Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, FRS
FRSE PC (25 October
1800 – 28 December 1859) was a British historian and Whig
politician. He wrote extensively as an essayist and reviewer; his
books on British history have been hailed as literary masterpieces.
Macaulay held political office as the
Secretary at War
Secretary at War between 1839
and 1841, and the
Paymaster-General between 1846 and 1848. He played a
major role in introducing English and western concepts to education in
India, publishing his argument on the subject in the "Macaulay Minute"
published in 1835. He supported the replacement of Persian by English
as the official language, the use of English as the medium of
instruction in all schools, and the training of English-speaking
Indians as teachers. This led to
Macaulayism in India.
Macaulay divided the world into civilised nations and barbarism, with
Britain representing the high point of civilisation. In his Minute on
Indian Education of February 1835, he asserted, "It is, I believe, no
exaggeration to say that all the historical information which has been
collected from all the books written in the
Sanskrit language is less
valuable than what may be found in the most paltry abridgement used at
preparatory schools in England". He was wedded to the Idea of
Progress, especially in terms of the liberal freedoms. He opposed
radicalism while idealising historic British culture and
1 Early life
2 Political career
2.2 Return to British public life (1838–1857)
2.3 Later life (1857–1859)
3 Literary works
5 Political writing
6 Legacy as a historian
9 See also
11 References and bibliography
12 External links
Macaulay was born at
Rothley Temple in
Leicestershire on 25 October
1800, the son of Zachary Macaulay, a Scottish Highlander, who became a
colonial governor and abolitionist, and Selina Mills of Bristol, a
former pupil of Hannah More. They named their first child after his
uncle Thomas Babington, a
Leicestershire landowner and
politician, who had married Zachary's sister Jean. The young
Macaulay was noted as a child prodigy; as a toddler, gazing out of the
window from his cot at the chimneys of a local factory, he is reputed
to have asked his father whether the smoke came from the fires of
He was educated at a private school in Hertfordshire, and,
subsequently, at Trinity College, Cambridge. Whilst at Cambridge,
Macaulay wrote much poetry and won several prizes, including the
Chancellor's Gold Medal in June 1821.
In 1825, Macaulay published a prominent essay on Milton in the
Edinburgh Review. He studied law, and in 1826 he was called to the
bar, but he soon took more interest in a political career. In
1827, Macaulay published an anti-slavery essay, in the Edinburgh
Review, in which he contested the analysis of African labourers
composed by Colonel Thomas Moody, Knight, who was the Parliamentary
Commissioner for West Indian slavery. Macaulay's father,
Zachary Macaulay, had also condemned the philosophy of Moody, in a
series of letters to the Anti-Slavery Reporter. However, the
Macaulay family themselves had owned numerous slaves: several slaves
who were resettled in Sierra Leone bore the Macaulay name.[citation
Macaulay, who never married and had no children, was once rumoured
to have fallen in love with Maria Kinnaird, the wealthy ward of
"Conversation" Sharp (who was a hat-maker, banker, merchant, poet,
critic and British politician). But in fact, Macaulay's strongest
emotional ties were to his youngest sisters, Margaret who died while
he was in India, and Hannah. As Hannah grew older, he formed the same
close attachment to Hannah's daughter Margaret, whom he called
Macaulay retained a passionate interest in classical literature
throughout his life, and prided himself on his knowledge of Ancient
Greek literature. He likely had an eidetic memory. While in India,
he read every ancient Greek and Roman work that was available to him.
In his letters, he describes reading the
Aeneid whilst on vacation in
Malvern in 1851, and being moved to tears by the beauty of Virgil's
poetry. He also taught himself German, Dutch, and Spanish, and
remained fluent in French.
In 1830 the Marquess of Lansdowne invited Macaulay to become Member of
Parliament for the pocket borough of Calne. His maiden speech was in
favour of abolishing the civil disabilities of the Jews in the UK.
