THOMAS CARLYLE (4 December 1795 – 5 February 1881) was a Scottish
philosopher , satirical writer, essayist , historian and teacher.
Considered one of the most important social commentators of his time,
he presented many lectures during his lifetime with certain acclaim in
A respected historian, his 1837 book The French Revolution: A History
was the inspiration for
A great polemicist, Carlyle coined the term "the dismal science " for
economics. He also wrote articles for the
Edinburgh Encyclopaedia ,
Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question (1849) remains
controversial. Once a Christian, Carlyle lost his faith while
University of Edinburgh
In mathematics , he is known for the Carlyle circle , a method used in quadratic equations and for developing ruler-and-compass constructions of regular polygons .
* 1 Early life and influences
* 2 Writings
* 2.1 Early writings
* 2.2 Sartor Resartus
* 2.2.1 Everlasting Yea and No * 2.2.2 Worship of Silence and Sorrow
* 2.3 The French Revolution * 2.4 Heroes and Hero Worship
* 2.5 Later work
Frederick the Great
* 4 Private life
* 4.1 Marriage * 4.2 Later life * 4.3 Death * 4.4 Biography
* 5 Influence * 6 Works * 7 Definitions * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 Bibliography * 11 Further reading * 12 External links
EARLY LIFE AND INFLUENCES
Birthplace of Thomas Carlyle, Ecclefechan
Carlyle was born in
Ecclefechan in Dumfriesshire. His parents
determinedly afforded him an education at
Annan Academy , Annan ,
where he was bullied and tormented so much that he left after three
years. His father was a member of the Burgher secession church. In
early life, his family's (and nation's) strong
After attending the
University of Edinburgh
In 1819–1821, Carlyle returned to the University of Edinburgh, where he suffered an intense crisis of faith and a conversion, which provided the material for Sartor Resartus ("The Tailor Retailored"), which first brought him to the public's notice.
Carlyle developed a painful stomach ailment, possibly gastric ulcers,
that remained throughout his life and likely contributed to his
reputation as a crotchety, argumentative, somewhat disagreeable
personality. His prose style, famously cranky and occasionally savage,
helped cement an air of irascibility. Carlyle's home at 4 (now
33) Ampton Street, London, marked with a plaque by the
Carlyle's thinking became heavily influenced by
In 1831, the Carlyles moved to London, settling initially in lodgings at 4 (now 33) Ampton Street, Kings Cross . In 1834, they moved to 5 (now 24) Cheyne Row, Chelsea , which has since been preserved as a museum to Carlyle's memory. He became known as the "Sage of Chelsea", and a member of a literary circle which included the essayists Leigh Hunt and John Stuart Mill .
Here Carlyle wrote The French Revolution: A History (3 volumes, 1837), a historical study concentrating both on the oppression of the poor of France and on the horrors of the mob unleashed. The book was immediately successful.
By 1821, Carlyle abandoned the clergy as a career and focused on
making a life as a writer. His first fiction was "Cruthers and
Jonson", one of several abortive attempts at writing a novel.
Following his work on a translation of
Craigenputtock House , by George Moir, 1829
His first major work,
Sartor Resartus ("The Tailor Retailored") was
begun in 1831 at his home (which his wife Jane provided for him from
Craigenputtock , and was intended to be a new kind of
book: simultaneously factual and fictional, serious and satirical,
speculative and historical. Ironically, it commented on its own formal
structure while forcing the reader to confront the problem of where
'truth' is to be found.
Sartor Resartus was first serialised in
Fraser's Magazine from 1833 to 1834. The text presents itself as an
unnamed editor's attempt to introduce the British public to Diogenes
Teufelsdröckh, a German philosopher of clothes, who is in fact a
fictional creation of Carlyle's. The Editor is struck with admiration,
but for the most part is confounded by Teufelsdröckh's outlandish
philosophy, of which the Editor translates choice selections. To try
to make sense of Teufelsdröckh's philosophy, the Editor tries to
piece together a biography, but with limited success. Underneath the
German philosopher's seemingly ridiculous statements, there are
mordant attacks on
Given the enigmatic nature of Sartor Resartus, it is not surprising
that it first achieved little success. Its popularity developed over
the next few years, and it was published in book form in Boston 1836,
with a preface by
Ralph Waldo Emerson , influencing the development of
Everlasting Yea And No
Watercolor sketch of Thomas Carlyle, age 46, by
The Everlasting Yea is Carlyle's name in the book for the spirit of faith in God in an express attitude of clear, resolute, steady, and uncompromising antagonism to the Everlasting No, and the principle that there is no such thing as faith in God except in such antagonism against the spirit opposed to God.
