae family Medusagynaceae family Strasburgeriaceae family Ancistrocladaceae family Dioncophyllaceae family Nepenthaceae family Bonnetiaceae family Clusiaceae family Elatinaceae family Lecythidaceae

order Ericales

family Ericaceae family Epacridaceae family Empetraceae

order Fouquieriales

family Fouquieriaceae

order Styracales

family Ebenaceae family Lissocarpaceae family Sapotaceae family Styracaceae

order Primulales

family Theophrastaceae family Myrsinaceae family Primulaceae family Plumbaginaceae

order Polygonales

family Polygonaceae

superorder Celastranae

order Celastrales

family Celastraceae family Goupiaceae family Lophopyxidaceae family Stackhousiaceae family Corynocarpaceae

superorder Malvanae

order Malvales

family Sterculiaceae family Huaceae family Elaeocarpaceae family Plagiopteraceae family Tiliaceae family Monotaceae family Dipterocarpaceae family Sarcolaenaceae family Sphaerosepalaceae family Bombacaceae family Malvaceae

order Urticales

family Ulmaceae family Moraceae family Cecropiaceae family Barbeyaceae family Urticaceae family Cannabaceae

order Rhamnales

family Rhamnaceae family Elaeagnaceae

order Euphorbiales

family Euphorbiaceae family Aextoxicaceae family Simmondsiaceae family Dichapetalaceae family Gonystylaceae family Thymelaeaceae

superorder Violanae

order Violales

family Bixaceae family Cochlospermaceae family Cistaceae family Violaceae family Flacourtiaceae family Physenaceae family Lacistemataceae family Salicaceae family Dipentodontaceae family Peridiscaceae family Scyphostegiaceae family Passifloraceae family Turneriaceae family Malesherbiaceae family Achariaceae family Caricaceae family Tamaricaceae family Frankeniaceae family Cucurbitaceae family Begoniaceae family Datiscaceae

order Brassicales

family Resedaceae family Capparaceae family Brassicaceae family Salvadoraceae family Gyrostemonaceae

order Batales

family Bataceae

superorder Santalanae

order Santalales

family Olacaceae family Opiliaceae family Medusandraceae family Santalaceae family Misodendraceae family Loranthaceae family Eremolepidaceae family Viscaceae

order Balanophorales

family Balanophoraceae family Cynomoriaceae

superorder Geranianae

order Linales

family Humiriaceae family Ctenolophonaceae family Hugoniaceae family Ixonanthaceae family Linaceae family Erythroxylaceae family Zygophyllaceae family Balanitaceae

order Rhizophorales

family Rhizophoraceae

order Geraniales

family Oxalidaceae family Geraniaceae family Balsaminaceae family Tropaeolaceae family Limnanthaceae

order Polygalales

family Malpighiaceae family Trigoniaceae family Vochysiaceae family Polygalaceae family Krameriaceae

superorder Rutanae

order Rutales

family Rutaceae family Rhabdodendraceae family Cneoraceae family Simaroubaceae family Picramniaceae family Ptaeroxylaceae family Meliaceae family Burseraceae family Anacardiaceae family Leitneriaceae family Tepuianthaceae family Coriariaceae family Sapindaceae family Sabiaceae family Melianthaceae family Akaniaceae family Bretschneideraceae family Moringaceae family Surianaceae family Connaraceae family Fabaceae

superorder Proteanae

order Proteales

family Proteaceae

superorder Rosanae

order Hamamelidales

family Trochodendraceae family Eupteleaceae family Cercidiphyllaceae family Platanaceae family Hamamelidaceae

order Casuarinales

family Casuarinaceae

order Balanopales

family Buxaceae family Didymelaceae family Daphniphyllaceae family Balanopaceae

order Bruniales

family Roridulaceae family Bruniaceae family Geissolomataceae family Grubbiaceae family Myrothamnaceae family Hydrostachyaceae

order Juglandales

family Rhoipteleaceae family Juglandaceae family Myricaceae

order Betulales

family Ticodendraceae family Betulaceae family Nothofagaceae family Fagaceae

order Rosales

family Rosaceae family Neuradaceae family Crossosomataceae family Anisophylleaceae

order Saxifragales

family Tetracarpaeaceae family Crassulaceae family Cephalotaceae family Penthoraceae family Saxifragaceae family Francoaceae family Grossulariaceae family Vahliaceae family Eremosynaceae family Lepuropetalaceae family Parnassiaceae family Stylidiaceae family Droseraceae family Greyiaceae family Diapensiaceae