Macaulay made his name with a series of speeches in favour of
parliamentary reform. After the Great Reform Act of 1832 was
passed, he became MP for Leeds. In the Reform, Calne's
representation was reduced from two to one; Leeds had never been
represented before, but now had two members. Though proud to have
helped pass the Reform Bill, Macaulay never ceased to be grateful to
his former patron, Lansdowne, who remained a great friend and
Macaulay by John Partridge.
Secretary to the Board of Control under Lord Grey from
1832 until 1833. The financial embarrassment of his father meant that
Macaulay became the sole means of support for his family and needed a
more remunerative post than he could hold as an MP. After the passing
of the Government of
India Act 1833, he resigned as MP for Leeds and
was appointed as the first Law Member of the Governor-General's
Council. He went to
India in 1834, and served on the Supreme Council
India between 1834 and 1838.
In his well-known Minute on Indian Education of February 1835,
Macaulay urged Lord William Bentinck, the Governor-General to reform
secondary education on utilitarian lines to deliver "useful learning"
– a phrase that to Macaulay was synonymous with Western culture.
There was no tradition of secondary education in vernacular languages;
the institutions then supported by the East
India Company taught
Sanskrit or Persian. Hence, he argued, "We have to educate a
people who cannot at present be educated by means of their
mother-tongue. We must teach them some foreign language." Macaulay
Sanskrit and Persian were no more accessible than English
to the speakers of the Indian vernacular languages and existing
Sanskrit and Persian texts were of little use for 'useful learning'.
In one of the less scathing passages of the Minute he wrote:
I have no knowledge of either Sanscrit or Arabic. But I have done what
I could to form a correct estimate of their value. I have read
translations of the most celebrated Arabic and Sanscrit works. I have
conversed both here and at home with men distinguished by their
proficiency in the Eastern tongues. I am quite ready to take the
Oriental learning at the valuation of the Orientalists themselves. I
have never found one among them who could deny that a single shelf of
a good European library was worth the whole native literature of India
Sanskrit nor Arabic poetry matched that of Europe; in other
branches of learning the disparity was even greater, he argued:
It will hardly be disputed, I suppose, that the department of
literature in which the Eastern writers stand highest is poetry. And I
certainly never met with any orientalist who ventured to maintain that
the Arabic and Sanscrit poetry could be compared to that of the great
European nations. But when we pass from works of imagination to works
in which facts are recorded and general principles investigated, the
superiority of the Europeans becomes absolutely immeasurable. It is, I
believe, no exaggeration to say that all the historical information
which has been collected from all the books written in the Sanscrit
language is less valuable than what may be found in the most paltry
abridgments used at preparatory schools in England. In every branch of
physical or moral philosophy, the relative position of the two nations
is nearly the same.
Hence, from the sixth year of schooling onwards, instruction should be
in European learning, with English as the medium of instruction. This
would create a class of anglicised Indians who would serve as cultural
intermediaries between the British and the Indians; the creation of
such a class was necessary before any reform of vernacular
I feel... that it is impossible for us, with our limited means, to
attempt to educate the body of the people. We must at present do our
best to form a class who may be interpreters between us and the
millions whom we govern, – a class of persons Indian in blood and
colour, but English in tastes, in opinions, in morals and in
intellect. To that class we may leave it to refine the vernacular
dialects of the country, to enrich those dialects with terms of
science borrowed from the Western nomenclature, and to render them by
degrees fit vehicles for conveying knowledge to the great mass of the
Macaulay's minute largely coincided with Bentinck's views and
English Education Act 1835 closely matched Macaulay's
recommendations (in 1836, a school named La Martinière, founded by
Major General Claude Martin, had one of its houses named after him),
but subsequent Governors-General took a more conciliatory approach to
existing Indian education.
