SIR THOMAS MORE (/mɔər/ ; 7 February 1478 – 6 July 1535),
venerated by Roman Catholics as SAINT THOMAS MORE, was an English
lawyer, social philosopher , author, statesman and noted Renaissance
humanist . He was also a councillor to
Henry VIII , and Lord High
England from October 1529 to 16 May 1532. He wrote
Utopia _, published in 1516, about the political system of an
imaginary ideal island nation.
More opposed the
Protestant Reformation , in particular the theology
Martin Luther and
William Tyndale . More also opposed the King's
separation from the
Catholic Church , refusing to acknowledge Henry as
Supreme Head of the Church of
England and the annulment of his
Catherine of Aragon . After refusing to take the Oath of
Supremacy , he was convicted of treason and beheaded. Of his
execution, he was reported to have said: "I die the King's good
servant, and God's first."
Pope Pius XI canonised More in 1935 as a martyr . Pope John Paul II
in 2000 declared him the "heavenly Patron of Statesmen and
Politicians." Since 1980, the Church of
England has remembered More
liturgically as a Reformation martyr. The
Soviet Union honoured him
for the supposedly communist attitude toward property rights expressed
* 1 Early life
* 2 Spiritual life
* 3 Family life
* 4 Early political career
* 5 Chancellorship
* 5.1 Campaign against the
* 5.2 Resignation
* 6 Indictment, trial and execution
* 6.1 Relics
* 7 Scholarly and literary work
* 7.1 _History of King Richard III_
* 7.2 _Utopia_
* 7.3 Religious polemics
* 7.4 Correspondence
* 8.1 Roman
* 9 Legacy
* 9.1 Communism, socialism, and resistance to communism
* 10 Literature and popular culture
* 11 Institutions named after More
* 12 Historic sites
* 12.2 Crosby Hall
Chelsea Old Church
St Katharine Docks
* 12.6 St Dunstan\'s Church and Roper House, Canterbury
* 13 Works
* 13.1 Published during More’s life (with dates of publication)
* 13.2 Published after More’s death (with likely dates of
* 14 Translations
* 15 See also
* 16 Notes
* 17 Biographies
* 17.1 Historiography
* 17.2 Primary sources
* 18 External links
SAINT THOMAS MORE
Catholic Church; Church of
England ; some other churches of the
29 December 1886,
Kingdom of Italy , by
Pope Leo XIII
19 May 1935,
Vatican City , by
Pope Pius XI
22 June (Catholic Church)
6 July (Church of England)
dressed in the robe of the Chancellor and wearing the Collar of
Esses ; axe
Adopted children; civil servants; court clerks ; difficult
marriages; large families; lawyers, politicians, and statesmen ;
stepparents ; widowers ; Ateneo de Manila Law School ; Diocese of
Arlington ; Diocese of Pensacola-Tallahassee ; Kerala Catholic Youth
University of Malta ; University of Santo Tomas Faculty of
Arts and Letters
Utopia _ (1516)
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Born in Milk Street in London, on 7 February 1478,
Thomas More was
the son of Sir John More , a successful lawyer and later judge, and
his wife Agnes (_née_ Graunger). He was the second of six children.
More was educated at St Anthony's School, then considered one of
London's finest schools. From 1490 to 1492, More served John Morton ,
Archbishop of Canterbury and
Lord Chancellor of England, as a
household page. :xvi Morton enthusiastically supported the "New
Learning " (scholarship which was later known as “humanism” or
London humanism”), and thought highly of the young More.
Believing that More had great potential, Morton nominated him for a
place at the
University of Oxford (either in St. Mary\'s Hall or
Canterbury College , both now gone). :38
More began his studies at Oxford in 1492, and received a classical
education. Studying under
Thomas Linacre and
William Grocyn , he
became proficient in both Latin and Greek. More left Oxford after only
two years—at his father's insistence—to begin legal training in
London at New Inn, one of the
Inns of Chancery . :xvii In 1496, More
became a student at Lincoln's Inn, one of the
Inns of Court , where he
remained until 1502, when he was called to the Bar . :xvii
According to his friend, theologian
Desiderius Erasmus of
More once seriously contemplated abandoning his legal career to become
a monk . Between 1503 and 1504 More lived near the Carthusian
monastery outside the walls of
London and joined in the monks'
spiritual exercises. Although he deeply admired their piety, More
ultimately decided to remain a layman, standing for election to
Parliament in 1504 and marrying the following year. :xxi
In spite of his choice to pursue a secular career, More continued
ascetic practices for the rest of his life, such as wearing a hair
shirt next to his skin and occasionally engaging in flagellation .
:xxi A tradition of the
Third Order of Saint Francis honours More as a
member of that Order on their calendar of saints .
Rowland Lockey after
Hans Holbein the Younger
Hans Holbein the Younger , The Family of
Sir Thomas More_, c. 1594
More married Jane Colt in 1505. :118 She was five years younger than
her husband, quiet and good-natured. :119
Erasmus reported that More
wanted to give his young wife a better education than she had
previously received at home, and tutored her in music and literature.
:119 The couple had four children before Jane died in 1511: Margaret ,
Elizabeth, Cicely, and John. :132
Going "against friends' advice and common custom," within thirty days
More had married one of the many eligible women among his wide circle
of friends. He certainly expected a mother to take care of his little
children and, as the view of his time considered marriage as an
"economic union", he chose a rich widow, Alice Harpur Middleton .
More was not viewed as being in haste to remarry for the gratification
of sexual pleasure, as Alice was older than he, and their marriage was
possibly not consummated . The speed of the marriage was so unusual
that More had to get a dispensation of the banns , which, due to his
good public reputation, he easily obtained.
Alice More lacked Jane's
docility; More's friend Andrew Ammonius derided Alice as a "hook-nosed
harpy." Erasmus, however, called their marriage happy. :144
More had no children from his second marriage, although he raised
Alice's daughter from her previous marriage as his own. More also
became the guardian of two young girls: Anne Cresacre would eventually
marry his son, John More; :146 and Margaret Giggs (later Clement)
would be the only member of his family to witness his execution (she
died on the 35th anniversary of that execution, and her daughter
married More's nephew
William Rastell ). An affectionate father, More
wrote letters to his children whenever he was away on legal or
government business, and encouraged them to write to him often. :150
More insisted upon giving his daughters the same classical education
as his son, a highly unusual attitude at the time. :146–47 His
eldest daughter, Margaret, attracted much admiration for her
erudition, especially her fluency in Greek and Latin. :147 More told
his daughter of his pride in her academic accomplishment in September
1522, after he showed the bishop a letter she had written:
When he saw from the signature that it was the letter of a lady, his
surprise led him to read it more eagerly … he said he would never
have believed it to be your work unless I had assured him of the fact,
and he began to praise it in the highest terms … for its pure
Latinity, its correctness, its erudition, and its expressions of
tender affection. He took out at once from his pocket a portague …
to send to you as a pledge and token of his good will towards you.
