Thomas Johann Seebeck
Thomas Johann Seebeck (German: [ˈtoːmas ˈjoːhan ˈzeːbɛk]; 9 April 1770 – 10 December 1831) was a Baltic German
Baltic German physicist, who, in 1821, discovered the thermoelectric effect. Seebeck was born in Reval
Reval (today Tallinn, Estonia) to a wealthy Baltic German merchant family. He received a medical degree in 1802 from the University of Göttingen, but preferred to study physics. In 1821 he discovered the thermoelectric effect, where a junction of dissimilar metals produces an electric current when exposed to a temperature gradient. This is now called the Peltier–Seebeck effect and is the basis of thermocouples and thermopiles.
1 Seebeck effect 2 Precursors to color photography 3 Other achievements 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links
A plaque in honor of Seebeck in Tallinn, Estonia
Thomas Johann Seebeck
V = a (
displaystyle V=a(T_ h -T_ c ),!
The voltage difference, V, produced across the terminals of an open
circuit made from a pair of dissimilar metals, A and B, whose two
junctions are held at different temperatures, is directly proportional
to the difference between the hot and cold junction temperatures, Th
− Tc. The voltage or current produced across the junctions of two
different metals is caused by the diffusion of electrons from a high
electron density region to a low electron density region, as the
density of electrons is different in different metals. The
conventional current flows in the opposite direction.
If both junctions are kept at same temperature, an equal amount of
electron diffuses at both of them. Therefore, the currents at the two
junctions are equal and opposite and the net current is zero, and if
both the junctions are kept at different temperatures then diffusions
at the two junctions are different and hence a different amount of
current is produced. Therefore, the net current is non-zero. This
phenomenon is known as thermoelectricity.
Precursors to color photography
In 1810, at Jena, Seebeck described the action of the spectrum of
light on the chloride of silver. He observed that the exposed chemical
would sometimes take on a pale version of the color of light that
exposed it, and also reported the action of light for a considerable
distance beyond the violet end of the spectrum. Seebeck also worked
Theory of Colours
^ George Theodore Dippold (1904). A Scientific German Reader. Ginn & Co. ^ See:
Seebeck, T. J. (1825) "Magnetische Polarisation der Metalle und Erze
durch Temperatur-Differenz" (Magnetic polarization of metals and
minerals by temperature differences), Abhandlungen der Königlichen
Akademie der Wissenschaften zu
^ Hugh Chisholm, editor (1911). The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information. XXI (Eleventh ed.). p. 485. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
Frankel, Eugene (1970–80). "Seebeck, Thomas". Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 12. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 281–282. ISBN 978-0-684-10114-9. Magie, W. M. (1963). A Source Book in Physics. Harvard: Cambridge MA. pp. 461–464. Partial translation of Seebeck's "Magnetische Polarisation der Metalle und Erze durch Temperatur-Differenz."
A Biography of Seebeck, includes references
WorldCat Identities VIAF: 54931229 LCCN: no2010070641 ISNI: 0000 0001 0973 827X GND: 117654698 SUDOC: 13729137X SN