Thomas Bewick (c. 11 August 1753 – 8 November 1828) was an English
engraver and natural history author. Early in his career he took on
all kinds of work such as engraving cutlery, making the wood blocks
for advertisements, and illustrating children's books. He gradually
turned to illustrating, writing and publishing his own books, gaining
an adult audience for the fine illustrations in A History of
His career began when he was apprenticed to engraver
Ralph Beilby in
Newcastle upon Tyne. He became a partner in the business and
eventually took it over. Apprentices whom Bewick trained include John
Anderson, Luke Clennell, and William Harvey, who in their turn became
well known as painters and engravers.
Bewick is best known for his A History of British Birds, which is
admired today mainly for its wood engravings, especially the small,
sharply observed, and often humorous vignettes known as tail-pieces.
The book was the forerunner of all modern field guides. He notably
illustrated editions of
Aesop's Fables throughout his life.
He is credited with popularising a technical innovation in the
printing of illustrations using wood. He adopted metal-engraving tools
to cut hard boxwood across the grain, producing printing blocks that
could be integrated with metal type, but were much more durable than
traditional woodcuts. The result was high-quality illustration at a
2.1.1 Major works
2.2 Aesop's Fables
2.3 A General History of Quadrupeds
2.4 A History of British Birds
3 Tributes and portraits
8 Further reading
9 External links
Cherryburn, Bewick's childhood home
Bewick was born at Cherryburn, a house in the village of Mickley,
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne on 10 or 11 August 1753,
although his birthday was always celebrated on the 12th. His
parents were tenant farmers: his father John had been married
before his union with Jane, and was in his forties when Thomas, the
eldest of eight, was born. John rented a small colliery at Mickley
Bank, which employed perhaps six men. Bewick attended school in the
nearby village of Ovingham.
Bewick did not flourish at schoolwork, but at a very early age
showed a talent for drawing. He had no lessons in art. At the age
of 14 he was apprenticed to Ralph Beilby, an engraver in Newcastle,
where he learnt how to engrave on wood and metal, for example marking
jewellery and cutlery with family names and coats of arms. In
Beilby's workshop Bewick engraved a series of diagrams on wood for
Charles Hutton, illustrating a treatise on measurement. He seems
thereafter to have devoted himself entirely to engraving on wood, and
in 1775 he received a prize from the Royal Society for the
Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce for a wood engraving
of the "Huntsman and the Old Hound" from Select Fables by the late Mr
Gay, which he was illustrating.
Tail-piece in A History of British Birds, said to be of Bewick himself
as a thirsty traveller drinking from his hat
In 1776 Bewick became a partner in Beilby's workshop. The joint
business prospered, becoming Newcastle's leading engraving service
with an enviable reputation for high quality work and good
service. In September 1776 he went to London for eight months,
finding the city rude, deceitful and cruel, and much disliking the
unfairness of extreme wealth and poverty side by side. He returned to
his beloved Newcastle as soon as he could, but his time in the capital
gave him a wider reputation, business experience, and an awareness of
new movements in art.
In 1786, when he was financially secure, he married Isabella Elliott
from Ovingham; she had been a friend when they were children. They had
four children, Robert, Jane, Isabella, and Elizabeth; the daughters
worked on their father's memoir after his death. At that period in
his life he was described by the Newcastle artist
Thomas Sword Good
Thomas Sword Good as
"a man of athletic make, nearly 6 feet high and proportionally stout.
He possessed great personal courage and in his younger years was not
slow to repay an insult with personal chastisement. On one occasion,
being assaulted by two pitmen on returning from a visit to Cherryburn,
he resolutely turned upon the aggressors, and as he said, 'paid them
Bewick was also noted as having a strong moral sense and was an early
campaigner for fair treatment of animals. He objected to the docking
of horses' tails, the mistreatment of performing animals such as
bears, and cruelty to dogs. Above all, he thought war utterly
pointless. All these themes recur in his engravings, which echo
Hogarth's attention to moral themes. For example, he shows wounded
soldiers with wooden legs, back from the wars, and animals with a
gallows in the background.