His final years in
India were devoted to the creation of a Penal Code,
as the leading member of the Law Commission. In the aftermath of the
Indian Mutiny of 1857, Macaulay's criminal law proposal was
enacted. The
Indian Penal Code in 1860 was followed
by the Criminal Procedure Code in 1872 and the Civil Procedure Code in
Indian Penal Code inspired counterparts in most other
British colonies, and to date many of these laws are still in effect
in places as far apart as Pakistan, Singapore, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka,
Nigeria and Zimbabwe, as well as in
In Indian culture, the term "Macaulay's Children" is sometimes used to
refer to people born of Indian ancestry who adopt Western culture as a
lifestyle, or display attitudes influenced by colonisers
("Macaulayism") – expressions used disparagingly, and with the
implication of disloyalty to one's country and one's heritage. In
independent India, Macaulay's idea of the civilising mission has been
used by Dalitists, in particular by neoliberalist Chandra Bhan Prasad,
as a "creative appropriation for self-empowerment", based on the view
that Dalit folk are empowered by Macaulay's deprecation of Hindu
civilisation and an English education.
Return to British public life (1838–1857)
Macaulay by Sir Francis Grant.
Returning to Britain in 1838, he became MP for
Edinburgh in the
following year. He was made
Secretary at War
Secretary at War in 1839 by Lord Melbourne
and was sworn of the Privy Council the same year. In 1841 Macaulay
addressed the issue of copyright law. Macaulay's position, slightly
modified, became the basis of copyright law in the English-speaking
world for many decades. Macaulay argued that copyright is a
monopoly and as such has generally negative effects on society.
After the fall of Melbourne's government in 1841 Macaulay devoted more
time to literary work, and returned to office as
1846 in Lord John Russell's administration.
In the election of 1847 he lost his seat in Edinburgh. He
attributed the loss to the anger of religious zealots over his speech
in favour of expanding the annual government grant to Maynooth College
in Ireland, which trained young men for the Catholic priesthood; some
observers also attributed his loss to his neglect of local issues.
In 1849 he was elected Rector of the University of Glasgow, a position
with no administrative duties, often awarded by the students to men of
political or literary fame. He also received the freedom of the
In 1852, the voters of
Edinburgh offered to re-elect him to
Parliament. He accepted on the express condition that he need not
campaign and would not pledge himself to a position on any political
issue. Remarkably, he was elected on those terms. He seldom
attended the House due to ill health. His weakness after suffering a
heart attack caused him to postpone for several months making his
speech of thanks to the
Edinburgh voters. He resigned his seat in
January 1856. In 1857 he was raised to the peerage as Baron
Rothley in the County of Leicester, but seldom
attended the House of Lords.
Later life (1857–1859)
The Funeral of
Thomas Babington Macaulay, Baron Macaulay, by Sir
Macaulay sat on the committee to decide on the historical subjects to
be painted in the new Palace of Westminster. The need to collect
reliable portraits of notable figures from history for this project
led to the foundation of the National Portrait Gallery, which was
formally established on 2 December 1856. Macaulay was amongst its
founding trustees and is honoured with one of only three busts above
the main entrance.
During his later years his health made work increasingly difficult for
him. He died of a heart attack on 28 December 1859, aged 59, leaving
his major work, The History of England from the Accession of James the
Second incomplete. On 9 January 1860 he was buried in Westminster
Abbey, in Poets' Corner, near a statue of Addison. As he had no
children, his peerage became extinct on his death.
Macaulay's nephew, Sir George Trevelyan, Bt, wrote a best-selling
"Life and Letters" of his famous uncle, which is still the best
complete life of Macaulay. His great-nephew was the Cambridge
historian G. M. Trevelyan.
As a young man he composed the ballads Ivry and The Armada, which
he later included as part of Lays of Ancient Rome, a series of very
popular poems about heroic episodes in Roman history which he composed
India and published in 1842. The most famous of them, Horatius,
concerns the heroism of Horatius Cocles. It contains the oft-quoted
Then out spake brave Horatius,
The Captain of the Gate:
"To every man upon this earth
Death cometh soon or late.
And how can man die better
Than facing fearful odds,
For the ashes of his fathers,
And the temples of his gods?"
His essays, originally published in the
Edinburgh Review, were
collected as Critical and Historical Essays in 1843.
During the 1840s, Macaulay undertook his most famous work, The History
of England from the Accession of James the Second, publishing the
first two volumes in 1848. At first, he had planned to bring his
history down to the reign of George III. After publication of his
first two volumes, his hope was to complete his work with the death of
Queen Anne in 1714.