order Podostemales

family Podostemaceae

order Cunoniales

family Cunoniaceae family Davidsoniaceae family Staphyleaceae

superorder Cornanae

order Hydrangeales

family Hydrangeaceae family Escalloniaceae family Carpodetaceae family Griseliniaceae family Alseuosmiaceae family Montiniaceae family Brexiaceae family Columelliaceae family Desfontainiaceae

order Cornales

family Vitaceae family Gunneraceae family Haloragaceae family Cornaceae family Curtisiaceae family Alangiaceae family Garryaceae family Aucubaceae family Aralidiaceae family Eucommiaceae family Icacinaceae family Metteniusaceae family Cardiopteridaceae family Peripterygiaceae

order Pittosporales

family Pittosporaceae family Byblidaceae family Tremandraceae

order Araliales

family Helwingiaceae family Torricelliaceae family Araliaceae family Hydrocotylaceae family Apiaceae

order Dipsacales

family Caprifoliaceae family Adoxaceae family Valerianaceae family Triplostegiaceae family Dipsacaceae family Morinaceae

superorder Asteranae

order Asterales

family Calyceraceae family Asteraceae

order Campanulales

family Menyanthaceae family Pentaphragmataceae family Sphenocleaceae family Campanulaceae family Goodeniaceae

superorder Solananae

order Solanales

family Solanaceae family Duckeodendraceae family Goetzeaceae family Nolanaceae family Convolvulaceae family Hydrophyllaceae family Boraginaceae family Hoplestigmataceae family Lennoaceae family Tetrachondraceae family Polemoniaceae

superorder Loasanae

order Loasales

family Loasaceae

superorder Myrtanae

order Myrtales

family Lythraceae family Alzateaceae family Rhynchocalycaceae family Penaeaceae family Oliniaceae family Trapaceae family Crypteroniaceae family Melastomataceae family Combretaceae family Onagraceae family Myrtaceae

superorder Gentiananae

order Gentianales

family Loganiaceae family Rubiaceae family Dialypetalanthaceae family Apocynaceae family Gentianaceae family Saccifoliaceae

order Scrophulariales

family Oleaceae family Buddlejaceae family Stilbaceae family Bignoniaceae family Pedaliaceae family Martyniaceae family Myoporaceae family Scrophulariaceae family Gesneriaceae family Globulariaceae family Plantaginaceae family Lentibulariaceae family Acanthaceae family Callitrichaceae family Hippuridaceae family Verbenaceae family Phrymaceae family Symphoremataceae family Nesogenaceae family Avicenniaceae family Lamiaceae

Liliidae[edit]

subclass Liliidae [= monocotyledons ]

superorder Lilianae

order Liliales

family Melanthiaceae family Campynemataceae family Alstroemeriaceae family Colchicaceae family Liliaceae family Trilliaceae family Iridaceae

order Burmanniales

family Burmanniaceae family Corsiaceae

order Asparagales

family Asparagaceae family Luzuriagaceae family Asphodelaceae family Aphyllanthaceae family Phormiaceae family Tecophilaeaceae family Lanariaceae family Hemerocallidaceae family Asteliaceae family Hanguanaceae family Agavaceae family Hostaceae family Blandfordiaceae family Dasypogonaceae family Xanthorrhoeaceae family Ixioliriaceae family Hyacinthaceae family Alliaceae family Amaryllidaceae family Hypoxidaceae family Velloziaceae family Cyanastraceae family Eriospermaceae

order Dioscoreales

family Philesiaceae family Ripogonaceae family Petermanniaceae family Smilacaceae family Dioscoreaceae family Trichopodaceae family Stemonaceae family Taccaceae

order Orchidales

family Orchidaceae

superorder Hydatellanae

order Hydatellales

family Hydatellaceae

superorder Triuridanae

order Triuridales

family Triuridaceae

superorder Alismatanae

order Alismatales

family Butomaceae family Alismataceae family Hydrocharitaceae

order Potamogetonales

family Aponogetonaceae family Scheuchzeriaceae family Juncaginaceae family Potamogetonaceae family Posidoniaceae family Cymodoceaceae family Zannichelliaceae family Zosteraceae