Bewick had at least 30 pupils who worked for him and Beilby as
apprentices, the first of which was his younger brother John.
Several gained distinction as engravers, including John Anderson, Luke
Clennell, Charlton Nesbit, William Harvey, Robert Johnson, and his son
and later partner Robert Elliot Bewick.
The partners published their History of Quadrupeds in 1790,
intended for children but reaching an adult readership, and its
success encouraged them to consider a more serious work of natural
history. In preparation for this Bewick spent several years
engraving the wood blocks for Land Birds, the first volume of A
History of British Birds. Given his detailed knowledge of the birds of
Northumberland, Bewick prepared the illustrations, so Beilby was given
the task of assembling the text, which he struggled to do. Bewick
ended up writing most of the text, which led to a dispute over
authorship; Bewick refused to have Beilby named as the author, and in
the end only Bewick's name appeared on the title page, along with a
paragraph of explanation at the end of the preface.
It may be proper to observe, that while one of the editors of this
work was engaged in preparing the Engravings, the compilation of the
descriptions was undertaken by the other, subject, however, to the
corrections of his friend, whose habits led him to a more intimate
acquaintance with this branch of Natural History. – Land Birds,
The book was an immediate success when published – by Beilby
and Bewick themselves – in 1797. Just prior to its
publication, Bewick published an anthology in 1795 on the study of
character in the Kings and Queens of England. Given the success of
the 1797 publication of his bird illustrations, Bewick started work at
once on the second volume, Water Birds, but the disagreement over
authorship led to a final split with Beilby. Bewick was unable to
control his feelings and resolve issues quietly, so the partnership
ended, turbulently and expensively, leaving Bewick with his own
workshop. Bewick had to pay £20, equivalent to about £20,400 in
2011,[a] in lawyer's fees, and more than £21 for Beilby's share
of the workshop equipment.
Thomas Bewick in 1827, by Thomas Sword Good
With the assistance of his apprentices Bewick brought out the second
volume, Water Birds, in 1804, as the sole author. He found the task of
managing the printers continually troublesome, but the book met with
as much success as the first volume.
In April 1827, the American naturalist and bird painter John James
Audubon came to Britain to find a suitable printer for his enormous
Birds of America. Bewick, still lively at age 74, showed him the
woodcut he was working on, a dog afraid of tree stumps that seem in
the dark to be devilish figures, and gave Audubon a copy of his
Quadrupeds for his children.
Bewick was fond of the music of Northumberland, and of the
Northumbrian smallpipes in particular. He especially wanted to
promote the Northumbrian smallpipes, and to support the piper John
Peacock, so he encouraged Peacock to teach pupils to become masters of
this kind of music. One of these pupils was Thomas's son, Robert,
whose surviving manuscript tunebooks give a picture of a piper's
repertoire in the 1820s.
Bewick's last wood engraving, Waiting for Death, was of an old bony
workhorse, standing forlorn by a tree stump, which he had seen and
sketched as an apprentice; the work echoes William Hogarth's last
work, The Bathos, which shows the fallen artist by a broken
column. He died after a few days' illness on 8 November 1828, at
his home. He was buried in
Ovingham churchyard, beside his wife
Isabella, who had died two years earlier, and not far from his
parents and his brother John.
Main article: Wood engraving
Bewick's art is considered the pinnacle of his medium, now called wood
engraving. This is due both to his skill and to the method, which
unlike the wood cut technique of his predecessors, carves against the
grain, in hard box wood, using fine tools normally favoured by metal
One of Bewick's wood blocks
Boxwood cut across the end-grain is hard enough for fine engraving,
allowing greater detail than in normal woodcutting. This been the
dominant method used since Bewick's time. In addition, since a
wood engraving is inked on the face, it requires only low pressure to
print an image, so the blocks last for many thousands of prints, and
importantly can be assembled into a page of metal type for ordinary
printing in a single run. In contrast, a copper plate engraving is
inked in the engraved grooves, the face being wiped clean of ink
before printing, so much higher pressure is required, and images must
be printed separately from the text, at far greater expense.