More's decision to educate his daughters set an example for other
noble families. Even
Erasmus became much more favourable once he
witnessed their accomplishments. :149
A portrait of More and his family was painted by Holbein, but it was
lost in a fire in the 18th century. More's grandson commissioned a
copy , of which two versions survive.
EARLY POLITICAL CAREER
Study for a portrait of Thomas More's family, c. 1527, by Hans
Holbein the Younger
In 1504 More was elected to Parliament to represent Great Yarmouth ,
and in 1510 began representing
From 1510, More served as one of the two undersheriffs of the City of
London , a position of considerable responsibility in which he earned
a reputation as an honest and effective public servant. More became
Master of Requests in 1514, the same year in which he was appointed
Privy Counsellor . After undertaking a diplomatic mission to the
Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor , Charles V , accompanying
Thomas Wolsey , Cardinal
Archbishop of York , to
Bruges , More was knighted and made
under-treasurer of the
Exchequer in 1521.
As secretary and personal adviser to King
Henry VIII , More became
increasingly influential: welcoming foreign diplomats, drafting
official documents, and serving as a liaison between the King and Lord
Chancellor Wolsey. More later served as High Steward for the
universities of Oxford and Cambridge.
In 1523 More was elected as knight of the shire (MP) for Middlesex
and, on Wolsey's recommendation, the House of Commons elected More its
Speaker . In 1525 More became
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster ,
with executive and judicial responsibilities over much of northern
After Wolsey fell, More succeeded to the office of
Lord Chancellor in
1529. He dispatched cases with unprecedented rapidity.
CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION
Thomas More is commemorated with a sculpture at the
Thomas More House, opposite the Royal Courts of
Justice , Carey Street, London.
More supported the
Catholic Church and saw the Protestant Reformation
as heresy , a threat to the unity of both church and society. More
believed in the theology, polemics, and ecclesiastical laws of the
church, and "heard Luther's call to destroy the
Catholic Church as a
call to war."
His early actions against the Reformation included aiding Wolsey in
preventing Lutheran books from being imported into England, spying on
and investigating suspected Protestants, especially publishers, and
arresting anyone holding in his possession, transporting, or selling
the books of the Protestant Reformation. More vigorously suppressed
the Tyndale\'s English translation of the New Testament .
The Tyndale bible controversial translations of certain words that
More considered heretical and seditious; for example, it used "senior"
and "elder" rather than "priest" for the Greek "_presbyteros_", and
used the term _congregation_ instead of _church_; he also pointed out
that some of the marginal glosses challenged Catholic doctrine. It
was during this time that most of his literary polemics appeared.
Rumours circulated during and after More's lifetime regarding
ill-treatment of heretics during his time as Lord Chancellor. The
popular anti-Catholic polemicist
John Foxe , who "placed Protestant
sufferings against the background of... the Antichrist", was
instrumental in publicising accusations of torture in his famous _Book
Martyrs _, claiming that More had often personally used violence or
torture while interrogating heretics. Later authors such as Brian
Moynahan and Michael Farris cite Foxe when repeating these
allegations. More himself denied these allegations:
Stories of a similar nature were current even in More's lifetime and
he denied them forcefully. He admitted that he did imprison heretics
in his house – 'theyr sure kepynge' – he called it – but he
utterly rejected claims of torture and whipping... 'as help me God.'
More, however, writes in his "Apology" (1533) that he only applied
corporal punishment to two heretics: a child who was caned in front of
his family for heresy regarding the Eucharist, and a "feeble-minded"
man who was whipped for disrupting prayers. :404 During More's
chancellorship, six people were burned at the stake for heresy; they
Thomas Hitton ,
Thomas Bilney ,
Richard Bayfield , John
Tewkesbery, Thomas Dusgate, and
James Bainham . :299–306 Moynahan
has argued that More was influential in the burning of Tyndale, as
More's agents had long pursued him, even though this took place over a
year after his own death. Burning at the stake had long been a
standard punishment for heresy; about thirty burnings had taken place
in the century before More's elevation to Chancellor, and burning
continued to be used by both Catholics and Protestants during the
religious upheaval of the following decades. His biographer Peter
Ackroyd notes that More explicitly "approved of burning". :298
Ackroyd adds that More tied heretics to a tree and whipped them,
watched men put on the rack and tortured until they confessed and was
"personally responsible for the burning of 'brethren' at Smithfield".
Another biographer, Richard Marius, maintains that More did everything
in his power to bring about the extermination of heretics but not that
More was personally active in burning them.
John Tewkesbury was a
London leather seller found guilty by Bishop of
John Stokesley of harbouring banned books; he was sentenced
to burning for refusing to recant. More declared: he "burned as there
was neuer wretche I wene better worthy." After
Richard Bayfield was
executed for selling heretical books, More commented that he was "well
and worthely burned".
Modern commentators are divided over More's religious actions as
Chancellor. Some biographers, including Ackroyd, have taken a
relatively tolerant view of More's campaign against Protestantism by
placing his actions within the turbulent religious climate of the
time. Others have been more critical, such as
Richard Marius , an
American scholar of the Reformation, believing that persecutions were
a betrayal of More's earlier humanist convictions, including More's
zealous and well-documented advocacy of extermination for Protestants.
Some Protestants take a different view. In 1980, More was added to
the Church of England's calendar of Saints and Heroes of the Christian
Church, despite being a fierce opponent of the English Reformation
that created the Church of England. He was added jointly with John
Fisher , to be commemorated every 6 July (the date of More's
execution) as "Thomas More, Scholar, and John Fisher, Bishop of
Rochester, Reformation Martyrs, 1535".
Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II honoured him
by making him patron saint of statesmen and politicians in October
2000, stating: "It can be said that he demonstrated in a singular way
the value of a moral conscience... even if, in his actions against
heretics, he reflected the limits of the culture of his time".
As the conflict over supremacy between the Papacy and the King
reached its apogee, More continued to remain steadfast in supporting
the supremacy of the Pope as Successor of Peter over that of the King
of England. Parliament's reinstatement of the charge of praemunire in
1529 had made it a crime to support in public or office the claim of
any authority outside the realm (such as the Papacy) to have a legal
jurisdiction superior to the King's.
In 1530, More refused to sign a letter by the leading English
churchmen and aristocrats asking
Pope Clement VII
Pope Clement VII to annul Henry's
marriage to Catherine of Aragon, and also quarrelled with Henry VIII
over the heresy laws. In 1531, a royal decree required the clergy to
take an oath acknowledging the King as "Supreme Head" of the Church in
England. The bishops at the
Convocation of Canterbury in 1532 agreed
to sign the Oath but only under threat of praemunire and only after
these words were added: "as far as Christ law allows". This was
considered to be the final
Submission of the Clergy . Cardinal John
Fisher and some other clergy refused to sign. Henry purged most clergy
who supported the papal stance from senior positions in the church.