superorder Aranae

order Acorales

family Acoraceae

order Arales

family Araceae family Lemnaceae

superorder Cyclanthanae

order Cyclanthales

family Cyclanthaceae

superorder Pandananae

order Pandanales

family Pandanaceae

superorder Arecanae

order Arecales

family Arecaceae

superorder Commelinanae

order Bromeliales

family Bromeliaceae

order Philydrales

family Philydraceae family Pontederiaceae family Haemodoraceae

order Typhales

family Typhaceae

order Zingiberales

family Musaceae family Strelitziaceae family Lowiaceae family Heliconiaceae family Zingiberaceae family Costaceae family Cannaceae family Marantaceae

order Commelinales

family Rapateaceae family Xyridaceae family Commelinaceae family Mayacaceae family Eriocaulaceae

order Juncales

family Thurniaceae family Juncaceae family Cyperaceae

order Poales

family Flagellariaceae family Joinvilleaceae family Restionaceae family Ecdeiocoleaceae family Centrolepidaceae family Poaceae

2007 system[edit] The 2007 system lists 12 subclasses, 35 superorders, 87 orders, 40 suborders, and 472 families. It uses the suffixes given in the following example. Class Magnoliopsida
Magnoliopsida
("Angiospermae") - 12 subclasses

Subclass Magnoliidae

Superorder: Magnolianae

Order: Magnoliales

Suborder: Magnoliineae

Family: Magnoliaceae

Subfamily: Magnolioideae

Tribe: Magnolieae

Chloranthidae Magnoliidae [= dicotyledons ] Alismatidae Liliidae - 3 superorders

Pandananae Dioscoreanae Lilianae
Lilianae
- 3 orders

Liliales
Liliales
- 12 families Orchidales Iridales

Commelinidae Ranunculidae Hamamelididae Caryophyllidae Rosidae Malvidae Asteridae Lamiidae

References[edit]

^ a b Thorne 1968. ^ Thorne 1976. ^ Thorne 1977. ^ Thorne 1983. ^ a b Thorne 1992a. ^ Thorne 1992b. ^ Reveal 1999a. ^ Thorne & Reveal 2007. ^ Robert F. Thorne. 1992. Classification and Geography of Flowering Plants. Botanical Review 58: 225-348 as updated December, 1992 and March, 1999. Source for March 1999 in Reveal (1999a) ^ Texas A&M Flowering Plant Gateway ^ Reveal 1999b. ^ Reveal 1999c. ^ Brummitt 1992, pp. 770–776.

Bibliography[edit]

Reveal, James (22 November 1998). "Lists of the Flowering Plant Taxa Accepted by Cronquist, Dahlgren, Reveal, Takhtajan & Thorne". Vascular Plant Family Nomenclature. University of Maryland: Norton-Brown Herbarium. Retrieved 3 January 2016.  Reveal, James L (29 March 1999a). "An updated classification of the Monocotyledoneae by Robert F Thorne". Plant Biology. University of Maryland: Norton-Brown Herbarium. Retrieved 4 January 2016.  Reveal, James L (1999b). "Thorne System of Angiosperm Classification". Plant systematics.org. University of Maryland: Norton-Brown Herbarium. Retrieved 4 January 2016.  Reveal, James L (1999c). "PBIO250 Lecture Notes. Plant Taxonomy: Systems of Vascular Plant Classification". Plant systematics.org. University of Maryland: Norton-Brown Herbarium. Retrieved 4 January 2016.  Brummitt, R.K. (1992). Vascular plant families and genera : a listing of the genera of vascular plants of the world according to their families, as recognised in the Kew Herbarium, with an analysis of relationships of the flowering plant families according to eight systems of classification. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens. ISBN 9780947643430. 

Works by Thorne[edit]

Thorne, R.F. (1968). "Synopsis of a putative phylogenetic classification of flowering plants". Aliso. 6 (4): 57–66.  Thorne, Robert F (1976). "A Phylogenetic Classification of the Angiospermae". Evolutionary Biology. 9: 35–106. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-6950-3_2. Retrieved 20 December 2015.  Thorne, Robert F (1977). "Some Realignments in the Angiospermae". In Kubitzki, Klaus. Flowering Plants: Evolution and Classification of Higher Categories Symposium, Hamburg, September 8–12, 1976. Plant Systematics and Evolution. Supplement 1. Vienna: Springer. pp. 299–319. doi:10.1007/978-3-7091-7076-2_19.  Thorne, Robert F. (February 1983). "Proposed new realignments in the angiosperms". Nordic Journal of Botany. 3 (1): 85–117. doi:10.1111/j.1756-1051.1983.tb01447.x.  Thorne, Robert F (1992a). "Classification and geography of flowering plants". Botanical Review. 58 (3): 225–348. doi:10.1007/BF02858611.  Thorne, Robert F (1992b). "An updated phylogenetic classification of the flowering plants". Aliso. 13: 365–389.  Thorne, Robert F (2000). "The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae". Botanical Review. 66 (4): 441–647. doi:10.1007/BF02869011.  Thorne, Robert F.; Reveal, James L. (April 2007). "An Updated Classification of the Class Magnoliopsida
Magnoliopsida
("Angiospermae")". The Botanical Review. 73 (2): 67–181. doi:10.1663/0006-8101(2007)73[67:AUCOTC]2.0.CO;2. 