The Everlasting No is Carlyle's name for the spirit of unbelief in
God, especially as it manifested itself in his own, or rather
Teufelsdröckh's, warfare against it; the spirit, which, as embodied
In Sartor Resartus, the narrator moves from the "Everlasting No" to
the "Everlasting Yea," but only through "The Centre of Indifference,"
a position of agnosticism and detachment. Only after reducing desires
and certainty, aiming at a Buddha -like "indifference", can the
narrator realise affirmation. In some ways, this is similar to the
Worship Of Silence And Sorrow
Based on Goethe's having described Christianity as the "Worship of Sorrow", and "our highest religion, for the Son of Man", Carlyle adds, interpreting this, "there is no noble crown, well worn or even ill worn, but is a crown of thorns".
The "Worship of Silence" is Carlyle's name for the sacred respect for restraint in speech till "thought has silently matured itself, … to hold one's tongue till some meaning lie behind to set it wagging," a doctrine which many misunderstand, almost wilfully, it would seem; silence being to him the very womb out of which all great things are born.
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
In 1834, Carlyle moved to
The resulting work had a passion new to historical writing. In a politically charged Europe, filled with fears and hopes of revolution, Carlyle's account of the motivations and urges that inspired the events in France seemed powerfully relevant. Carlyle's style of historical writing stressed the immediacy of action – often using the present tense.
For Carlyle, chaotic events demanded what he called 'heroes' to take control over the competing forces erupting within society. While not denying the importance of economic and practical explanations for events, he saw these forces as 'spiritual' – the hopes and aspirations of people that took the form of ideas, and were often ossified into ideologies ("formulas" or "isms ", as he called them). In Carlyle's view, only dynamic individuals could master events and direct these spiritual energies effectively: as soon as ideological 'formulas' replaced heroic human action, society became dehumanised.
HEROES AND HERO WORSHIP
Like the opinions of many deep thinkers of the time, these ideas were
influential on the development and rise of both Socialism and Fascism.
Carlyle moved towards his later thinking during the 1840s, leading to
a break with many old friends and allies, such as Mill and, to a
lesser extent, Emerson. His belief in the importance of heroic
leadership found form in his book On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and The
Heroic in History , in which he compared a wide range of different
types of heroes, including
The book was based on a course of lectures he had given. The French Revolution had brought Carlyle fame, but little money. His friends worked to set him on his feet by organising courses of public lectures for him, drumming up an audience and selling guinea tickets. Carlyle did not like lecturing, but found that he could do it, and more importantly that it brought in some much-needed money. Between 1837 and 1840, Carlyle delivered four such courses of lectures. The final course was on "Heroes." From the notes he had prepared for this course, he wrote out his book, reproducing the curious effects of the spoken discourses.
"The Hero as Man of Letters" (1840):
* "In books lies the soul of the whole Past Time; the articulate audible voice of the Past, when the body and material substance of it has altogether vanished like a dream." * "A man lives by believing something; not by debating and arguing about many things." * "All that mankind has done, thought, gained or been: it is lying as in magic preservation in the pages of books." * "What we become depends on what we read after all of the professors have finished with us. The greatest university of all is a collection of books." * "The suffering man ought really to consume his own smoke; there is no good in emitting smoke till you have made it into fire." * "Adversity is sometimes hard upon a man; but for one man who can stand prosperity, there are a hundred that will stand adversity." (Often shortened to "can't stand prosperity" as an unknown quote.) * "Not what I have, but what I do, is my kingdom."