The third and fourth volumes, bringing the history to the Peace of
Ryswick, were published in 1855. At his death in 1859 he was working
on the fifth volume. This, bringing the History down to the death of
William III, was prepared for publication by his sister, Lady
Trevelyan, after his death.
Macaulay's political writings are famous for their ringing prose and
for their confident, sometimes dogmatic, emphasis on a progressive
model of British history, according to which the country threw off
superstition, autocracy and confusion to create a balanced
constitution and a forward-looking culture combined with freedom of
belief and expression. This model of human progress has been called
the Whig interpretation of history. This philosophy appears most
clearly in the essays Macaulay wrote for the
Edinburgh Review and
other publications, which were collected in book form and a steady
best-seller throughout the 19th century. But it is also reflected in
History; the most stirring passages in the work are those that
describe the "Glorious Revolution" of 1688.
Macaulay's approach has been criticised by later historians for its
one-sidedness and its complacency.
Karl Marx referred to him as a
'systematic falsifier of history'. His tendency to see history as
a drama led him to treat figures whose views he opposed as if they
were villains, while characters he approved of were presented as
heroes. Macaulay goes to considerable length, for example, to absolve
his main hero William III of any responsibility for the Glencoe
Winston Churchill devoted a four volume biography of the
Marlborough to rebutting Macaulay's slights of his ancestor,
expressing hope 'to fasten the label "Liar" to his genteel
Legacy as a historian
The Liberal historian Lord Acton read Macaulay's History of England
four times and later described himself as "a raw English schoolboy,
primed to the brim with Whig politics" but "not
Whiggism only, but
Macaulay in particular that I was so full of." However, after coming
under German influence Acton would later find fault in Macaulay.
In 1880 Acton classed Macaulay (with Burke and Gladstone) as one "of
the three greatest Liberals". In 1883, he advised Mary Gladstone:
[T]he Essays are really flashy and superficial. He was not above par
in literary criticism; his Indian articles will not hold water; and
his two most famous reviews, on Bacon and Ranke, show his
incompetence. The essays are only pleasant reading, and a key to half
the prejudices of our age. It is the History (with one or two
speeches) that is wonderful. He knew nothing respectably before the
seventeenth century, he knew nothing of foreign history, of religion,
philosophy, science, or art. His account of debates has been thrown
into the shade by Ranke, his account of diplomatic affairs, by Klopp.
He is, I am persuaded, grossly, basely unfair. Read him therefore to
find out how it comes that the most unsympathetic of critics can think
him very nearly the greatest of English writers…
In 1885, Acton asserted that:
We must never judge the quality of a teaching by the quality of the
Teacher, or allow the spots to shut out the sun. It would be unjust,
and it would deprive us of nearly all that is great and good in this
world. Let me remind you of Macaulay. He remains to me one of the
greatest of all writers and masters, although I think him utterly
base, contemptible and odious for certain reasons which you know.
In 1888, Acton wrote that Macaulay "had done more than any writer in
the literature of the world for the propagation of the Liberal faith,
and he was not only the greatest, but the most representative,
Englishman then living".
W. S. Gilbert
W. S. Gilbert described Macaulay's wit, "who wrote of Queen Anne" as
part of Colonel Calverley's Act I patter song in the libretto of the
1881 operetta Patience. (This line may well have been a joke about the
Colonel's pseudo-intellectual bragging, as most educated Victorians
knew that Macaulay did not write of Queen Anne; the History
encompasses only as far as the death of William III in 1702, who was
succeeded by Anne.)
Herbert Butterfield's The Whig Interpretation of History (1931)
attacked Whig history. The Dutch historian Pieter Geyl, writing in
1955, considered Macaulay's Essays as "exclusively and intolerantly
On 7 February 1954, Lord Moran, doctor to the Prime Minister, Sir
Winston Churchill, recorded in his diary:
Randolph, who is writing a life of the late Lord Derby for Longman's,
brought to luncheon a young man of that name. His talk interested the
P.M. ... Macaulay,
Longman went on, was not read now; there was
no demand for his books. The P.M. grunted that he was very sorry to
hear this. Macaulay had been a great influence in his young days.