Bewick made use of his close observation of nature, his remarkable
visual memory, and his sharp eyesight to create accurate and extremely
small details in his wood engravings, which proved to be both a
strength and a weakness. If properly printed and closely examined, his
prints could be seen to convey subtle clues to the character of his
natural subjects, with humour and feeling. This was achieved by
carefully varying the depth of the engraved grooves to provide actual
greys, not only black and white, as well as the pattern of the marks
to provide texture. But this subtlety of engraving created a
serious technical difficulty for his printers; they needed to ink his
blocks with just the right amount of ink, mixed so as to be of exactly
the right thickness, and to press the block to the paper slowly and
carefully, to obtain a result that would satisfy Bewick. Not
surprisingly, this made printing slow and expensive. It also created a
problem for Bewick's readers; if they lacked his excellent eyesight,
they needed a magnifying glass to study his prints, especially the
miniature tail-pieces. But the effect was transformative, and wood
engraving became the main method of illustrating books for a
century. The quality of Bewick's engravings attracted a far wider
readership to his books than he had expected: his Fables and
Quadrupeds were at the outset intended for children.
Bewick ran his workshop collaboratively, developing the skills of his
apprentices, so while he did not complete every task for every
illustration himself, he was always closely involved, as John Rayner
some blocks would be drawn by one brother and cut by the other, the
rough work would be done by pupils, who would also, if they showed
aptitude, draw and finish designs – on the same principle as
the schools of
Renaissance painters; and we cannot ... be sure in
all cases that the engravings ... are the work of
Thomas Bewick from
first to last, but he had a hand to a great extent in nearly all, and
certainly had the last word in all of them.
The very large (7 1/4 × 9 3/4 inches) wood engraving by
Thomas Bewick of a Chillingham Bull, executed for Marmaduke Tunstall
of Wycliffe, Yorkshire in 1789
Works using his wood engraving technique, for which he became well
known, include the engravings for Oliver Goldsmith's Traveller and The
Deserted Village, for Thomas Parnell's Hermit, and for William
Somervile's Chase. But "the best known of all Bewick's prints" is
said by The Bewick Society to be The Chillingham Bull, executed by
Bewick on an exceptionally large woodblock for Marmaduke Tunstall, a
gentleman who owned an estate at Wycliffe in the
North Riding of
A History of British Birds
A History of British Birds § Tail-pieces
The tail- or tale-pieces, a Bewick speciality, are small engravings
chosen to fill gaps such as those at the ends of the species articles
in British Birds, each bird's description beginning on a new page. The
images are full of life and movement, often with a moral, sometimes
with humour, always with sympathy and precise observation, so the
images tell a tale as well as being at the tail ends of articles. For
example, the runaway cart, at the end of "The Sparrow-Hawk", fills
what would otherwise be a 5 cm (2 in) high gap. Hugh Dixon
A minutely detailed tail-piece, only 8 cm (3 in) wide, showing
children in a runaway cart, in British Birds, 1797
The runaway cart is a wonderful mixture of action and danger. The boys
have been playing in the cart and the horse has bolted; perhaps the
dog's barking was the cause. The drawing of the wheel – an
extraordinary depiction for its time – shows that the cart has
gathered speed. One boy has already fallen and probably hurt himself.
The others hang on shouting with fear. And why has it all happened?
The carter with his tankard in his hand runs too late from the inn.
Has he been distracted by the shapely girl? And is it an accident that
the inn sign looks a little like a gallows?
