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THOMAS ANDREWS, JR. (7 February 1873 – 15 April 1912) was an Irish businessman and shipbuilder . He was managing director and head of the drafting department of the shipbuilding company Harland and Wolff
Harland and Wolff
in Belfast
Belfast
, Ireland. As the naval architect in charge of the plans for the ocean liner RMS Titanic
RMS Titanic
, he was travelling on board that vessel during her maiden voyage when the ship hit an iceberg on 14 April 1912. He perished along with more than fifteen hundred others. His body was never recovered.

CONTENTS

* 1 Biography

* 1.1 Early life * 1.2 Harland and Wolff
Harland and Wolff

* 2 RMS Titanic
RMS Titanic

* 2.1 Death

* 3 Legacy * 4 Portrayals * 5 References * 6 External links

BIOGRAPHY

EARLY LIFE

Thomas (second from right) with family, circa 1895.

Thomas Andrews
Thomas Andrews
was born at Ardara House, Comber
Comber
, County Down
County Down
, in Ireland, to The Rt. Hon. Thomas Andrews, a member of the Privy Council of Ireland
Ireland
, and Eliza Pirrie. Andrews was a Presbyterian of Scottish descent, and like his brother, considered himself British. His siblings included John Miller Andrews
John Miller Andrews
, the future Prime Minister of Northern Ireland
Ireland
, and Sir James Andrews , the future Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland
Ireland
. Thomas Andrews
Thomas Andrews
lived with his family in Ardara, Comber. In 1884, he began attending the Royal Belfast Academical Institution until 1889 when, at the age of sixteen, he began a premium apprenticeship at Harland and Wolff
Harland and Wolff
where his uncle, the Viscount Pirrie , was part owner. Andrews with wife, Helen Barbour, and daughter, Elizabeth Law Barber Andrews

HARLAND AND WOLFF

At Harland and Wolff, he began with three months in the joiners' shop, followed by a month in the cabinetmakers' and then a further two months working on the ships. The last eighteen months of his five-year apprenticeship were spent in the drawing office. In 1901, Andrews, after working his way up through the many departments of the company, became the manager of the construction works. That same year, he also became a member of the Institution of Naval Architects . In 1907, Andrews was appointed the managing director and head of the drafting department at Harland and Wolff. During his long years of apprenticeship, study, and work, Andrews had become well liked in the company and amongst the shipyard's employees.

On 24 June 1908, he married Helen Reilly Barbour, daughter of textile industrialist John Doherty Barbour and sister to Rt Hon Sir John Milne Barbour - known as "Milne". Their daughter, Elizabeth Law Barber Andrews (known by her initials, "ELBA"), was born on 27 November 1910. The couple lived at Dunallan, 20 Windsor Avenue, Belfast. It is known that Andrews took Helen to view the RMS Titanic
RMS Titanic
one night, shortly before Elizabeth was born. After Thomas's death, Helen remarried; she died 22 August 1966 in Northern Ireland
Ireland
and is buried in the Barbour family mausoleum at Lambeg.

RMS TITANIC

In 1907, Andrews began to oversee the plans for a new superliner , the RMS Olympic
RMS Olympic
for the White Star Line
White Star Line
. The Olympic and its sister ship the Titanic
Titanic
, which began construction in 1909, were designed by William Pirrie and general manager Alexander Carlisle along with Andrews. As he had done for the other ships he had overseen, Andrews familiarised himself with every detail of the Olympic and Titanic, in order to ensure that they were in optimal working order. Andrews's suggestions that the ship have 46 lifeboats (instead of the 20 it ended up with) as well as a double hull and watertight bulkheads that went up to B deck, were overruled.

Andrews headed a group of Harland and Wolff
Harland and Wolff
workers who went on the maiden voyages of the ships built by the company (the guarantee group), to observe ship operations and spot any necessary improvements. The Titanic
Titanic
was no exception, so Andrews and the rest of his Harland and Wolff
Harland and Wolff
group travelled from Belfast
Belfast
to Southampton
Southampton
on Titanic
Titanic
for the beginning of her maiden voyage on 10 April 1912. During the voyage, Andrews took notes on various improvements he felt were needed, primarily cosmetic changes to various facilities. However, on 14 April, Andrews remarked to a friend that Titanic
Titanic
was "as nearly perfect as human brains can make her."

On 14 April at 11:40 PM, the Titanic
Titanic
struck an iceberg on the ship's starboard side. Andrews had been in his stateroom, planning changes he wanted to make to the ship, and barely noticed the collision. Captain Edward J. Smith had Andrews summoned to help examine the damage. Andrews and Captain Smith discussed the damage to the ship shortly after midnight, after Andrews had toured the damaged section of the ship and received several reports of the vessel's damage. Andrews determined that the first five of the ship's watertight compartments were rapidly flooding. Andrews knew that if more than four of the ship's compartments flooded, it would inevitably sink. He relayed this information to Captain Smith, stating that it was a 'mathematical certainty', and adding that in his opinion, the vessel had only about an hour before it completely sank. He also informed Smith of the severe shortage of lifeboats on board the ship.

As the evacuation of the Titanic
Titanic
began, Andrews tirelessly searched staterooms telling the passengers to put on lifebelts and go up on deck. Several survivors testify to have met or spotted Andrews several times. Fully aware of the short time the ship had left and of the lack of lifeboat space for all passengers and crew, he continued to urge reluctant people into the lifeboats in the hope of filling them with as many people as possible.

DEATH

Andrews was reportedly last seen in the first-class smoking room, although this has been disputed.