Carlyle was one of the very few philosophers who witnessed the
industrial revolution but still kept a non-materialistic view of the
world. The book included people ranging from the field of Religion
through to literature and politics. He included people as coordinates
Carlyle held "That great men should rule and that others should revere them," a view that for him was supported by a complex faith in history and evolutionary progress. Societies, like organisms, evolve throughout history, thrive for a time, but inevitably become weak and die out, giving place to a stronger, superior breed. Heroes are those who affirm this life process, accepting its cruelty as necessary and thus good. For them courage is a more valuable virtue than love; heroes are noblemen, not saints. The hero functions first as a pattern for others to imitate, and second as a creator, moving history forwards not backwards (history being the biography of great men). Carlyle was among the first of his age to recognize that the death of God is in itself nothing to be happy about, unless man steps in and creates new values to replace the old. For Carlyle the hero should become the object of worship, the center of a new religion proclaiming humanity as "the miracle of miracles... the only divinity we can know." For Carlyle's creed Bentley proposes the name Heroic Vitalism, a term embracing both a political theory, Aristocratic Radicalism, and a metaphysic, Supernatural Naturalism. The Heroic Vitalists feared that the recent trends toward democracy would hand over power to the ill-bred, uneducated, and immoral, whereas their belief in a transcendent force in nature directing itself onward and upward gave some hope that this force would overrule in favor of the strong, intelligent, and noble. :17–18,49–58
Nietzsche agreed with much of Carlyle's hero worship, transferring many qualities of the hero to his concept of the superman. He believed that the hero should be revered, not for the good he has done for the people, but simply out of admiration for the marvelous. The hero justifies himself as a man chosen by destiny to be great. In the life struggle he is a conqueror, growing stronger through conflict. The hero is not ashamed of his strength; instead of the Christian virtues of meekness, humility and compassion, he abides by the beatitudes of Heroic Vitalism: courage, nobility, pride, and the right to rule. His slogan: "The good old rule, the simple plan, that he should keep who has the power, and he should take who can." :52
For Carlyle, the hero was somewhat similar to
All these books were influential in their day, especially on writers
In later writings, Carlyle sought to examine instances of heroic leadership in history. The Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell (1845) presented a positive image of Cromwell : someone who attempted to weld order from the conflicting forces of reform in his own day. Carlyle sought to make Cromwell's words live in their own terms by quoting him directly, and then commenting on the significance of these words in the troubled context of the time. Again this was intended to make the 'past' 'present' to his readers.
His essay "
Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question " (1849)
suggested that slavery should never have been abolished, or else
replaced with serfdom . It had kept order, he argued, and forced work
from people who would otherwise have been lazy and feckless. This and
Carlyle's support for the repressive measures of Governor Edward Eyre
in Jamaica during the
Morant Bay rebellion
Carlyle set up rival Governor Eyre Defense and Aid Committee for the
defence, arguing that Eyre had acted decisively to restore order. His
John Ruskin ,
Similar hard-line views were expressed in Shooting Niagara, and After?, written after the passing of the Electoral Reform Act of 1867 in which he "reaffirmed his belief in wise leadership (and wise followership ), his disbelief in democracy and his hatred of all workmanship – from brickmaking to diplomacy – that was not genuine".
Frederick The Great
Carlyle (left) depicted with Frederick Maurice in Ford Madox Brown 's painting Work (1865)
His last major work was the epic life of Frederick the Great (1858–1865). In this Carlyle tried to show how a heroic leader can forge a state, and help create a new moral culture for a nation. For Carlyle, Frederick epitomised the transition from the liberal Enlightenment ideals of the eighteenth century to a new modern culture of spiritual dynamism embodied by Germany, its thought and its polity. The book is most famous for its vivid, arguably very biased, portrayal of Frederick's battles, in which Carlyle communicated his vision of almost overwhelming chaos mastered by leadership of genius.
Carlyle called the work his "Thirteen Years War" with Frederick. In 1852, he made his first trip to Germany to gather material, visiting the scenes of Frederick's battles and noting their topography. He made another trip to Germany to study battlefields in 1858. The work comprised six volumes; the first two volumes appeared in 1858, the third in 1862, the fourth in 1864 and the last two in 1865. Emerson considered it "Infinitely the wittiest book that was ever written." James Russell Lowell pointed out some faults, but wrote: “The figures of most historians seem like dolls stuffed with bran, whose whole substance runs out through any hole that criticism may tear in them; but Carlyle's are so real in comparison, that, if you prick them, they bleed." The work was studied as a textbook in the military academies of Germany.