A bookplate with the initial 'D'
The workshop of Beilby, Bewick, and son produced many ephemeral
materials such as letterhead stationery, shop advertisement cards, and
other business materials. Of these ephemeral productions, "bookplates
have survived the best". Bewick's bookplates were illustrations
made from engravings, containing the name or initials of the book's
Bewick's illustration for the fable of The angler and the little fish
The various editions of
Aesop's Fables illustrated by Bewick span
almost his entire creative life. The first was created for the
Newcastle bookseller Thomas Saint during his apprentice years, an
edition of Robert Dodsley's Select Fables published in 1776. With
his brother John he later contributed to a three-volume edition for
the same publisher in 1784, reusing some pictures from the 1776
Bewick went on to produce a third edition of the fables. While
convalescing from a dangerous illness in 1812, he turned his attention
to a long-cherished venture, a large three-volume edition of The
Fables of Aesop and Others, eventually published in 1818. The work
is divided into three sections: the first has some of Dodsley's fables
prefaced by a short prose moral; the second has "Fables with
Reflections", in which each story is followed by a prose and a verse
moral and then a lengthy prose reflection; the third, "Fables in
Verse", includes fables from other sources in poems by several unnamed
authors. Engravings were initially designed on the wood by Bewick
and then cut by his apprentices under close supervision, refined where
necessary by himself. This edition used a method that Bewick had
pioneered, "white-line" engraving, a dark-to-light technique in which
the lines to remain white are cut out of the woodblock.
A General History of Quadrupeds
A General History of Quadrupeds appeared in 1790. It deals with
260 mammals from across the world, including animals from "Adive" to
"Zorilla". It is particularly thorough on some of the domestic
animals: the first entry describes the horse. Beilby and Bewick had
difficulty deciding what to include, and especially on how to organise
the entries. They had hoped to arrange the animals systematically, but
they found that the rival systems of Linnaeus, Buffon and John Ray
conflicted, and in Linnaeus's case at least changed with every edition
of his work. They decided to put useful animals first "which so
materially contribute to the strength, the wealth, and the happiness
of this kingdom".
The book's coverage is erratic, a direct result of the sources that
Bewick consulted: his own knowledge of British animals, the available
scholarly sources, combined with George Culley's 1786 Observations on
Livestock and the antique John Caius's 1576 On English Dogs. Bewick
had to hand the Swedish naturalist Anders Sparrman's account of his
visit to the
Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope on Cook's expedition of 1772 to 1776,
and animals from the Southern Cape figure largely in the book. It was
an energetic muddle, but it was at once greeted with enthusiasm by the
British public. They liked the combination of vigorous woodcuts,
simple and accurate descriptions, and all kinds of exotic animals
alongside things they knew.
A History of British Birds
"The Yellow Owl" from British Birds, 1797
Main article: A History of British Birds
A History of British Birds, Bewick's great achievement and with which
his name is inseparably associated, was published in two volumes:
History and Description of Land Birds in 1797 and History and
Description of Water Birds in 1804, with a supplement in 1821. The
Birds is specifically British, but is the forerunner of all modern
field guides. Bewick was helped by his intimate knowledge of the
habits of animals acquired during his frequent excursions into the
country. He also recounts information passed to him by acquaintances
and local gentry, and that obtained in natural history works of his
time, including those by
Thomas Pennant and Gilbert White, as well as
the translation of Buffon's Histoire naturelle.
Many of the illustrations that have most frequently been reproduced in
other books and as decorations are the small tailpieces that Bewick
had placed at the bottoms of the pages of the original. The worlds
depicted are so small that a magnifying glass is necessary to examine
their detail; each scene, as Adrian Searle writes, "is a small and
often comic revelation", each tiny image giving "enormous pleasure";
Bewick "was as inventive as he was observant, as funny and bleak as he
was exacting and faithful to the things he saw around him."