Andrews was reportedly last seen by John Stewart, a steward on the ship, at approximately 2:10 a.m., ten minutes before the Titanic
Titanic
sank into the Atlantic. Andrews was standing alone in the first-class smoking room staring at a painting, Plymouth Harbour, above the fireplace, arms folded over his chest, his lifejacket lying on a nearby table. The painting depicted the entrance to Plymouth Sound , which Titanic
Titanic
had been expected to visit on her return voyage.

Although this has become one of the most famous legends of the sinking of the Titanic, this story, which was published in a 1912 book (Thomas Andrews: Shipbuilder
Shipbuilder
by Shan Bullock ) and therefore perpetuated, came from John Stewart, a steward on the ship who in fact left the ship in a lifeboat at approximately 1:40 a.m.

There were testimonies of sightings of Andrews after that moment. It appears that Andrews stayed in the smoking room for some time, then continued assisting with the evacuation. At around 2:00 a.m., he was seen back on the boat deck. The crowd had begun to stir, but there were still women reluctant to leave the ship. To be heard and to draw attention to himself, Andrews waved his arms and announced to them in a loud voice. Another reported sighting was of Andrews frantically throwing deck chairs into the ocean for passengers to cling to in the water. He then headed towards the bridge, perhaps in search of Captain Smith. Andrews was last seen leaving the ship at the last moment. His body was never recovered.

On 19 April 1912, his father received a telegram from his mother's cousin, who had spoken with survivors in New York: "INTERVIEW TITANIC'S OFFICERS. ALL UNANIMOUS THAT ANDREWS HEROIC UNTO DEATH, THINKING ONLY SAFETY OTHERS. EXTEND HEARTFELT SYMPATHY TO ALL."

LEGACY

Newspaper accounts of the disaster labelled Andrews a hero. Mary Sloan, a stewardess on the ship, whom Andrews persuaded to enter a lifeboat, later wrote in a letter: "Mr. Andrews met his fate like a true hero, realising the great danger, and gave up his life to save the women and children of the Titanic. They will find it hard to replace him." A short biography was produced within the year by Shan Bullock at the request of Sir Horace Plunkett , a member of Parliament, who felt that Andrews' life was worthy of being memorialised.

In his home town, Comber, one of the earliest and most substantial memorials for a single victim of the Titanic
Titanic
disaster was built. The Thomas Andrews
Thomas Andrews
Jr. Memorial Hall was opened in January 1914. The architects were Young and McKenzie with sculpted work by the artist Sophia Rosamond Praeger
Rosamond Praeger
. The hall is now maintained by the South Eastern Education Board and used by The Andrews Memorial Primary School. An Ulster History Circle blue plaque is located on his house in Windsor Avenue, Belfast.

Today, the SS Nomadic is the sole surviving ship designed by Andrews.

Asteroid 245158 Thomasandrews was named in his honour in 2004.

PORTRAYALS

* Patrick Macnee (1956; Kraft Television Theatre
Kraft Television Theatre
; A Night to Remember) * Michael Goodliffe (1958; A Night to Remember ) * Geoffrey Whitehead (1979; S.O.S. Titanic ; TV Movie) * Victor Garber
Victor Garber
(1997; Titanic
Titanic
) * Michael Cerveris
Michael Cerveris
(1997; Titanic
Titanic
; Broadway Musical) * Vern Urich (1998; Titanic: Secrets Revealed; TV Documentary) * Don Lynch (2003; Ghosts of the Abyss ; Documentary) * Damian O\'Hare (2005; Titanic: Birth of a Legend; TV Documentary) * Paul Mundell (2011; Curiosity Episode: "What Sank Titanic?") * Stephen Campbell Moore
Stephen Campbell Moore
(2012; Titanic
Titanic
; TV series/3 episodes) * Billy Carter (2012; Titanic: Blood and Steel; TV series/12 episodes) * Nick Danan (2012; The Titanic
Titanic
Boys; Stage Production- Grand Opera House, Belfast) * Stephen Hogan (2012; Saving The Titanic; PBS TV Movie) * Robert Bagdon (2013; Belfast
Belfast
Air; Short Film) * Kazuki Kato (2015; " Titanic
Titanic
the musical"; Japanese Musical directed by Tom Sutherland)

REFERENCES

* ^ NationalArchives.ie * ^ Ulster History Cycle * ^ " Thomas Andrews
Thomas Andrews
– A Talented Designer That Met With A Tragic Fate". Titanicuniverse.com. 16 September 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2017.

* ^ (Mark Chirnside 2004 , p. 163) * ^ Eaton & Haas 1994 , p. 155. * ^ (Walter Lord 1998 , p. 113) * ^ (Mark Chirnside 2004 , p. 177) * ^ The painting is often incorrectly shown on television and in movies as depicting the entrance to New York Harbor
New York Harbor
. * ^ A B C ON A SEA OF GLASS: THE LIFE & LOSS OF THE RMS TITANIC" by Tad Fitch, J. Kent Layton & Bill Wormstedt. Amberley Books, March 2012. pp 321-323 * ^ A B (in English) « The sinking of the Titanic
Titanic
», Thomas Andrews Shipbuilder. Consulté le 21 avril 2011 * ^ Levy, David. "Asteroid Named for Titanic
Titanic
Designer Thomas Andrews". Encyclopedia Titanica . Retrieved 22 September 2017.

* M. A. Kribble. "Thomas Andrews: Builder of the Ship of Dreams". Thomas Andrews: Builder of the Ship of Dreams. Archived from the original on 2 February 2003. Retrieved 9 July 2005.