The effort involved in the writing of the book took its toll on Carlyle, who became increasingly depressed, and subject to various probably psychosomatic ailments. Its mixed reception also contributed to Carlyle's decreased literary output.
Later writings were generally short essays, notably The Early Kings
of Norway: Also an
Carlyle was the chief instigator in the foundation of the London
Library in 1841. He had become frustrated by the facilities
available at the British Museum Library , where he was often unable to
find a seat (obliging him to perch on ladders), where he complained
that the enforced close confinement with his fellow readers gave him a
"museum headache", where the books were unavailable for loan, and
where he found the library's collections of pamphlets and other
material relating to the French Revolution and English Civil Wars
inadequately catalogued. In particular, he developed an antipathy for
the Keeper of Printed Books,
Carlyle had a number of would-be romances before he married Jane Welsh , important as a literary figure in her own right. The most notable were with Margaret Gordon, a pupil of his friend Edward Irving . Even after he met Jane, he became enamoured of Kitty Kirkpatrick , the daughter of a British officer and an Indian princess. William Dalrymple , author of White Mughals , suggests that feelings were mutual, but social circumstances made the marriage impossible, as Carlyle was then poor. Both Margaret and Kitty have been suggested as the original of "Blumine ", Teufelsdröckh's beloved, in Sartor Resartus .
Thomas also had a friendship with writer Geraldine Jewsbury starting in 1840. During that year Jewsbury was going through a depressive state and also experiencing religious doubt. She wrote to Carlyle for guidance and also thanked him for his well-written essays. Eventually Carlyle invited Jewsbury out to Cheyne Row, where Carlyle and Jane resided. Jewsbury and Jane from then on had a tight friendship and Carlyle also helped Jewsbury get on to the English literary scene.
Carlyle married Jane Welsh in 1826. He met Welsh through his friend and her tutor Edward Irving , with whom she came to have a mutual romantic (although not intimate) attraction. Welsh was the subject of Leigh Hunt's charming poem, "Jenny kiss\'d Me ".
Their marriage proved to be one of the most famous, well documented, and unhappy of literary unions. Over 9000 letters between Carlyle and his wife have been published showing the couple had an affection for each other marred by frequent and angry quarrels.
It was very good of God to let Carlyle and Mrs Carlyle marry one another, and so make only two people miserable and not four. — Samuel Butler
Carlyle became increasingly alienated from his wife. Carlyle's biographer James Anthony Froude published (posthumously) his opinion that the marriage remained unconsummated.
Although she had been an invalid for some time, his wife's sudden death in 1866 was unexpected and it greatly distressed Carlyle who was moved to write his highly self-critical "Reminiscences of Jane Welsh Carlyle", published posthumously.
After Jane Carlyle's death in 1866,
Carlyle's Grave at Ecclefechan
Upon Carlyle's death on 5 February 1881 in
Carlyle would have preferred that no biography of him were written, but when he heard that his wishes would not be respected and several people were waiting for him to die before they published, he relented and supplied his friend James Anthony Froude with many of his and his wife's papers. Carlyle's essay about his wife was included in Reminiscences, published shortly after his death by Froude, who also published the Letters and Memorials of Jane Welsh Carlyle annotated by Carlyle himself. Froude's Life of Carlyle was published over 1882–84. The frankness of this book was unheard of by the usually respectful standards of 19th-century biographies of the period. Froude's work was attacked by Carlyle's family, especially his nephew, Alexander Carlyle and his niece, Margaret Aitken Carlyle. However, the biography in question was consistent with Carlyle's own conviction that the flaws of heroes should be openly discussed, without diminishing their achievements. Froude, who had been designated by Carlyle himself as his biographer-to-be, was acutely aware of this belief. Froude's defence of his decision, My Relations With Carlyle was published posthumously in 1903, including a reprint of Carlyle's 1873 will, in which Carlyle equivocated: "Express biography of me I had really rather that there should be none." Nevertheless, Carlyle in the will simultaneously and completely deferred to Froude's judgement on the matter, whose "decision is to be taken as mine."
Carlyle painted by
John Everett Millais
Carlyle is also important for helping to introduce German Romantic
literature to Britain. Although
Samuel Taylor Coleridge had also been
a proponent of
The reputation of Carlyle's early work remained high during the 19th
century, but declined in the 20th century.