George Richard Potter, Professor and Head of the Department of History
University of Sheffield
University of Sheffield from 1931 to 1965, claimed "In an age
of long letters ... Macaulay's hold their own with the best".
However Potter also claimed:
For all his linguistic abilities he seems never to have tried to enter
into sympathetic mental contact with the classical world or with the
Europe of his day. It was an insularity that was impregnable ...
If his outlook was insular, however, it was surely British rather than
With regards to Macaulay's determination to inspect physically the
places mentioned in his History, Potter said:
Much of the success of the famous third chapter of the History which
may be said to have introduced the study of social history, and
even ... local history, was due to the intense local knowledge
acquired on the spot. As a result it is a superb, living picture of
Great Britain in the latter half of the seventeenth century ...
No description of the relief of Londonderry in a major history of
England existed before 1850; after his visit there and the narrative
written round it no other account has been needed ... Scotland
came fully into its own and from then until now it has been a
English history is incomprehensible without
Potter noted that Macaulay has had many critics, some of whom put
forward some salient points about the deficiency of Macaulay's History
but added: "The severity and the minuteness of the criticism to which
the History of England has been subjected is a measure of its
permanent value. It is worth every ounce of powder and shot that is
fired against it." Potter concluded that "in the long roll of English
historical writing from Clarendon to Trevelyan only Gibbon has
surpassed him in security of reputation and certainty of
Piers Brendon wrote that Macaulay is "the only British rival to
Gibbon." In 1972, J. R. Western wrote that: "Despite its age and
blemishes, Macaulay's History of England has still to be superseded by
a full-scale modern history of the period." In 1974 J. P. Kenyon
stated that: "As is often the case, Macaulay had it exactly
W. A. Speck wrote in 1980, that a reason Macaulay's History of England
"still commands respect is that it was based upon a prodigious amount
of research". Speck claimed:
Macaulay's reputation as an historian has never fully recovered from
the condemnation it implicitly received in Herbert Butterfield's
devastating attack on The Whig Interpretation of History. Though he
was never cited by name, there can be no doubt that Macaulay answers
to the charges brought against Whig historians, particularly that they
study the past with reference to the present, class people in the past
as those who furthered progress and those who hindered it, and judge
According to Speck:
[Macaulay too often] denies the past has its own validity, treating it
as being merely a prelude to his own age. This is especially
noticeable in the third chapter of his History of England, when again
and again he contrasts the backwardness of 1685 with the advances
achieved by 1848. Not only does this misuse the past, it also leads
him to exaggerate the differences.
On the other hand, Speck also wrote that Macaulay "took pains to
present the virtues even of a rogue, and he painted the virtuous warts
and all", and that "he was never guilty of suppressing or
distorting evidence to make it support a proposition which he knew to
be untrue". Speck concluded:
What is in fact striking is the extent to which his History of England
at least has survived subsequent research. Although it is often
dismissed as inaccurate, it is hard to pinpoint a passage where he is
categorically in error ... his account of events has stood up
remarkably well ... His interpretation of the Glorious Revolution
also remains the essential starting point for any discussion of that
episode ... What has not survived, or has become subdued, is
Macaulay's confident belief in progress. It was a dominant creed in
the era of the Great Exhibition. But
Auschwitz and Hiroshima destroyed
this century's claim to moral superiority over its predecessors, while
the exhaustion of natural resources raises serious doubts about the
continuation even of material progress into the next.
J. W. Burrow argued that Macaulay's History of England:
... is not simply partisan; a judgement, like that of Firth, that
Macaulay was always the Whig politician could hardly be more
inapposite. Of course Macaulay thought that the Whigs of the
seventeenth century were correct in their fundamental ideas, but the
hero of the History was William, who, as Macaulay says, was certainly
no Whig ... If this was
Whiggism it was so only, by the
mid-nineteenth century, in the most extended and inclusive sense,
requiring only an acceptance of parliamentary government and a sense
of gravity of precedent. Butterfield says, rightly, that in the
nineteenth century the Whig view of history became the English view.