More continued to refuse to sign the
Oath of Supremacy and did not
agree support the annulment of Henry's marriage to Catherine. In
truth, More did not openly reject the King's right to invalidate the
marriage; he simply refused to openly condone it, remaining silent on
On 16 May 1532, the day after the Convocation, More resigned from his
role as Chancellor but remained in Henry's favour in spite of his
INDICTMENT, TRIAL AND EXECUTION
In 1533, More refused to attend the coronation of
Anne Boleyn as the
England . Technically, this was not an act of treason, as
More had written to Henry acknowledging Anne's queenship and
expressing his desire for the King's happiness and the new Queen's
health. Despite this, his refusal to attend was widely interpreted as
a snub against Anne, and Henry took action against him.
Shortly thereafter, More was charged with accepting bribes, but the
charges had to be dismissed for lack of any evidence. In early 1534,
More was accused by
Thomas Cromwell of having given advice and counsel
to the "Holy Maid of Kent,"
Elizabeth Barton , a nun who had
prophesied that the king had ruined his soul and would come to a quick
end for having divorced Queen Catherine. This was a month after Barton
had confessed and was said to be concealment of treason.
Though it was dangerous for anyone to have anything to do with
Barton, More had indeed met with her, and was impressed by her fervor.
But More was prudent and told her not to interfere with state matters.
More was called before a committee of the Privy Counsel to answer
these charges of treason, and after his respectful answers the matter
seemed to be dropped.
On 13 April 1534, More was asked to appear before a commission and
swear his allegiance to the parliamentary Act of Succession . More
accepted Parliament's right to declare
Anne Boleyn the legitimate
Queen of England, but, holding fast to the teaching of papal supremacy
, he steadfastly refused to take the oath of supremacy of the Crown in
the relationship between the kingdom and the church in England. More
furthermore publicly refused to uphold Henry's annulment from
John Fisher , Bishop of Rochester, refused the oath along
with More. The oath reads:
...By reason whereof the Bishop of Rome and See Apostolic, contrary
to the great and inviolable grants of jurisdictions given by God
immediately to emperors, kings and princes in succession to their
heirs, hath presumed in times past to invest who should please them to
inherit in other men's kingdoms and dominions, which thing we your
most humble subjects, both spiritual and temporal, do most abhor and
In addition to refusing to support the King's annulment or supremacy,
More refused to sign the 1534 Oath of Succession confirming Anne's
role as queen and the rights of their children to succession. More's
fate was sealed. While he had no argument with the basic concept of
succession as stated in the Act, the preamble of the Oath repudiated
the authority of the Pope.
His enemies had enough evidence to have the King arrest him on
treason. Four days later, Henry had More imprisoned in the Tower of
London . There More prepared a devotional _Dialogue of Comfort against
Tribulation _. While More was imprisoned in the Tower, Thomas Cromwell
made several visits, urging More to take the oath, which he continued
to refuse. Site of scaffold at
Tower Hill where More was executed
Commemorative plaque at the site of the ancient
scaffold at Tower Hill, with Sir
Thomas More listed among other
notables executed at the site
The charges of high treason related to More's violating the statutes
as to the King's supremacy (malicious silence) and conspiring with
John Fisher in this respect (malicious conspiracy) and,
according to some sources, for asserting that Parliament did not have
the right to acclaim the King's Supremacy over the English Church. One
group of scholars believes that the judges dismissed the first two
charges (malicious acts) and tried More only on the final one but
others strongly disagree.
Regardless of the specific charges, the indictment related to
violation of the
Treasons Act 1534 declared it treason to speak
against the King's Supremacy:
If any person or persons, after the first day of February next
coming, do maliciously wish, will or desire, by words or writing, or
by craft imagine, invent, practise, or attempt any bodily harm to be
done or committed to the king's most royal person, the queen's, or
their heirs apparent, or to deprive them or any of them of their
dignity, title, or name of their royal estates …
That then every such person and persons so offending … shall have
and suffer such pains of death and other penalties, as is limited and
accustomed in cases of high treason.
The trial was held on 1 July 1535, before a panel of judges that
included the new Lord Chancellor, Sir Thomas Audley , as well as Anne
Boleyn's father , brother , and uncle.
More, relying on legal precedent and the maxim "_qui tacet consentire
videtur _" (one who remains silent neither confesses nor denies),
understood that he could not be convicted as long as he did not
explicitly deny that the King was Supreme Head of the Church, and he
therefore refused to answer all questions regarding his opinions on
Thomas Cromwell, at the time the most powerful of the King's
advisors, brought forth Solicitor General Richard Rich to testify that
More had, in his presence, denied that the King was the legitimate
head of the Church. This testimony was characterised by More as being
extremely dubious. Witnesses Richard Southwell and Mr. Palmer both
denied having heard the details of the reported conversation, and as
More himself pointed out:
Can it therefore seem likely to your Lordships, that I should in so
weighty an Affair as this, act so unadvisedly, as to trust Mr. Rich, a
Man I had always so mean an Opinion of, in reference to his Truth and
Honesty, … that I should only impart to Mr. Rich the Secrets of my
Conscience in respect to the King's Supremacy, the particular Secrets,
and only Point about which I have been so long pressed to explain my
self? which I never did, nor never would reveal; when the Act was once
made, either to the King himself, or any of his Privy Councillors, as
is well known to your Honours, who have been sent upon no other
account at several times by his Majesty to me in the Tower. I refer it
to your Judgments, my Lords, whether this can seem credible to any of
your Lordships. _
William Frederick Yeames
William Frederick Yeames , The meeting of Sir
Thomas More with his daughter after his sentence of death_, 1872
The jury took only fifteen minutes, however, to find More guilty.
After the jury's verdict was delivered and before his sentencing,
More spoke freely of his belief that "no temporal man may be the head
of the spirituality" (take over the role of the Pope). According to
William Roper's account, More was pleading that the Statute of
Supremacy was contrary to the
Magna Carta , to Church laws and to the
laws of England, attempting to void the entire indictment against him.
He was sentenced to be hanged, drawn, and quartered (the usual
punishment for traitors who were not the nobility), but the King
commuted this to execution by decapitation.
The execution took place on 6 July 1535. When he came to mount the
steps to the scaffold, its frame seeming so weak that it might
collapse, More is widely quoted as saying (to one of the officials):
"I pray you, master Lieutenant, see me safe up and my coming down,
let me shift for my self"; while on the scaffold he declared that he
died "the king's good servant, and God's first."
Thomas More family's vault
Another comment he is believed to have made to the executioner is
that his beard was completely innocent of any crime, and did not
deserve the axe; he then positioned his beard so that it would not be
harmed. More asked that his foster/adopted daughter Margaret Clement
(née Giggs) be given his headless corpse to bury. She was the only
member of his family to witness his execution. He was buried at the
Tower of London, in the chapel of St Peter ad Vincula in an unmarked
grave. His head was fixed upon a pike over
London Bridge for a month,
according to the normal custom for traitors.