George Orwell called him,
"a master of belittlement. Even at his emptiest sneer (as when he said
that Whitman thought he was a big man because he lived in a big
country) the victim does seem to shrink a little. That is the power
of the orator, the man of phrases and adjectives, turned to a base
use." However, Whitman himself described Carlyle as lighting "up our
Nineteenth Century with the light of a powerful, penetrating and
perfectly honest intellect of the first-class" and "Never had
political progressivism a foe it could more heartily respect". His
reputation in Germany was always high, because of his promotion of
German thought and his biography of
Frederick the Great
Sartor Resartus has recently been recognised once more as a unique masterpiece, anticipating many major philosophical and cultural developments, from Existentialism to Postmodernism . It has been argued that his critique of ideological formulas in The French Revolution provides a good account of the ways in which revolutionary cultures turn into repressive dogmatisms.
Essentially a Romantic , Carlyle attempted to reconcile Romantic
affirmations of feeling and freedom with respect for historical and
political fact. Many believe that he was always more attracted to the
idea of heroic struggle itself, than to any specific goal for which
the struggle was being made. However, Carlyle's belief in the
continued use to humanity of the Hero, or Great Man , is stated
succinctly at the end of his essay on
A bust of Carlyle is in the Hall of Heroes of the National Wallace
* (1829) Signs of the Times. The Victorian Web * (1833–34) Sartor Resartus . Project Gutenberg * (1837) The French Revolution: A History . Project Gutenberg * (1840) Chartism . Google Books * (1841) On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and The Heroic in History . Project Gutenberg * (1843) Past and Present . Project Gutenberg * (1845) Oliver Cromwell's Letters and Speeches, with Elucidations, ed. Thomas Carlyle, 3 vol. (often reprinted). Online version. Another online version. * (1849) " Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question ", Fraser\'s Magazine (anonymous), Online text * (1850) Latter-Day Pamphlets . Project Gutenberg * (1851) The Life of John Sterling . Project Gutenberg * (1858) History of Friedrich II of Prussia . Index to Project Gutenberg texts * (1867) Shooting Niagara: and After. Online Text * (1875) The Early Kings of Norway. Project Gutenberg * (1882) Reminiscences of my Irish Journey in 1849. Online text * (1892) "Lectures on the History of Literature"
There are several published "Collected Works" of Carlyle:
Unauthorized lifetime editions:
* "Thomas' Carlyle's Ausgewählte Schriften", 1855–56, Leipzig. Translations by A. Kretzschmar. Abandoned after 6 vols.
Authorised lifetime editions:
* Uniform edition, Chapman and Hall , 16 vols, 1857–58. * Library edition, Chapman and Hall , 34 vols (30 vols 1869–71, 3 additional vols added 1871 and one more 1875). The most lavish lifetime edition, it sold for 6 to 9 shillings per volume (or £15 the set) * People's edition, Chapman and Hall , 39 vols (37 vols 1871–74, with 2 extra volumes added in 1874 and 1878). Carlyle insisted the price be kept to 2 shillings per volume. * Cabinet edition, Chapman and Hall , 37 vols in 18, 1874 (printed from the plates of the People's Edition)
* Centennial edition, Chapman and Hall , 30 vol, 1896–99 (with reprints to at least 1907). Introductions by Henry Duff Traill . The text is based on the People's edition, and it is used by many scholars as the standard edition of Caryle's works. * Norman and Charlotte Strouse edition (originally the California Carlyle edition), University of California Press , 1993–2006. Only 4 volumes were issued: "On Heroes" (1993), "Sartor Resartus" (2000), "Historical Essays" (2003) and "Past and Present" (2006). Despite being incomplete, it is the only critical edition of (some of) Carlyle's works.
Carlyle had quite a few unusual definitions at hand, which were
collected by the
Nuttall Encyclopedia . Some include: Centre of
Immensities An expression of Carlyle's to signify that wherever any
one is, he is in touch with the whole universe of being, and is, if he
knew it, as near the heart of it there as anywhere else he can be.