Bewick's biographer, Jenny Uglow, writes that
Bewick appears to have had a faultless sense of exactly what line was
needed, and above all where to stop, as if there were no pause for
analysis or reflection between the image in the mind and the hand on
the wood. This skill, which has made later generations of engravers
pause in awe, could be explained as an innate talent, the
je-ne-sais-quoi of "genius". But it also came from the constant habit
of drawing as a child, the painstaking learning of technique as an
Bewick sometimes used his fingerprint as a form of signature,
(accompanied by the words "
Thomas Bewick his mark"), as well as
engraving it in one of his tail-pieces as if it had clouded the tiny
image of a rustic scene with a cottage by mistake. Uglow notes one
critic's suggestion that Bewick may have meant we are looking at the
scene through a playfully smudged window, as well as drawing our
attention to Bewick, the maker. Adrian Searle, writing in The
Guardian, describes the tiny work as "A visual equivalent to the sorts
of authorial gags
Laurence Sterne played in Tristram Shandy, it is a
marvellous, timeless, magical joke".
Tributes and portraits
A bust based on the design by
Edward Hodges Baily
Edward Hodges Baily RA at the site of
Bewick's workshop in St Nicholas churchyard
Poetical tributes came to Bewick even during his lifetime. William
Wordsworth began his anecdotal poem “The Two Thieves”, composed in
1798, with the line “O now that the genius of Bewick were mine”,
in which case he would give up writing, he declared.
In 1823, Bewick's friend the Reverend J. F. M. Dovaston dedicated a
sonnet to him with the lines
Xylographer I name thee, Bewick, taught
By thy wood-Art, that from rock, flood, and tree
Home to our hearths, all lively, light and free
In suited scene each living thing has brought
As life elastic, animate with thought.
Four years after his death, his sixteen-year-old admirer Charlotte
Bronte wrote a poem of 20 quatrains titled “Lines on the celebrated
Bewick” which describe the various scenes she comes across while
leafing through the books illustrated by him. Later still, the
Alfred Tennyson left his own tribute on the flyleaf of a copy of
Bewick's History of British Birds found in Lord Ravenscroft's library:
A gate and field half ploughed,
A solitary cow,
A child with a broken slate,
And a titmarsh in the bough.
But where, alack, is Bewick
To tell the meaning now?
Each in their own way is making the same point, that Bewick's work is
more than mere illustration. Its liveliness and truth to experience
appeals to the imagination of the reader and calls forth an individual
response that goes beyond the text.
As noted at the end of the article on him in the Dictionary of
National Biography, there is a rich collection of Bewick
portraits, beginning with that of Newcastle painter George Gray
(1758-1819), from about 1780 and long owned by Bewick's family, that
is now in the Laing Art Gallery. Several are by James Ramsay,
including the one at the Literary and Philosophical Society of
Newcastle upon Tyne, in which he sits holding spectacles, one in
middle-age, held by the Natural History Society of Northumbria,
and one in old age in the National Portrait Gallery. Bewick also
appears among the figures on the left in Ramsay's "The Lost Child"
(1823), where he is standing next to Ramsay and his wife in the street
leading up to St Nicholas' Church.
John Henry Frederick Bacon
John Henry Frederick Bacon was
to draw on this small figure to create his 1852 print of Bewick, in
which he has been transferred from the urban to a rural setting, with
the city and the Tyne in the background.
Other portraits include one by William Nicholson dating from 1814 in
which Bewick sits with a pencil in his hand and a dog beside his
chair; the one at his birthplace; and the full-length seated
portrait of 1827 by
Thomas Sword Good
Thomas Sword Good (see above). Another painting by
Sword in the National Portrait Gallery is now no longer thought to be
of Bewick. An unsigned painting supposedly of him in the Yale
Center for British Art is equally dubious.
A marble portrait bust of Bewick was commissioned from Edward Hodges
Baily in 1825 by the Literary and Philosophical Society, of which
there are several copies beside the one still at the Society itself.
According to Jenny Uglow, his recent biographer, when he came to sit
for the sculptor, he “stoutly refused to be portrayed in a toga.