The chief agent of that transformation was surely Macaulay, aided, of
course, by the receding relevance of seventeenth-century conflicts to
contemporary politics, as the power of the crown waned further, and
the civil disabilities of Catholics and Dissenters were removed by
legislation. The History is much more than the vindication of a party;
it is an attempt to insinuate a view of politics, pragmatic, reverent,
essentially Burkean, informed by a high, even tumid sense of the worth
of public life, yet fully conscious of its interrelations with the
wider progress of society; it embodies what Hallam had merely
asserted, a sense of the privileged possession by Englishmen of their
history, as well as of the epic dignity of government by discussion.
If this was sectarian it was hardly, in any useful contemporary sense,
polemically Whig; it is more like the sectarianism of English
Gertrude Himmelfarb wrote:
[M]ost professional historians have long since given up reading
Macaulay, as they have given up writing the kind of history he wrote
and thinking about history as he did. Yet there was a time when anyone
with any pretension to cultivation read Macaulay.
Himmelfarb also laments that "the history of the History is a sad
testimonial to the cultural regression of our times".
In the novel Marathon Man and its film adaptation, the protagonist was
named 'Thomas Babington' after Macaulay.
Walter Olson argued for the pre-eminence of Macaulay as a
British classical liberal.
Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st
Baron Macaulay at Project
Lays of Ancient Rome
The History of England from the Accession of James II:
5 vols (1848): Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4, Vol 5 at Internet Archive
5 vols (1848): Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3, Vol. 4, Vol. 5 at Project
volumes 1–3 at LibriVox.org
Critical and Historical Essays, 2 vols, edited by Alexander James
Grieve. Vol. 1, Vol. 2
William Pitt, Earl of Chatham: Second Essay (Maynard, Merrill, &
Company, 1892, 110 pages)
The Miscellaneous Writings and Speeches of Lord Macaulay, 4 vols Vol.
1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3, Vol. 4
Machiavelli on Niccolò Machiavelli
The Letters of
Thomas Babington Macaulay, 6 vols, edited by Thomas
The Journals of
Thomas Babington Macaulay, 5 vols, edited by William
Macaulay index entry at Poets' Corner
Lays of Ancient Rome
Lays of Ancient Rome (Complete) at
Poets' Corner with an introduction
by Bob Blair
Thomas Babington Macaulay at
LibriVox (public domain
Coat of arms
Coat of arms of
Thomas Babington Macaulay
The arms, crest and motto allude to the heraldry of the MacAulays of
Thomas Babington Macaulay was not related to this
clan at all. He was, instead, descended from the unrelated Macaulays
of Lewis. Such adoptions were not uncommon at the time according to
the Scottish heraldic historian
Peter Drummond-Murray but usually made
from ignorance rather than deceit.
Upon a rock a boot proper thereon a spur Or.
Gules two arrows in saltire points downward argent surmounted by as
many barrulets compony Or and azure between two buckles in pale of the
third a bordure engrailed also of the third.
Two herons proper.
Dulce periculum (translation from Latin: "danger is sweet").
Whig history further explains the interpretation of history that
Samuel Rogers#Middle life and friendships
United Kingdom portal
^ a b c John MacKenzie, "A family empire," BBC History Magazine
^ Biographical index of former Fellows of the Royal Society of
Edinburgh 1783–2002 (PDF). The Royal Society of Edinburgh. July
2006. ISBN 0 902 198 84 X.
^ "Thomas Babbington Macaulay". Josephsmithacademy. Retrieved 10
^ Symonds, P. A. "BABINGTON, Thomas (1758–1837), of
nr. Leicester". History of Parliament on-line. Institute of Historical
Research. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
^ Incest and Influence by Adam Kuper (Harvard University Press, 2009)
^ entry for 'Macaulay, Rt Hon Thomas Babington' Knight, Charles, ed.
(1867). The English Cyclopaedia : Biography; Volume IV. London:
Bradbury Evans & Co. p. 8. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
^ Sullivan, Robert E, Macaulay: The Tragedy of Power, Harvard
University Press, 2010, p. 21.