v t e

List of systems of plant taxonomy

Pre-Linnaean

John Ray
John Ray
system (1686–1704)

A discourse on the seeds of plants Methodus plantarum nova De Variis Plantarum Methodis Dissertatio Brevis Methodus plantarum emendata et aucta

Pre-Darwinian

Linnaean system (1735–51)

Systema Naturae Species Plantarum Genera Plantarum Philosophia Botanica

Adanson system (1763)

Familles naturelles des plantes

De Jussieu system (1789)

Genera Plantarum, secundum ordines naturales disposita juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratam

De Candolle system (1819–24)

Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, ou exposition des principes de la classification naturelle et de l'art de décrire et d'etudier les végétaux Prodromus systemati naturalis regni vegetabilis sive enumeratio contracta ordinum, generum specierumque plantarum huc usque cognitarum, juxta methodi naturalis normas digesta

Berchtold and Presl system (1820–1823)

O Prirozenosti Rostlin

Agardh system (1825)

Classes Plantarum

Gray system (1821)

The Natural Arrangement of British Plants

Dumortier
Dumortier
system (1829)

Analyse des familles des plantes

Lindley system (1830–45)

An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany The Vegetable Kingdom

Don system (1834)

General History of Dichlamydious Plants.

Bentham & Hooker system (1862–83)

Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita.

Baillon system (1867–94)

Histoire des plantes

Post- Darwinian
Darwinian
(Phyletic)

Nineteenth century

Eichler system (1875–1886)

Blüthendiagramme: construirt und erläutert Syllabus der Vorlesungen über Phanerogamenkunde

Engler system
Engler system
(1886–1924)

Führer durch den Königlich botanischen Garten der Universität zu Breslau Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien Das Pflanzenreich

van Tieghem system (1891)

Traité de botanique

Twentieth century

Dalla Torre & Harms system (1900–07)

Genera Siphonogamarum, ad systema Englerianum conscripta

Warming system (1912)

Haandbog i den systematiske botanik

Hallier system (1912)

L'origine et le système phylétique des angiospermes

Bessey system (1915)

The phylogenetic taxonomy of flowering plants

Wettstein system (1901–35)

Handbuch der systematischen Botanik

Lotsy system (1907–11)

Vorträge über botanische Stammesgeschichte, gehalten an der Reichsuniversität zu Leiden. Ein Lehrbuch der Pflanzensystematik.

Hutchinson system (1926–73)

The families of flowering plants, arranged according to a new system based on their probable phylogeny

Calestani system (1933)

Le origini e la classificazione delle Angiosperme

Kimura system (1956)

Système et phylogénie des monocotyledones

Emberger system (1960)

Traité de Botanique systématique

Melchior system (1964)

Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien

Takhtajan system (1966–97)

A system and phylogeny of the flowering plants Flowering plants: origin and dispersal Diversity and classification of flowering plants

Cronquist system
Cronquist system
(1968–81)

The evolution and classification of flowering plants An integrated system of classification of flowering plants

Goldberg system (1986–89

Classification, Evolution and Phylogeny of the Families of Dicotyledons

Dahlgren system (1975–85)

The families of the monocotyledons: structure, evolution, and taxonomy

Thorne system (1968–2000)

An updated phylogenetic classification of the flowering plants

Kubitzki system (1990–)

The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants

Reveal system (1999)

Reveal System of Angiosperm Classification

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group System (1998–2009)

An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants (APG I) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV Angiosperm Phylogeny Website

See also

Plantae at Wikispecies

Note: This is a selected list of the more influential systems. There are many other systems, for instance a review of earlier systems, published by Lindley in his 1853 edition, and Dahlgren (1982). Examples include the works of Scopoli, Bat

.