More's daughter Margaret later rescued the severed head. It is
believed to rest in the Roper Vault of St Dunstan\'s Church,
Canterbury , perhaps with the remains of Margaret and her husband's
family. Some have claimed that the head is buried within the tomb
erected for More in Chelsea Old Church.
Among other surviving relics is his hair shirt , presented for safe
keeping by Margaret Clement. This was long in the custody of the
community of Augustinian canonesses who until 1983 lived at the
Abbotskerswell Priory , Devon. Some sources, including one
from 2004, claimed that the hair shirt was then at the Martyr's church
on the Weld family's estate in
Chideock , Dorset.
The most recent reports indicate that it is now preserved at Buckfast
Abbey , near Buckfastleigh in Devon.
SCHOLARLY AND LITERARY WORK
_HISTORY OF KING RICHARD III_
Between 1512 and 1519 More worked on a _History of King Richard III
_, which he never finished but which was published after his death.
The _History_ is a Renaissance biography, remarkable more for its
literary skill and adherence to classical precepts than for its
historical accuracy. Some consider it an attack on royal tyranny,
rather than on Richard III himself or the
House of York . More uses a
more dramatic writing style than had been typical in medieval
chronicles; Richard is limned as an outstanding, archetypal tyrant.
The _History of King Richard III_ was written and published in both
English and Latin, each written separately, and with information
deleted from the Latin edition to suit a European readership. It
William Shakespeare 's play _Richard III _.
Contemporary historians attribute the unflattering portraits of
Richard III in both works to both authors' allegiance to the reigning
Tudor dynasty that wrested the throne from Richard III in the Wars of
the Roses . More's version barely mentions King Henry VII , the first
Tudor king, perhaps because he had persecuted his father, Sir John
Clements Markham suggests that the actual author of the work
was Archbishop Morton and that More was simply copying or perhaps
translating the work.
More's best known and most controversial work, _Utopia_ is a novel
written in Latin. More completed and theologian
Erasmus published the
Leuven in 1516, but it was only translated into English and
published in his native land in 1551 (16 years after his execution),
and the 1684 translation became the most commonly cited. More (also a
character in the book) and the narrator/traveller, Raphael Hythlodaeus
(whose name alludes both to the healer archangel Raphael , and
'speaker of nonsense', the surname's Greek meaning), discuss modern
Antwerp , as well as describe the political arrangements of
the imaginary island country of
Utopia (a Greek pun on 'ou-topos' and
'eu-topos' ) among themselves as well as to
Pieter Gillis and
Hieronymus van Busleyden
Hieronymus van Busleyden . Utopia's original edition included a
symmetrical "Utopian alphabet" omitted by later editions, but which
may have been an early attempt at cryptography or precursor of
Utopia contrasts the contentious social life of European states with
the perfectly orderly, reasonable social arrangements of
its environs (Tallstoria, Nolandia, and Aircastle). In Utopia, there
are no lawyers because of the laws' simplicity and because social
gatherings are in public view (encouraging participants to behave
well), communal ownership supplants private property, men and women
are educated alike, and there is almost complete religious toleration
(except for atheists, who are allowed but despised). More may have
used monastic communalism (rather than the biblical communalism in the
Acts of the Apostles ) as his model, although other concepts such as
legalizing euthanasia remain far outside Church doctrine. Hythlodaeus
asserts that a man who refuses to believe in a god or an afterlife
could never be trusted, because he would not acknowledge any authority
or principle outside himself. Some take the novel's principal message
to be the social need for order and discipline rather than liberty.
Ironically, Hythlodaeus, who believes philosophers should not get
involved in politics, addresses More's ultimate conflict between his
humanistic beliefs and courtly duties as the King's servant, pointing
out that one day those morals will come into conflict with the
_Utopia_ gave rise to a literary genre, Utopian and dystopian fiction
, which features ideal societies or perfect cities, or their opposite.
Early works influenced by _Utopia_ included
New Atlantis by Francis
Erewhon by Samuel Butler , and
Voltaire . Although
Utopianism combined classical concepts of perfect societies (
Aristotle ) with Roman rhetorical finesse (cf.
epideictic oratory), the Renaissance genre continued into the Age of
Enlightenment and survives in modern science fiction .
In 1520 the reformer
Martin Luther published three works in quick
succession: _An Appeal to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation_
(Aug.), _Concerning the Babylonish Captivity of the Church_ (Oct.),
and _On the Liberty of a Christian Man_ (Nov.). :225 In these books,
Luther set out his doctrine of salvation through grace alone, rejected
certain Catholic practices, and attacked abuses and excesses within
the Catholic Church. :225–6 In 1521,
Henry VIII formally responded
to Luther’s criticisms with the _Assertio,_ written with More's
Pope Leo X rewarded the English king with the title 'Fidei
defensor' ("Defender of the Faith") for his work combating Luther’s
Martin Luther then attacked
Henry VIII in print, calling him a "pig,
dolt, and liar". :227 At the king's request, More composed a rebuttal:
Responsio ad Lutherum _ was published at the end of 1523. In the
_Responsio,_ More defended papal supremacy, the sacraments, and other
Church traditions. More’s language, like Luther’s, was virulent:
he branded Luther an "ape", a "drunkard", and a "lousy little friar"
amongst other insults. :230 Writing as Gulielmus Rosseus, More offers
to "throw back into your paternity's shitty mouth, truly the shit-pool
of all shit, all the muck and shit which your damnable rottenness has
Confronting Luther confirmed More's theological conservatism. He
thereafter avoided any hint of criticism of Church authority. :230 In
1528, More published another religious polemic, _A Dialogue Concerning
Heresies_, that asserted the
Catholic Church was the one true church,
established by Christ and the Apostles, and affirmed the validity of
its authority, traditions and practices. :279–81 In 1529, the
Simon Fish ’s _Supplication for the Beggars_ prompted
More to respond with _The Supplication of Souls_.
In 1531, a year after More's father died,
William Tyndale published
_An Answer unto Sir Thomas More’s Dialogue_ in response to More’s
_Dialogue Concerning Heresies._ More responded with a half million
words: the _Confutation of Tyndale’s Answer_. The _Confutation_ is
an imaginary dialogue between More and Tyndale, with More addressing
each of Tyndale’s criticisms of Catholic rites and doctrines.
:307–9 More, who valued structure, tradition and order in society as
safeguards against tyranny and error, vehemently believed that
Lutheranism and the
Protestant Reformation in general were dangerous,
not only to the Catholic faith but to the stability of society as a
Most major humanists were prolific letter writers, and Thomas More
was no exception. As in the case of his friend
Erasmus of Rotterdam,
however, only a small portion of his correspondence (about 280
letters) survived. These include everything from personal letters to
official government correspondence (mostly in English), letters to
fellow humanist scholars (in Latin), several epistolary tracts, verse
epistles, prefatory letters (some fictional) to several of More's own
works, letters to More's children and their tutors (in Latin), and the
so-called "prison-letters" (in English) which he exchanged with his
oldest daughter Margaret while he was imprisoned in the Tower of
London awaiting execution. More also engaged in controversies, most
notably with the French poet
Germain de Brie , which culminated in the
publication of de Brie's _Antimorus_ (1519).
however, and ended the dispute.