Eleutheromania A mania or frantic zeal for freedom. Gigman Carlyle's
name for a man who prides himself on, and pays all respect to,
respectability. It is derived from a definition once given in a court
of justice by a witness who, having described a person as respectable,
was asked by the judge in the case what he meant by the word; "one
that keeps a gig ," was the answer. Carlyle also refers to "gigmanity"
at large. Hallowed Fire An expression of Carlyle's in definition of
Christianity "at its rise and spread" as sacred, and kindling what was
sacred and divine in man's soul, and burning up all that was not.
Mights And Rights The Carlyle doctrine that Rights are nothing till
they have realised and established themselves as Mights; they are
rights first only then. Pig-Philosophy The name given by Carlyle in
Latter-Day Pamphlets , in the one on Jesuitism, to the widespread
philosophy of the time, which regarded the human being as a mere
creature of appetite instead of a creature of God endowed with a soul,
as having no nobler idea of well-being than the gratification of
desire – that his only Heaven, and the reverse of it his Hell.
Plugston of Undershot Carlyle's name for a "captain of industry " or
member of the manufacturing class. Present Time Defined by Carlyle as
"the youngest born of Eternity, child and heir of all the past times,
with their good and evil, and parent of all the future with new
questions and significance," on the right or wrong understanding of
which depend the issues of life or death to us all, the sphinx riddle
given to all of us to rede as we would live and not die. Prinzenraub
(the stealing of the princes) Name given to an attempt to satisfy a
private grudge of his, on the part of
Kunz von Kaufungen to carry off,
on the night of 7 July 1455, two Saxon princes from the castle of
Annales School and
* Carlyle\'s House in Chelsea,
* ^ "Thomas Carlyle" (bio), Dumfries-and-Galloway, 2008, webpage:
* ^ Carlyle, Thomas (1849). "Occasional Discourse on the Negro
Fraser's Magazine for Town and Country. Vol. 40. p. 672.
* ^ For a complete list of Carlyle's works, see Sheperd, Richard
Herne (1881). The Bibliography of Carlyle. London: Elliot Scott.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N "Thomas Carlyle" (bio),
Dumfries-and-Galloway, 2008, webpage:
* ^ "He believed there was a God in heaven, and that God's laws, or
God's justice, reigned on earth". – Lang, Timothy (2006). The
Victorians and the Stuart Heritage: Interpretations of a Discordant
Past. Cambridge University Press, p. 119 ISBN 978-0-521-02625-3
* ^ DeTemple, Duane W. (Feb 1991). "Carlyle circles and Lemoine
simplicity of polygon constructions" (PDF). The American Mathematical
Monthly. 98 (2): 97–208. doi :10.2307/2323939 . Archived from the
original (PDF) on 2015-12-21. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
* ^ A B "Carlyle – The Sage of Chelsea". English Literature For
Boys And Girls. Farlex Free Library. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
* ^ "Among these humble, stern, earnest religionists of the Burgher
phase of Dissent
* Chandler, Alice (1998). "Carlyle and the Medievalism of the North." In: Medievalism in the Modern World. Essays in Honour of Leslie J. Workman . Ed. Richard Utz and Tom Shippey. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 173–91. * Ikeler, A. A. (1972). Puritan Temper and Transcendental Faith. Carlyle's Literary Vision. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. * MacDougall, Hugh A. (1982). Racial Myth in English History: Trojans, Teutons, and Anglo-Saxons. Montreal: Harvest House & University Press of New England. * Roe, Frederick William (1921). The Social Philosophy of Carlyle and Ruskin. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company. * Waring, Walter (1978). Thomas Carlyle. Boston: Twayne Publishers.
* Caird, Edward (1892). "The Genius of Carlyle." In: Essays on
Literature and Philosophy, Vol. I. Glasgow: James MacLehose & Sons,
* Cobban, Alfred (1963). "Carlyle's French Revolution," History,
Vol. XLVIII, No. 164, pp. 306–316.
* Cumming, Mark (1988). A Disimprisoned Epic: Form and Vision in
Carlyle's French Revolution. University of Pennsylvania Press.
* Harrold, Charles Frederick (1934). Carlyle and German Thought:
1819–1834. New Haven: Yale University Press.
* Kaplan, Fred (1983). Thomas Carlyle: A Biography. Berkeley:
University of California Press.
* Müller, Max (1886). "
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