Instead he wore his ordinary coat and waistcoat with neckcloth and
ruffled shirt, and even asked for some of his smallpox scars to be
shown." Baily was so taken with him that he presented Bewick with a
plaster model of the finished bust. A bronze copy now rests in a
niche of the building that replaced his workshop in the churchyard of
Saint Nicholas (see above) and still another is at the British
Museum. There is also a full length statue of him at the top left
of the former chemist's shop designed by M.V.Treleaven at 45
Northumberland Street in the city.
Robert Elliot Bewick
Robert Elliot Bewick of the swan named after his father by
Bewick's 'Chillingham Bull' was set into the pavement near Central
Station, Newcastle by the Bewick Society in 2003 to mark the 250th
anniversary of his birth.
Bewick's fame, already nationwide across Britain for his Birds, grew
during the nineteenth century. In 1830,
William Yarrell named Bewick's
swan in his honour and Bewick's son Robert engraved the bird for later
editions of British Birds.
Bewick's wren also took his name.
John Ruskin compared the subtlety of his drawing to that of
Holbein, J. M. W. Turner, and
Paolo Veronese writing that the way
Bewick had engraved the feathers of his birds was "the most masterly
thing ever done in woodcutting". His fame faded as illustration
became more widespread and more mechanical, but twentieth-century
artists such as
Gwen Raverat (née Darwin) continued to admire his
skill, and work by artists such as Paul Nash and
Eric Ravilious has
been described as reminiscent of Bewick.
Hugh Dixon, reflecting on Bewick and the landscape of North-East
England, wrote that
Bewick's illustrated books, admired since they first appeared, gave
him some celebrity in his own lifetime. His Memoir, published a
generation after his death, brought about a new interest and a
widening respect which has continued to grow ever since. The
attraction to his contemporaries of Bewick's observations lay in their
accuracy and amusement. Two centuries later these qualities are still
recognised; but so, too, is the wealth and rarity of the historical
information they have to offer.
Thomas Bewick Primary School, in
West Denton in Newcastle upon Tyne,
is named after him. Bewick's works are held in collections
including the Victoria and Albert Museum. Bewick is also
memorialised elsewhere around Newcastle city, and
centres. These include streets named after him, and blue (and other)
plaques marking former homes and workshops.
A reprint of Dodson's fables with cuts previous to 1784
The 1784 edition of Fables of Aesop and others
The 1818 edition of the fables; there is also an online fable by fable
Bewick, Thomas. (1790). A General History of Quadrupeds: The Figures
Engraved on Wood. S. Hodgson, R. Beilby, T. Bewick, etc.
Bewick, Thomas (1797–1804). A History of British Birds. Newcastle:
Beilby and Bewick.
Volume 1: Containing the History and Description of Land Birds
Volume 2: Containing the History and Description of Water Birds
Bewick, Thomas: Characters of the Kings and Queens of England;
selected from the best historians. To which is added a table of
succession of each, from Alfred to the present time. Newcastle, 1795.
Jarndyce catalogue: The Romantic Background c. 1780–1850 (London,
2015), item 230. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
Bewick, Thomas (1862). A Memoir of Thomas Bewick. Longman, Green,
Longman, and Roberts.
--- (1975). Iain Bain (editor). Oxford University Press.
^ Comparing average earnings of £20 in 1797 with 2011.
^ "Cherryburn". National Trust. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
^ a b c d e f g Bain, Iain (2004). "Bewick, Thomas (1753–1828)".
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press.
Retrieved 23 June 2013.
^ Uglow, 2006. p. 7.
^ Uglow, 2006. pp. 6, 9.
^ Uglow, 2006. pp. 10–11.
^ Uglow, 2006. pp. 12–13.
^ Uglow, 2006. pp. 39–44.
^ Uglow, 2006. pp. 47–48.
^ Uglow, 2006. p. 92.
^ Rayner, John (1947). Wood Engravings by Thomas Bewick. King Penguin.
^ Uglow, 2006. pp. 106–107.
^ a b Dixon, 2010. p. 265.
^ Dixon, 2010. pp. 263–264.
