The Info List - Thomas Of Brotherton, 1st Earl Of Norfolk

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Second War of Scottish Independence

Battle of Halidon Hill

Offices Earl Marshal

Predecessor New creation

Successor Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk

Spouse(s) Alice de Hales Mary de Brewes

Issue Edward of Norfolk Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk Alice of Norfolk

Parents King Edward I of England Margaret of France

Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk (1 June 1300 – 4 August 1338), was the fifth son of King Edward I of England
(1272-1307), and the eldest child by his second wife, Margaret of France, the daughter of King Philip III of France. He was, therefore, a younger half-brother of King Edward II (1307-1327) and a full brother of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent. He occupied the office of Earl Marshal of England.


1 Early life 2 Career 3 Marriages and issue 4 Ancestry 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading

Early life[edit] Thomas of Brotherton
was born 1 June 1300 at the manor house at Brotherton, Yorkshire, while his mother was on her way to Cawood, where her confinement was scheduled to take place.[1] According to Hilton, Margaret was staying at Pontefract Castle
Pontefract Castle
and was following a hunt when she went into labour.[2] The chronicler William Rishanger records that during the difficult delivery his mother prayed, as was the custom at the time, to Thomas Becket, and Thomas of Brotherton
was thus named after the saint and his place of birth.[3] King Edward I hastened to the queen and the newborn baby and had him presented with two cradles. His brother Edmund of Woodstock was born in the year after that. They were overseen by wet nurses until they were six years old. Like their parents, they learned to play chess and to ride horses. They were visited by nobles and their half-sister Mary of Woodstock, who was a nun. Their mother often accompanied their father on his campaigns to Scotland, but kept herself well-informed on their well-being.[2] His father died when he was 7 years old. Thomas's half-brother Edward, became king of England, as "King Edward II", and Thomas was heir presumptive until his nephew, the future King Edward III, was born in 1312. The Earldom of Cornwall had been intended for Thomas, but his brother the King instead bestowed it upon his favourite, Piers Gaveston, in 1306. When Thomas was 10 years old, King Edward II assigned to him and his brother Edmund, the estates of Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk, who had died without heirs in 1306. Career[edit]

Ruins of the Abbey of Bury St Edmunds where Thomas of Brotherton
was buried

In 1312, he was titled "Earl of Norfolk" and on 10 February 1316 he was created Earl Marshal. While his brother was away fighting in Scotland, he was left Keeper of England. He was known for his hot and violent temper. He was one of the many victims of the unchecked greed of the king's new favourite, Hugh Despenser the Younger
Hugh Despenser the Younger
and his father Hugh Despenser the Elder, who stole some of the young earl's lands. He allied himself with Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer when they invaded England
in 1326, and stood as one of the judges in the trials against both Despensers. When his nephew Edward III reached his majority and took the government into his own hands Thomas became one of his principal advisors. It was in the capacity of Lord Marshal that he commanded the right wing of the English army at the Battle of Halidon Hill on 19 July 1333. He died about 20 September 1338, and was buried in the choir of the Abbey of Bury St Edmunds.[3][4][5] He was succeeded by his daughter, Margaret, as Countess of Norfolk.[3] She was later created Duchess of Norfolk for life in 1397.[5] As a son of Edward I of England, he was entitled to bear the coat of arms of the Kingdom of England, differenced by a label argent of three points.[6] Marriages and issue[edit] He married firstly, before 8 January 1326, Alice de Hales (d. before 12 October 1330), daughter of Sir Roger de Hales of Hales Hall in Loddon in Roughton, Norfolk, a coroner, by his wife, Alice, by whom he had a son and two daughters:[7][3]

Edward of Norfolk, who married Beatrice de Mortimer, daughter of Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, but died without issue before 9 August 1334.[8] Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk, who married firstly John Segrave, 4th Baron Segrave, and secondly Sir Walter Manny. Alice of Norfolk, who married Edward Montagu, 1st Baron Montagu.[9]

His wife Alice died by October 1330, when a chantry was founded for her soul in Bosham, Sussex.[10] He married secondly, before 4 April 1336, Mary de Brewes (died 11 June 1362), widow of Sir Ralph de Cobham, (d. 5 February 1326), and daughter of Sir Peter de Brewes[3] (d. before 7 February 1312) of Tetbury, Gloucestershire, by Agnes de Clifford (d. before 1332), by whom he had no surviving issue.[11][12] Ancestry[edit]

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Ancestors of Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk

16. Henry II, King of England

8. John, King of England

17. Eleanor of Aquitaine

4. Henry III, King of England

18. Aymer Taillefer, Count of Angoulême

9. Isabella of Angoulême

19. Alice of Courtenay

2. Edward I of England

20. Alfonso II, Count of Provence

10. Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence

21. Gersenda II of Sabran

5. Eleanor of Provence

22. Thomas I, Count of Savoy

11. Beatrice of Savoy

23. Marguerite of Geneva

1. Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk

24. Louis VIII of France

12. Louis IX of France

25. Blanche of Castile

6. Philip III of France

26. Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence
Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence
= 10

13. Marguerite of Provence

27. Beatrice of Savoy
Beatrice of Savoy
= 11

3. Margaret of France

28. Henry II, Duke of Brabant

14. Henry III, Duke of Brabant

29. Marie of Hohenstaufen

7. Maria of Brabant

30. Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy

15. Adelaide of Burgundy

31. Yolande of Dreux


^ He was born in the main house, later demolished in the 1930s due to disrepair, although the new 17th century wing still exists. Waugh, 2004. ^ a b Hilton 2008, p. 240. ^ a b c d e Waugh 2004. ^ Richardson IV 2011, p. 182. ^ a b Thomas F. Tout, (1886) "Thomas of Brotherton" in Dictionary of National Biography ^ Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family ^ Richardson II 2011, p. 631. ^ Richardson II 2011, p. 634. ^ Richardson II 2011, pp. 634-5. ^ Cokayne 1936, pp. 596-9. ^ Richardson II 2011, p. 632. ^ Richardson IV 2011, p. 180.


Archer, Rowena E. (2004). "'Brotherton, Margaret, suo jure duchess of Norfolk (c.1320–1399)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/53070.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Cokayne, George Edward (1936). The Complete Peerage, edited by H.A. Doubleday and Lord Howard de Walden. IX. London: St. Catherine Press. pp. 596–9.  Hilton, Lisa (2008). Queens Consort, England's Medieval Queens. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-7538-2611-9.  Richardson, Douglas (2011). Everingham, Kimball G., ed. Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. II (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 1449966349.  Richardson, Douglas (2011). Everingham, Kimball G., ed. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. IV (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 1460992709.  Waugh, Scott L. (2004). "Thomas, first earl of Norfolk (1300–1338)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/27196.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)

Further reading[edit]

Mortimer, Ian. The Greatest Traitor, 2003.

English royalty

Political offices

Preceded by Nicholas Seagrave Lord Marshal 1316–1338 Succeeded by The Countess of Norfolk

Peerage of England

New creation Earl of Norfolk 3rd creation 1312–1338 Succeeded by Margaret

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House of Plantagenet

Henry II of England

Wife: Eleanor of Aquitaine

William IX, Count of Poitiers Henry the Young King Richard I of England Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany Matilda of England, Duchess of Saxony Eleanor of England, Queen of Castile Joan of England, Queen of Sicily John, King of England

Illegitimate: William de Longespée, Earl of Salisbury Geoffrey (archbishop of York)

Henry the Young King

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William Plantagenet
William Plantagenet
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Richard I of England

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Henry III of England Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall Joan of England, Queen of Scotland Isabella of England Eleanor of Leicester

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Osbert Gifford Eudes FitzRoy Bartholomew FitzRoy Maud FitzRoy Isabel FitzRoy Philip FitzRoy William de Forz

Henry III of England

Wife: Eleanor of Provence

Edward I of England Margaret of England Beatrice of England Edmund Crouchback Katherine of England

Edward I of England

Wives: Eleanor of Castile Margaret of France, Queen of England

Eleanor of England, Countess of Bar Joan, Countess of Hertford and Gloucester Alphonso, Earl of Chester Margaret of England, Duchess of Brabant Mary of Woodstock Elizabeth of Rhuddlan Edward II of England Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent

Edward II of England

Wife: Isabella of France

Edward III of England John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall Eleanor of Woodstock Joan of the Tower

Edward III of England

Wife: Philippa of Hainault

Edward the Black Prince Isabella de Coucy Joan of England
(1335–1348) Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York Mary of Waltham Margaret, Countess of Pembroke Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester

Richard II of England

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Henry IV of England

Wives: Mary de Bohun Joan of Navarre, Queen of England

Henry V of England Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford Humphrey of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Gloucester Blanche of England Philippa of England

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Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales

Edward IV of England

Wife: Elizabeth Woodville

Elizabeth of York Mary of York Cecily of York Edward V of England Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York Anne of York, Lady Howard Catherine of York Bridget of York

Illegitimate: Elizabeth Arthur Plantagenet, 1st Viscount Lisle Grace Mary John Tuchet, 6th Baron Audley unnamed

Edward V of England

no consort or issue

Richard III of England

Wife: Anne Neville

Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales

Illegitimate: John of Gloucester Katherine, Countess of Pembroke Richard of Eastw