More also wrote about more spiritual matters. They include: _A
Treatise on the Passion_ (a.k.a. Treatise on the Passion of Christ),
_A Treatise to Receive the Blessed Body_ (a.k.a. Holy Body Treaty),
and _De Tristitia Christi_ (a.k.a. The Agony of Christ). More
handwrote the last which reads in the Tower of
London while awaiting
his execution. This last manuscript, saved from the confiscation
decreed by Henry VIII, passed by the will of his daughter Margaret to
Spanish hands through Fray Pedro de Soto, confessor of Emperor Charles
V. More's friend
Luis Vives received it in Valencia, where it remains
in the collection of
Real Colegio Seminario del Corpus Christi museum.
ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH
Pope Leo XIII beatified Thomas More,
John Fisher and 52 other English
Martyrs on 29 December 1886.
Pope Pius XI canonised More and Fisher on
19 May 1935, and More's feast day was established as 9 July. Since
General Roman Calendar has celebrated More with St John
Fisher on 22 June (the date of Fisher's execution). On October 31,
Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II declared More "the heavenly Patron of Statesmen
and Politicians". More is the patron of the German Catholic youth
Katholische Junge Gemeinde .
In 1980, despite their opposing the
English Reformation , More and
Fisher were jointly added as martyrs of the reformation to the Church
England 's calendar of "Saints and Heroes of the Christian Church",
to be commemorated every 6 July (the date of More's execution) as
"Thomas More, Scholar, and John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester,
Reformation Martyrs, 1535".
More is also listed in the calendars of saints of some of the other
churches in the
Anglican Communion including:
* The Anglican Church of Australia has "July 6:
John Fisher and
Thomas More, martyrs (died 1535)".
* The Anglican Church of Brazil has "July 6: Thomas More, Martyr,
* The Anglican Church of Canada has "July 6:
Thomas More died 1535
Commemoration" in its Book of Alternative Services Calendar , and has
"July 6: The Octave Day of St Peter and St Paul, and Thomas More,
Chancellor of England, Martyr 1535." in the July section of its Book
of Common Prayer Calendar .
* The Anglican Church of Southern Africa has "July 6: Thomas More,
Among those on which More is not listed are the calendars of the
Episcopal Church in the
United States , the Scottish Episcopal Church
and the Anglican Church in
Hong Kong and Macau .
Thomas More at the
Ateneo Law School chapel
The steadfastness and courage with which More maintained his
religious convictions, and his dignity during his imprisonment, trial,
and execution, contributed much to More's posthumous reputation,
particularly among Roman Catholics. His friend
Erasmus defended More's
character as "more pure than any snow" and described his genius as
England never had and never again will have." Upon learning
of More's execution,
Emperor Charles V
Emperor Charles V said: "Had we been master of
such a servant, we would rather have lost the best city of our
dominions than such a worthy councillor."
G. K. Chesterton , a Roman
Catholic convert from the Church of England, predicted More "may come
to be counted the greatest Englishman, or at least the greatest
historical character in English history."
Hugh Trevor-Roper called
More "the first great Englishman whom we feel that we know, the most
saintly of humanists, the most human of saints, the universal man of
our cool northern renaissance."
Jonathan Swift , an Anglican, wrote that More was "a person of the
greatest virtue this kingdom ever produced". Some consider Samuel
Johnson that quote's author, although neither his writings nor
Boswell's contain such. The metaphysical poet
John Donne , also
honoured as a saint by Anglicans, was More's great-great-nephew.
While Roman Catholic scholars maintain that More used irony in
_Utopia,_ and that he remained an orthodox Christian, Marxist
Karl Kautsky considered the book a shrewd critique of
economic and social exploitation in pre-modern Europe; More thus
influenced the early development of socialist ideas.
COMMUNISM, SOCIALISM, AND RESISTANCE TO COMMUNISM
Having been praised "as a
Communist hero by
Karl Marx , Friedrich
Engels , and
Karl Kautsky " because of the
Communist attitude to
property in his _Utopia_, under Soviet
Communism the name of Thomas
More was in ninth position from the top of
Moscow 's Stele of Freedom
(also known as the Obelisk of Revolutionary Thinkers ), as one of the
most influential thinkers "who promoted the liberation of humankind
from oppression, arbitrariness, and exploitation." This monument was
erected in 1918 in Aleksandrovsky Garden near the
suggestion. It was dismantled on 2 July 2013, during Vladimir Putin
's third term as President of post-
Communist Russia .
_Utopia_ also inspired Socialists such as
William Morris .
Many see More's communism or socialism as purely satirical. In 1888,
while praising More's communism,
Karl Kautsky pointed out that
"perplexed" historians and economists often saw the name _Utopia_
(which means "no place") as "a subtle hint by More that he himself
regarded his communism as an impracticable dream".
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn , the Russian Nobel Prize -winning
Communist author, and survivor and historian of the Soviet prison
camps , argued that Soviet communism needed enslavement and forced
labour to survive, and that this had been " ...foreseen as far back as
Thomas More, the great-grandfather of socialism , in his _Utopia_".
In 2008, More was portrayed on stage in
Hong Kong as an allegorical
symbol of the pan-democracy camp resisting Chinese
Communism in a
translated and modified version of
Robert Bolt 's play _A Man for All
LITERATURE AND POPULAR CULTURE
William Roper 's biography of More was one of the first biographies
in Modern English.
Thomas More _ is a play written circa 1592 in collaboration with
Henry Chettle ,
Anthony Munday ,
William Shakespeare , and others. In
it More is portrayed as a wise and honest statesman. The original
manuscript has survived as a handwritten text that shows many
revisions by its several authors, as well as the censorious influence
of Edmund Tylney,
Master of the Revels in the government of Queen
Elizabeth I . The script has since been published and has had several
The 20th-century agnostic playwright
Robert Bolt portrayed Thomas
More as the tragic hero of his 1960 play _
A Man for All Seasons _. The
title is drawn from what
Robert Whittington in 1520 wrote of More:
More is a man of an angel's wit and singular learning. I know not his
fellow. For where is the man of that gentleness, lowliness and
affability? And, as time requireth, a man of marvelous mirth and
pastimes, and sometime of as sad gravity. A man for all seasons.
In 1966, the play, _A Man for All Seasons_, was adapted into a film
with the same title. It was directed by
Fred Zinnemann and adapted for
the screen by the playwright. It stars
Paul Scofield , a noted British
actor, who said that the part of Sir
Thomas More was "the most
difficult part I played." The film won the Academy Award for Best
Picture and Scofield won the Best Actor Oscar . In 1988 Charlton
Heston starred in and directed a made-for-television film that
restored the character of "the common man" that had been cut from the
Catholic science fiction writer
R. A. Lafferty wrote his novel _Past
Master _ as a modern equivalent to More's _Utopia_, which he saw as a
satire. In this novel,
Thomas More travels through time to the year
2535, where he is made king of the world "Astrobe", only to be
beheaded after ruling for a mere nine days. One character compares
More favourably to almost every other major historical figure: "He had
one completely honest moment right at the end. I cannot think of
anyone else who ever had one."