Thomas Babington (FML817TB)". A Cambridge Alumni
Database. University of Cambridge.
^ a b c d e William Thomas, "Macaulay, Thomas Babington, Baron
Macaulay (1800–1859), historian, essayist, and poet", in Oxford
Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, September
2004; online edn, January 2008, accessed 31 March 2012.
Thomas Babington Macaulay". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 10
^ a b Rupprecht, Anita (September 2012). "'When he gets among his
countrymen,they tell him that he is free': Slave Trade Abolition,
Indentured Africans and a Royal Commission". Slavery & Abolition.
33 (3): pp. 435–455. access-date= requires url= (help)CS1
maint: Extra text (link)
Thomas Babington Macaulay, Social and Industrial Capacities of the
Edinburgh Review, March 1827), collected in Critical,
Historical and Miscellaneous Essays, Volume 6 (1860), pp.361–404.
^ "Legacies of British Slave-Ownership: Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas
Moody: Profile and Legacies Summary". University College London.
Retrieved 6 June 2016.
^ Macaulay, Margaret: Recollections (see entry for 22 November 1831)
^ Robert E. Sullivan (2009). Macaulay: The Tragedy of Power. Harvard
University Press. p. 466. ISBN 978-0-674-03624-6.
^ "He was able to recall many pages of hundreds of volumes by various
authors, which he had acquired by simply reading them over." (Sir
Francis Galton, Hereditary Genius, 1869)
^ Robert E. Sullivan (2009). Macaulay: The Tragedy of Power. Harvard
University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-674-03624-6.
^ a b Evans, Stephen (2002). "Macaulay's minute revisited: Colonial
language policy in nineteenth-century India". Journal of Multilingual
and Multicultural Development. 23 (4): 260–81.
^ a b c d For full text of Macaulay's minute see "Minute by the
Hon'ble T. B. Macaulay, dated the 2nd February 1835"
^ Spear, Percival (1938). "Bentinck and Education". Cambridge
Historical Journal. 6 (1): 78–101. JSTOR 3020849.
^ Think it Over: Macaulay and India's rootless generations
^ Peter Mann and Carey A Watt, eds. Civilizing Missions in Colonial
and Postcolonial South Asia (2011) p. 23 online
^ "No. 19774". The London Gazette. 1 October 1839. p. 1841.
^ a b Macaulay's speeches on copyright law
^ "Lord Macaulay". Bartleby. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
^ "Lord Maculay". Readanybook. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
^ "The Rector". Glasgow university. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
^ "Biography of Lord Macaulay". Sacklunch. Retrieved 1 November
^ "Biography of Lord Macaulay". Poem hunter. Retrieved 1 November
^ a b "Lord Macaulay". The Sydney Morning Herald. 15 March 1860.
Retrieved 1 November 2013.
^ "No. 22039". The London Gazette. 11 September 1857.
Thomas Babington Macaulay". Clanmacfarlanegenealogy. Retrieved 25
^ "From the Director" (PDF). Face to Face. National Portrait Gallery
(16). Spring 2006. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
^ "Death of Lord Macaulay". The New York Times. 17 January 1960.
Retrieved 25 October 2013.
Lays of Ancient Rome
Lays of Ancient Rome [With ATOC] [NOOK Book]". Barnesandnoble.
Retrieved 22 October 2013.
^ "Thomas Babbington Macaulay". Poemhunter. Retrieved 22 October
Thomas Babington Macaulay, Lord Macaulay Horatius". English verse.
Retrieved 23 October 2013.
^ Macaulay 1941, p. x.
^ a b Macaulay, Thomas Babington, History of England. Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1878. Vol. V, title page and
prefatory "Memoir of Lord Macaulay".
^ Karl Marx, Das Kapital, ch. 27, p. 877: "I quote Macaulay, because
as a systematic falsifier of history he minimizes facts of this kind
as much as possible."
^ Winston Churchill, Marlborough: His Life and Times, ch. 9, p. 132:
"It is beyond our hopes to overtake Lord Macaulay. The grandeur and
sweep of his story-telling carries him swiftly along, and with every
generation he enters new fields. We can only hope that Truth will
follow swiftly enough to fasten the label 'Liar' to his genteel
^ Roland Hill, Lord Acton (London: Yale University Press, 2000), p.