^ a b Dixon, 2010. p. 264.
^ Quoted in Notes by Mr. A.G. Stephens on
Thomas Bewick illustrating a
loan collection of his Drawings and Woodcuts (Fine Art Society's
Galleries, London, 1880)
^ Dixon, 2010. p. 273.
^ Uglow, 2006. pp. 407–408.
^ a b "Major Publications". The Bewick Society. Archived from the
original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
^ Uglow, 2006. pp. 153–186.
^ a b Uglow, 2006. pp. 242–261.
^ Bewick, Thomas: Characters of the Kings and Queens of England;
selected from the best historians. To which is added a table of
succession of each, from Alfred to the present time. Newcastle, 1795.
^ Officer, Lawrence H. (2009). "Five Ways to Compute the Relative
Value of a UK Pound Amount, 1270 to Present". MeasuringWorth.
Retrieved 25 November 2012.
^ a b Uglow, 2006. pp. 262–279 and 293–305.
^ Uglow, 2006. pp. 388–389.
^ Uglow, 2006. pp. 121–122.
^ Uglow, 2006. pp. 283–284 and 398–399.
^ Bewick Society
^ Uglow, 2006. pp. 393–394.
^ Isabella Bewick died on 1 February 1826. Uglow, 2006, pp. 384–385.
^ Uglow, 2006. pp. 394–395.
^ "Thomas Bewick" (PDF).
Gateshead Local History. Retrieved 21 May
^ a b Uglow, 2006. p. xiii.
^ "Thomas Bewick". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2013. Retrieved 21 May
^ a b Dixon, 2010. p. 266.
^ Dixon, 2010. p. 269.
^ a b Rayner, 1947. p. 15.
^ a b Dixon, 2010. pp. 271–275.
^ Tattersfield, 1999.[page needed]
^ Aesop; Dodsley, Robert; Bewick, Thomas (1776). Select Fables of
Aesop. Newcastle: T. Saint.
^ Aesop; Bewick, Thomas (1784). Select Fables of Aesop. Newcastle: T.
^ a b
Thomas Bewick (1818). Select Fables of Aesop. Aesopica.
pp. Fables 1–141.
^ Archive.org: Fables in Verse
^ a b Uglow, 2006. pp. 172–188.
^ Uglow, 2006. p. 174.
^ Bate, Jonathan (15 August 2004). "A bird in the bush is always
best". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
^ a b Uglow, 2006. pp. 242–261, 293–305.
^ a b Searle, Adrian (16 April 2009). "Thomas Bewick's Cheeky
Woodcuts". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
^ a b Uglow, 2006. p. 241.
^ Lee and Gaensslen, 2010. pp. 18–19.
^ Uglow, 2006. pp. xvii, 459.
^ Lyrical Ballads, Gutenberg
^ Poems, legendary, incidental and humorous (Shrewsbury 1825), Google
^ Ellis H. Chadwick, In the Footsteps of the Brontës, Cambridge
University reprint, 2011, p.103
Jenny Uglow in The Guardian
^ BBC paintings
^ BBC Paintings
^ Tyne & Wear Museums
^ In the Orchar Collection of Dundee Art Galleries & Museum
^ In the Laing Art Gallery
^ National Trust
^ a b Wikimedia
^ Now at Cherryburn
^ All round shots at the Museum site.
^ Northumbria Info
^ Uglow, 2006. p. 396.
^ a b Uglow, 2006. pp. 400–401
^ a b Dixon, 2010. p. 278.
Thomas Bewick School". Newcastle City Council. Retrieved 21 May
^ "Works by Thomas Bewick". Victoria and Albert Museum. Retrieved 21
Dixon, Hugh (2010). Faulkner, Tom E.; Berry, Helen; Gregory, Jeremy,
Thomas Bewick and the North-Eastern Landscape. Northern
Landscapes: Representations and Realities of North-East England.
Boydell and Brewer. pp. 261–278. ISBN 9781843835417.