Karl Zuchardt 's novel, _Stirb du Narr! _ ("Die you fool!"), about
More's struggle with King Henry , portrays More as an idealist bound
to fail in the power struggle with a ruthless ruler and an unjust
Hilary Mantel 's portrays More as an unsympathetic
persecutor of Protestants, and an ally of the Habsburg empire, in her
2009 novel _
Wolf Hall _, told from the perspective of a
Thomas Cromwell .
Literary critic James Wood in his book _The Broken Estate_, a
collection of essays, is critical of More and refers to him as "cruel
in punishment, evasive in argument, lusty for power, and repressive in
Aaron Zelman 's non-fiction book _The State Versus the People_
includes a comparison of _Utopia_ with Plato's _Republic_. Zelman is
undecided as to whether More was being ironic in his book or was
genuinely advocating a police state . Zelman comments, "More is the
only Christian saint to be honoured with a statue at the
Kremlin ." By
this Zelman implies that _Utopia_ influenced Vladimir
Bolsheviks , despite their brutal repression of religion.
Other biographers, such as
Peter Ackroyd , have offered a more
sympathetic picture of More as both a sophisticated philosopher and
man of letters, as well as a zealous Catholic who believed in the
authority of the
Holy See over
The protagonist of
Walker Percy 's novels, _
Love in the Ruins _ and
The Thanatos Syndrome _, is "Dr Thomas More", a reluctant Catholic
and descendant of More.
More is the focus of the
Al Stewart song "A Man For All Seasons" from
the 1978 album _
Time Passages _, and of the Far song "Sir", featured
on the limited editions and 2008 re-release of their 1994 album _Quick
_. In addition, the song "
So Says I " by indie rock outfit The Shins
alludes to the socialist interpretation of More's _Utopia_.
Jeremy Northam depicts More in the television series _
The Tudors _ as
a peaceful man, as well as a devout Roman Catholic and loving family
patriarch. He also shows More loathing Protestantism, burning both
Martin Luther's books and English Protestants who have been convicted
of heresy. The portrayal has unhistorical aspects, such as that More
neither personally caused nor attended
Simon Fish 's execution (since
Fish actually died of bubonic plague in 1531 before he could stand
trial), although More's _The Supplycatyon of Soulys_, published in
October 1529, addressed Fish's _Supplication for the Beggars_ .
Indeed, there is no evidence that More ever attended the execution of
any heretic. The series also neglected to show More's avowed
insistence that Richard Rich's testimony about More disputing the
King's title as Supreme Head of the Church of
England was perjured.
In 2002, More was placed at number 37 in the BBC's poll of the 100
Greatest Britons .
INSTITUTIONS NAMED AFTER MORE
List of institutions named after Thomas More
A plaque in the middle of the floor of London's Westminster Hall
commemorates More's trial for treason and condemnation to execution in
that original part of the
Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster . The building, which
houses Parliament, would have been well known to More, who served
several terms as a member and became Speaker of the House of Commons
before his appointment as England's Lord Chancellor.
The Crown confiscated More's home and estate along the Thames in
Chelsea after his execution. Crosby Hall, which was part of More's
London residence, was eventually relocated and reconstructed in
Chelsea by conservation architect
Walter Godfrey in 1910. Rebuilt in
the 1990s, the white stone building stands amid modern brick
structures that attempt to recapture the style of More's former manor
on the site. Crosby Hall is privately owned and closed to the public.
The modern structures face the Thames and include an entry way that
displays More's arms, heraldic beasts, and a Latin maxim. Apartment
buildings and a park cover the former gardens and orchard; Roper's
Garden is the park atop one of More's gardens, sunken as his was
believed to be. No other remnants exist of the More estate.
CHELSEA OLD CHURCH
Thomas More statue,
Chelsea Old Church
Across a small park and Old Church Street from Crosby Hall is Chelsea
Old Church , an Anglican church whose southern chapel More
commissioned and in which he sang with the parish choir. Except for
his chapel, the church was largely destroyed in the Second World War
and rebuilt in 1958. The capitals on the medieval arch connecting the
chapel to the main sanctuary display symbols associated with More and
his office. On the southern wall of the sanctuary is the tomb and
epitaph he erected for himself and his wives, detailing his ancestry
and accomplishments in Latin, including his role as peacemaker between
the Christian nations of Europe as well as a curiously altered portion
about his curbing heresy. When More served Mass, he would leave by the
door just to the left of it. He is not, however, buried here, nor is
it entirely certain which of his family may be. It is open to the
public at specific times. Outside the church, facing the River Thames
, is a statue by L. Cubitt Bevis erected in 1969, commemorating More
as "saint", "scholar", and "statesman"; the back displays his
coat-of-arms. Nearby, on Upper Cheyne Row, the Roman Catholic Church
of Our Most Holy Redeemer another house nearby and entitled Roper
House is now a home for the deaf.
Note: The reference "CW" is to the relevant volume of the _Yale
Edition of the Complete Works of St.
Thomas More _ (New Haven and
PUBLISHED DURING MORE’S LIFE (WITH DATES OF PUBLICATION)
* _A Merry Jest_ (c. 1516) (CW 1)
Utopia _ (1516) (CW 4)
* _Latin Poems_ (1518, 1520) (CW 3, Pt.2)
* _Letter to Brixius_ (1520) (CW 3, Pt. 2, App C)
Responsio ad Lutherum _ (The Answer to Luther, 1523) (CW 5)
* _A Dialogue Concerning Heresies_ (1529, 1530) (CW 6)
* _Supplication of Souls_ (1529) (CW 7)
* _Letter Against Frith_ (1532) (CW 7)
* _The Confutation of Tyndale's Answer_ (1532, 1533) (CW 8)
* _Apology_ (1533) (CW 9)
* _Debellation of Salem and Bizance_ (1533) (CW 10)
* _The Answer to a Poisoned Book_ (1533) (CW 11)
PUBLISHED AFTER MORE’S DEATH (WITH LIKELY DATES OF COMPOSITION)
* _The History of King Richard III_ (c. 1513–1518) (CW 2
border:solid #aaa 1px">
* Saints portal
* Biography portal
* ^ St. Thomas More, 1478–1535 at Savior.org
* ^ Homily at the
Canonization of St.
Thomas More at The Center for
Thomas More Studies at the University of Dallas, 2010, citing text
"Recorded in The Tablet, June 1, 1935, pp. 694–695"
* ^ Linder, Douglas O. The Trial of Sir Thomas More: A Chronology
at University Of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) School Of Law
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_
Apostolic letter issued _motu proprio _ proclaiming
Thomas More Patron of Statesmen and Politicians, 31 October 2000
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Holy Days". _Worship – The Calendar_. Church of
England . 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Margaret L. King (2014). _Renaissance Humanism: An
Anthology of Sources_.