^ Herbert Paul (ed.), Letters of Lord Acton to
Mary Gladstone (George
Allen, 1904), p. 57.
^ Paul, p. 173.
^ Paul, p. 210.
^ John Neville Figgis and Reginald Vere Laurence (eds.), Historical
Essays & Studies by John Emerich Dalberg-Acton, First Baron Acton
(London: Macmillan, 1907), p. 482.
^ Pieter Geyl, Debates with Historians (Batsford, 1955), p. 30.
^ Lord Moran, Winston Churchill: The Struggle for Survival,
1940–1965 (London: Sphere, 1968), pp. 553–54.
^ G. R. Potter, Macaulay (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1959), p.
^ Potter, p. 25.
^ Potter, p. 29.
^ Potter, p. 35.
^ Brendon, Piers; The Decline and Fall of the British Empire; 2008;
^ J. R. Western, Monarchy and Revolution. The English State in the
1680s (London: Blandford Press, 1972), p. 403.
^ J. P. Kenyon, 'The Revolution of 1688: Resistance and Contract', in
Neil McKendrick (ed.), Historical Perspectives. Studies in English
thought and Society in Honour of J. H. Plumb (London: Europa
Publications, 1974), p. 47, n. 14.
^ W. A. Speck, "
Thomas Babington Macaulay", in John Cannon (ed.), The
Historian at Work (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1980), p. 57.
^ a b Speck, p. 64.
^ Speck, p. 65.
^ a b Speck, p. 67.
^ J. W. Burrow, A Liberal Descent. Victorian Historians and the
English Past (Cambridge University Press, 1981).
^ Gertrude Himmelfarb, "Who Now Reads Macaulay?", Marriage and Morals
Among The Victorians. And other Essays (London: Faber and Faber,
1986), p. 163.
^ Himmelfarb, p. 165.
Marathon Man (novel)
Marathon Man (novel) p. 38
^ Olson, Walter (2008). "Macaulay,
Thomas Babington (1800–1859)". In
Hamowy, Ronald. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA:
SAGE; Cato Institute. pp. 309–10.
doi:10.4135/9781412965811.n185. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4.
LCCN 2008009151. OCLC 750831024.
^ a b c d Burke, Bernard (1864). The General Armory of England,
Scotland, Ireland, and Wales. London: Harrison & sons.
References and bibliography
Bryant, Arthur (1932). Macaulay (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson,
1979). ISBN 0-297-77550-2 [Facsimile reprint of London, P.
Davies], old, popular biography.
Clive, John Leonard (1973).
Thomas Babington Macaulay: The Shaping of
the Historian London: Secker and Warburg. ISBN 0-436-10220-X.
Cruikshank, Margaret (1978).
Thomas Babington Macaulay. Boston:
Twayne. ISBN 0-8057-6686-3.
Edwards, Owen Dudley (1988). Macaulay. London: Weidenfeld and
Gonçalves, Sérgio Campos (2010). "
Thomas Babington Macaulay", in
Jurandir Malerba (ed.), Lições de História: o caminho da ciência
no longo século XIX (Rio de Janeiro: Editora FGV), pp. 211–48.
Hall, Catherine (2009). "Macaulay's Nation". Victorian Studies. 51
Harrington, Jack (2010). Sir John Malcolm and the Creation of British
India, Ch. 6. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
ISBN 978-0-230-10885-1 .
Jann, Rosemary The Art and Science of Victorian History (1985) online
Masani, Zareer (2013). Macaulay: Britain's Liberal Imperialist.
London: Bodley Head.
Sullivan, Robert E. (2010). Macaulay: The Tragedy of Power. Belknap
Press [Harvard University Press]. ISBN 978-0-674-03624-6.
Trevelyan, George Otto (1978). The Life and Letters of Lord Macaulay.
Volumes I and II. Oxford: Oxford University Press .
ISBN 0-19-822487-7 online vol. 1.
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