Lee, Henry C; Gaensslen, Robert E (2010). Advances in Fingerprint
Technology (2nd ed.). CRC Press.
Rayner, John (1947). Wood Engravings by Thomas Bewick. King
Uglow, Jenny (2009) . Nature's Engraver: A Life of Thomas
Bewick. University of Chicago Press.
Tattersfield, Nigel (1999).
Bookplates by Beilby & Bewick: A
Biographical Dictionary of
Bookplates from the Workshop of Ralph
Thomas Bewick & Robert Bewick, 1760–1849. British
Library and Oak Knoll Press. ISBN 1-884718-91-4.
Online publications of books about and illustrated by Bewick
Bain, Iain (1981). The Watercolours and Drawings of
Thomas Bewick and
his Workshop Apprentices. Gordon Fraser.
Bain, Iain (rev. edn. 1989). The Workshop of Thomas Bewick. Mickley,
Thomas Bewick Birthplace Trust
Croal, Thomson David (1882). Life and Works of Thomas Bewick. The Art
Journal Office, London.
Dobson, Austin (1899).
Thomas Bewick and his pupils. Chatto &
Windus. First published 1862.
Hall, Marshall (2005). The Artists of Northumbria. Art Dictionaries
Ltd. ISBN 0-9532609-9-2.
Holmes, June (2006). The Many Faces of Bewick. Natural History Society
of Northumbria Transactions.
Robinson, Robert (1887). Thomas Bewick, His Life and Times. Printed
for Robert Robinson, Newcastle.
Weekley, Montague (1953). Thomas Bewick. Oxford University Press.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Thomas Bewick.
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
The Bewick Society, which also has a useful bibliography and lists of
Bewick at the Newcastle Collection
Laing Art Gallery
Laing Art Gallery (Tyne and Wear Museums): Thomas Bewick
University of Manchester: George Johnson Wood-Engraving Collection
Thomas Bewick in the University of Delaware Library's
William Augustus Brewer Bookplate Collection
Thomas Bewick at Project Gutenberg
Works by or about
Thomas Bewick at Internet Archive
A selection of high-resolution scans of pages from Bewick's books,
featuring woodcut illustrations from the Linda Hall Library
Aristotle (History of Animals)
Theophrastus (Historia Plantarum)
Aelian (De Natura Animalium)
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder (Natural History)
Dioscorides (De Materia Medica)
Gaspard Bauhin (Pinax theatri botanici)
Conrad Gessner (Historia animalium)
William Turner (Avium Praecipuarum, New Herball)
John Gerard (Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes)
Robert Hooke (Micrographia)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Linnaeus (Systema Naturae)
Johan Christian Fabricius
John Ray (Historia Plantarum)
Comte de Buffon (Histoire Naturelle)
Bernard Germain de Lacépède
Gilbert White (The Natural History of Selborne)
Thomas Bewick (A History of British Birds)
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (Philosophie Zoologique)
George Montagu (Ornithological Dictionary)
Georges Cuvier (Le Règne Animal)
Charles Darwin (On the Origin of Species)
Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred Russel Wallace (The Malay Archipelago)
Henry Walter Bates
Henry Walter Bates (The Naturalist on the River Amazons)
Alexander von Humboldt
John James Audubon
John James Audubon (The Birds of America)
Philip Henry Gosse
William Jackson Hooker
Joseph Dalton Hooker
William Jardine (The Naturalist's Library)
Ernst Haeckel (Kunstformen der Natur)
Richard Lydekker (The Royal Natural History)
Abbott Thayer (Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom)
Hugh B. Cott
Hugh B. Cott (Adaptive Coloration in Animals)
Niko Tinbergen (The Study of Instinct)
Konrad Lorenz (On Aggression)
Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch (The Dancing Bees)
Ronald Lockley (Shearwaters)
Natural history museums (List)
Natural History Societies
List of natural history dealers
ISNI: 0000 0001 2118 0918
BNF: cb13520988k (data)