Hackett Publishing . p. 157. ISBN
978-1-62466-146-4 . Retrieved 20 December 2014. Hailed as a Communist
hero by Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, and Karl Kautsky, More's
contribution to "the liberation of humankind" is commemorated, at
Lenin's suggestion, on a monument erected in 1918 in Aleksandrovsky
Garden near the Kremlin.... J.A.Guy,
Thomas More (London, New York:
Oxford University Press, 2000), 95–96
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "The Center for
Thomas More Studies – Art >
Gallery > Moscow". The Center for
Thomas More Studies at The
University of Dallas . 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2014. This
monument, suggested by
Lenin and built in 1918, lists Thomas More
(ninth from the top) among the most influential thinkers "who promoted
the liberation of humankind from oppression, arbitrariness, and
exploitation." It is in Aleksndrovsky Garden near the Kremlin.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ afoniya (10 July 2013). "On the removal of a
Moscow statue". Retrieved 20 December 2014. What was known as the
Stele of Freedom or the Obelisk of Revolutionary Thinkers has been
dismantled apparently to be reinstalled in some months time as a
monument to the Romanov Dynasty. This historically symbolic act was
carried out on July 2 completely unannounced … The obelisk was one
of the most interesting statues historically and ideologically because
of the kind of names that it had on the statue. This was not simply a
case of Marx, Engels, Lenin. It was (it seems) the first revolutionary
monument to be opened after the revolution of 1917 and, in a
non-dogmatic spirit, it included the names of anarchists, reformist
socialists and even that of Thomas More.
* ^ Jokinen, A. (13 June 2009). "The Life of Sir Thomas More."
Luminarium. Retrieved on: 19 September 2011.
* ^ "Sir Thomas More". _The Biography Channel website_. 2014.
Retrieved 30 January 2014.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Rebhorn, Wayne A, ed. (2005).
"Introduction". _Utopia_. Classics. New York: Barnes & Noble. .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ _P_
_Q_ _R_ _S_ _T_ _U_ _V_ _W_ Ackroyd, Peter (1999). _The Life of
Thomas More_. New York: Anchor Books. .
* ^ Harpsfield, Nicholas (1931). "The Life and Death of Sr Thomas
More". London: Early English Text Society: 12–3. .
* ^ Erasmus, Desiderius . "Letter to Ulrich von Hutten". In Adams,
Robert M. _Utopia_. New York: WW Norton & Co. p. 125.
* ^ "
Erasmus to Ulrich von Hutten" (PDF). _The Center for Thomas
More Studies. Biographical Accounts: Erasmus' Letters about More_.
Thomasmorestudies.org. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
* ^ "Franciscan Calendar". _Tau Cross Region of the Secular
* ^ _A_ _B_ Gerard B. Wegemer (1995). _Thomas More: A Portrait of
Courage_. Scepter Publishing.
* ^ _A_ _B_ John A. Wagner; Susan Walters Schmid (2011).
_Encyclopedia of Tudor England_. ABC-CLIO. pp. 769–770. ISBN
* ^ Maddison, the Rev. Canon, A.R., M.A., F.S.A., editor,
_Lincolnshire Pedigrees_, Harleian Society, London, 1903, p.5.
* ^ Lawrence, Raymond J. (2007). _Sexual Liberation: The Scandal of
Christendom_. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 63. ISBN
* ^ _A_ _B_ More, St Thomas (1961). Rogers, Elizabeth Frances, ed.
_Selected Letters_. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. .
* ^ "History of Parliament". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved
13 October 2011.
* ^ Magnusson (ed.) _Chambers Biographical Dictionary_ (1990) p.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Rebhorn, W. A. (ed.) p. xviii
* ^ _A_ _B_ Gerard B. Wegemer, _Portrait of Courage_, p. 136.
1st ed. (23 August 2003).
* ^ Diarmaid MacCulloch, 277.
* ^ Farris, Michael (2007). "From Tyndale to Madison". .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Marius, Richard (1999). Thomas More: A Biography,
Harvard University Press
* ^ Moynahan, B., _William Tyndale: If God Spare My Life_, Abacus,
* ^ Guy, John A. _Tudor England_ Oxford, 1988. p 26
* ^ "John Tewkesbury (1531)". UK Wells. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
Having failed in this the Bishop of London, Stokesley, tried him and
sentenced him to be burned.
* ^ More, Thomas (1973). Schuster, LA; Marius, RC; Lusardi, JP;
Schoeck, RJ, eds. _The Confutation of Tyndale's Answer_. Complete
Works. 8. Yale. p. 20. .
* ^ Ives, Eric W (2004), _The Life and Death of
Anne Boleyn _, p.
47, neither murmur at it nor dispute upon it, nor never did nor
will. ...I faithfully pray to God for his Grace and hers both long to
live and well, and their noble issue too...
* ^ Lee, Sidney (1904). _Great Englishmen of the Sixteenth
Century_. London: Archibald Constable, Limited. p. 48.
* ^ Elton, Geoffrey Rudolph (1982). "The Crown". _The Tudor
constitution: documents and commentary_ (2nd ed.). Cambridge,
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press . p. 7. ISBN 0-521-24506-0
OCLC 7876927 . Retrieved 24 July 2009.
p=xv-xvi, The Trial
* ^ "Annotated original text".
the King\'s Supremacy, May 7, 1535. the 26th of Henry VIII.".
The Trial, p=xvi
Thomson, Thomas (1876). _The comprehensive history of England, from
the earliest period to the suppression of the Sepoy revolt_. Blackie
and Son . p. 798.
* ^ Bridgett, Thomas Edward (1891). _Life and Writings of Sir
Lord Chancellor of
England and Martyr Under Henry VIII_
Burns & Oates . p. 434.
* ^ "Account of trial". Retrieved 27 July 2007.
* ^ Hume, David (1813), _The History of England_, p. 632 .
* ^ Guy, John, _A Daughter's Love: Thomas & Margaret More_, London:
Fourth Estate, 2008, ISBN 978-0-00-719231-1 , p. 266.
* ^ "Lady
Margaret Roper and the head of Sir Thomas More". _Insert
Logo Here Lynsted with Kingsdown Society_. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
* ^ "St. Thomas More". _Catholic Encyclopaedia_. .
* ^ Markham, Clements (1906). _Richard III: His Life and
Character_. p. 168.
* ^ Yoran, H. _Thomas More\'s Richard III: Probing the Limits of
Humanism._ Renaissance Studies 15, no. 4 (2001): 514–37. Accessed
December 1, 2015.
* ^ "Thomas Morus". _www.kjg.de_. Retrieved 2016-07-01.
* ^ Daniel J. Boorstin (1999). _The Seekers: The Story of Man\'s
Continuing Quest to Understand His World_. Random House Digital, Inc.
p. 154. ISBN 978-0-375-70475-8 .
* ^ Quoted in _Britannica – The Online Encyclopedia_, article:
_Sir Thomas More_
* ^ Chesterton, G. K. (1929). _The Fame of Blessed Thomas More_.
London: Sheed & Ward. p. 63.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Cited in Marvin O'Connell, "A Man for all Seasons: an
Historian's Demur," _Catholic Dossier_ 8 no. 2 (March–April 2002):
* ^ Jonathan Swift. "Writings on Religion and the Church, Vol. I.
by Jonathan Swift: Ch. 14: Concerning that Universal Hatred".
* ^ Jonathan Swift, _Prose Works of Jonathan Swift_ v. 13, Oxford
UP, 1959, p. 123)
* ^ "Reputation".
Thomas More Studies. .
* ^ Kenny, Jack (2011). "A Man of Enduring Conscience". _Resource
Center_. Catholic Culture via Trinity Communications.
* ^ Chambers, R. W. (1929). _Sir Thomas More's Fame Among His
Countrymen_. London: Sheed & Ward. p. 13.
* ^ Colclough, David (2011) . "Donne, John (1572–1631)". _Oxford
Dictionary of National Biography _ (online ed.). Oxford University
Press. doi :10.1093/ref:odnb/7819 . (Subscription or UK public
library membership required.)
* ^ _
Thomas More and his Utopia_ (1888)
* ^ _A_ _B_ "St. Thomas More". _Catholic Encyclopaedia_. 1913. The
whole work is really an exercise of the imagination with much
brilliant satire upon the world of More's own day. … there can be no
doubt that he would have been delighted at entrapping William Morris,
who discovered in it a complete gospel of
* ^ Kautsky, Karl (1888). _
Thomas More and his Utopia_. Retrieved
January 16, 2015. Part III. UTOPIA … Chapter V. THE AIM OF UTOPIA
… Historians and economists who are perplexed by
Utopia perceive in
this name a subtle hint by More that he himself regarded his communism
as an impracticable dream.
* ^ Bloom, Harold ; Hobby, Blake (2010). _Enslavement and
Infobase Publishing . pp. 173–174. ISBN
978-1-60413-441-4 . Retrieved 20 January 2015. Moreover, Solzhenitsyn
insists that the Soviet system cannot survive without the camps, that
Soviet communism requires enslavement and forced labour. " ...foreseen
as far back as Thomas More, the great-grandfather of socialism, in his
_Utopia_ labor of _zeks_ was needed for degrading and particularly
heavy work, which no one, under socialism, would wish to perform"
(_Gulag, Vol 3." 578)._
* ^ Chen, Chapman (2011). Pekka Kujamäki, ed. _"Postcolonial Hong
Kong Drama Translation" in "Beyond Borders: Translations Moving
Languages, Literatures and Cultures"_. Volume 39 of TransÜD. Arbeiten
zur Theorie und Praxis des Übersetzens und Dolmetschens. Frank &
Berlin . pp. 47–54. ISBN 978-3-86596-356-7 . Retrieved
January 8, 2015.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Long, William B. _The Occasion of the Book of Sir
Thomas More_. Howard-Hill, T.H. editor. _Shakespeare and Sir Thomas
More; essays on the play and its Shakespearean Interest_. Cambridge
University Press. (1989) ISBN 0 521 34658 4 . pages 49–54
* ^ Gabrieli, Vittorio. Melchiori, Giorgio, editors _Introduction_.
Munday, Anthony. And others. _Sir Thomas More_. Manchester University
Press. ISBN 0-7190-1544-8 . Page 1
* ^ Gary O'Connor (2002), _Paul Scofield: An Actor for All
Seasons_, Applause Books. Page 150.
* ^ Wood, James (2010). _The Broken Estate: Essays on Literature
and Belief_. New York: Picador. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-312-42956-0 .
* ^ "A Supplicacyon for the Beggers".
* ^ see Fish, Simon. "Supplycacion for the Beggar." 1529 in
Carroll, Gerald L. and Joseph B. Murray. _The Yale Edition of the
Complete Works of St. Thomas More_. Vol. 7. New Haven: Yale University
Press, 1990, pp. 1–10. See also Pineas, Rainer. "Thomas More’s
Controversy with Simon Fish." _Studies in English Literature,
1500–1900_, Vol. 7, No. 1, _The English Renaissance_, Winter, 1967,
* ^ Sue Parrill, William Baxter Robison (2013). "
The Tudors on Film
and Television", p. 92. McFarland,
* ^ "Westminster Hall". The Center for
Thomas More Studies. 2010.
Retrieved 4 July 2015.
* ^ "St Katharine\'s Dock". Exploring East London. Retrieved 4
* ^ Schulte Herbrüggen, Hubertus (1982). _Das Haupt des Thomas
Morus in der St. Dunstan-Kirche zu Canterbury_. Forschungsberichte des
Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
* Ackroyd, Peter (1999). _The Life of Thomas More_.
* Basset, Bernard, SJ (1965). _Born for Friendship: The Spirit of
Sir Thomas More_. London: Burns & Oates.
* Berglar, Peter (2009). _Thomas More: A Lonely Voice against the
Power of the State_. New York: Scepter Publishers. ISBN
978-1-59417-073-7 . (Note: this is a 2009 translation (from the
original German, by Hector de Cavilla ) of Berglar's 1978 work _Die
Stunde des Thomas Morus – Einer gegen die Macht_. Freiburg 1978;
Adamas-Verlag, Köln 1998, ISBN 3-925746-78-1 )
* Brady, Charles A. (1953). _Stage of Fools: A Novel of Sir Thomas
* Brémond, Henri (1904) – _Le Bienheureux
Thomas More 1478–1535_
(1904) as _Sir Thomas More_ (1913) translated by Henry Child;
* 1920 edition published by R.
* Paperback edition by Kessinger Publishing, LLC (26 May 2006) with
ISBN 1-4286-1904-6 , ISBN 978-1-4286-1904-3 ;
* published in French in Paris by Gabalda, 1920,
(Note: Brémond is frequently cited in Berglar (2009))
* Chambers, RW (1935). _Thomas More_. Harcourt, Brace.
* Guy, John (1980). _The Public Career of Sir Thomas More_. ISBN
* ——— (2000). _Thomas More_. ISBN 978-0-340-73138-3 .
* ——— (2009). _A Daughter's Love:
Thomas More and His Daughter
* House, Seymour B. (2008) . "More, Thomas". _Oxford Dictionary of
National Biography _ (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi
:10.1093/ref:odnb/19191 . (Subscription or UK public library
* Marius, Richard (1984). _Thomas More: A Biography_.
* ——— (1999). _Thomas More: a biography_. Harvard University
Press. ISBN 978-0-674-88525-7 .
* More, Cresacre (1828). _The Life of Sir
Thomas More by His
* Phélippeau, Marie-Claire (2016). _Thomas More_. Gallimard.
* Reynolds, EE (1964). _The Trialet of St Thomas More_.
* ——— (1965). _