Thomas Hobbes (/hɒbz/; 5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some
Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher
who is considered one of the founders of modern political
philosophy. Hobbes is best known for his 1651 book Leviathan,
which established the social contract theory that has served as the
foundation for most later Western political philosophy. In addition
to political philosophy, Hobbes also contributed to a diverse array of
other fields, including history, jurisprudence, geometry, the physics
of gases, theology, ethics, and general philosophy.
Though on rational grounds a champion of absolutism for the sovereign,
Hobbes also developed some of the fundamentals of European liberal
thought: the right of the individual; the natural equality of all men;
the artificial character of the political order (which led to the
later distinction between civil society and the state); the view that
all legitimate political power must be "representative" and based on
the consent of the people; and a liberal interpretation of law that
leaves people free to do whatever the law does not explicitly
forbid. His understanding of humans as being matter and motion,
obeying the same physical laws as other matter and motion, remains
influential; and his account of human nature as self-interested
cooperation, and of political communities as being based upon a
"social contract" remains one of the major topics of political
1 Early life and education
2 In Paris
3 Civil war in England
5.1 John Bramhall
5.2 John Wallis
6 Later life
8 Works (Bibliography)
9 See also
12 Further reading
12.1 General resources
12.2 Critical studies
13 External links
Early life and education
Thomas Hobbes was born at Westport, now part of
Wiltshire, England, on 5 April 1588. Born prematurely when his
mother heard of the coming invasion of the Spanish Armada, Hobbes
later reported that "my mother gave birth to twins: myself and
fear." His childhood is almost completely unknown, and his mother's
name is unknown. His father, Thomas Sr., was the vicar of Charlton
and Westport. Thomas Hobbes, the younger, had a brother Edmund, about
two years older, and a sister. Thomas Sr. was involved in a fight with
the local clergy outside his church, forcing him to leave London and
abandon the family. The family was left in the care of Thomas Sr.'s
older brother, Francis, a wealthy merchant with no family. Hobbes Jr.
was educated at Westport church from age four, passed to the
Malmesbury school, and then to a private school kept by a young man
named Robert Latimer, a graduate of the University of Oxford. Hobbes
was a good pupil, and around 1603 he went up to Magdalen Hall, the
predecessor college to Hertford College, Oxford. The
principal John Wilkinson was a Puritan, and he had some influence on
At university, Hobbes appears to have followed his own curriculum; he
was "little attracted by the scholastic learning". He did not complete
B.A. degree until 1608, but he was recommended by Sir James
Hussey, his master at Magdalen, as tutor to William, the son of
William Cavendish, Baron of Hardwick (and later Earl of Devonshire),
and began a lifelong connection with that family.
Hobbes became a companion to the younger William and they both took
part in a grand tour of Europe in 1610. Hobbes was exposed to European
scientific and critical methods during the tour, in contrast to the
scholastic philosophy that he had learned in Oxford. His scholarly
efforts at the time were aimed at a careful study of classic Greek and
Latin authors, the outcome of which was, in 1628, his great
translation of Thucydides'
History of the Peloponnesian War, the first
translation of that work into English from a Greek manuscript. It has
been argued that three of the discourses in the 1620 publication known
as Horea Subsecivae: Observations and Discourses also represent the
work of Hobbes from this period.
Although he associated with literary figures like
Ben Jonson and
briefly worked as Francis Bacon's amanuensis, he did not extend his
efforts into philosophy until after 1629. His employer Cavendish, then
the Earl of Devonshire, died of the plague in June 1628. The widowed
countess dismissed Hobbes, but he soon found work, again as a tutor,
this time to Gervase Clifton, the son of Sir Gervase Clifton, 1st
Baronet. This task, chiefly spent in Paris, ended in 1631 when he
again found work with the Cavendish family, tutoring William, the
eldest son of his previous pupil. Over the next seven years, as well
as tutoring, he expanded his own knowledge of philosophy, awakening in
him curiosity over key philosophic debates. He visited
1636 and was later a regular debater in philosophic groups in Paris,
held together by Marin Mersenne.
Hobbes's first area of study was an interest in the physical doctrine
of motion and physical momentum. Despite his interest in this
phenomenon, he disdained experimental work as in physics. He went on
to conceive the system of thought to the elaboration of which he would
devote his life. His scheme was first to work out, in a separate
treatise, a systematic doctrine of body, showing how physical
phenomena were universally explicable in terms of motion, at least as
motion or mechanical action was then understood. He then singled out
Man from the realm of Nature and plants. Then, in another treatise, he
showed what specific bodily motions were involved in the production of
the peculiar phenomena of sensation, knowledge, affections and
passions whereby Man came into relation with Man. Finally he
considered, in his crowning treatise, how Men were moved to enter into
society, and argued how this must be regulated if Men were not to fall
back into "brutishness and misery". Thus he proposed to unite the
separate phenomena of Body, Man, and the State.
Hobbes came home, in 1637, to a country riven with discontent, which
disrupted him from the orderly execution of his philosophic plan.
However, by the end of the
Short Parliament in 1640, he had written a
short treatise called The Elements of Law, Natural and Politic. It was
not published and only circulated as a manuscript among his
acquaintances. A pirated version, however, was published about ten
years later. Although it seems that much of The Elements of
composed before the sitting of the Short Parliament, there are
polemical pieces of the work that clearly mark the influences of the
rising political crisis. Nevertheless, many (though not all) elements
of Hobbes's political thought were unchanged between The Elements of
Law and Leviathan, which demonstrates that the events of the English
War had little effect on his contractarian methodology. However,
the arguments in
Leviathan were modified from The Elements of
it came to the necessity of consent in creating political obligation.
Namely, Hobbes wrote in The Elements of
Law that Patrimonial kingdoms
were not necessarily formed by the consent of the governed, while in
Leviathan he argued that they were. This was perhaps a reflection
either of Hobbes's thoughts about the engagement controversy or of his
reaction to treatises published by Patriarchalists, such as Sir Robert
Filmer, between 1640 and 1651.
When in November 1640 the
Long Parliament succeeded the Short, Hobbes
felt that he was in disfavour due to the circulation of his treatise
and fled to Paris. He did not return for 11 years. In Paris, he
rejoined the coterie around Mersenne and wrote a critique of the
Meditations on First Philosophy
Meditations on First Philosophy of Descartes, which was printed as
third among the sets of "Objections" appended, with "Replies" from
Descartes, in 1641. A different set of remarks on other works by
Descartes succeeded only in ending all correspondence between the two.
Hobbes also extended his own works in a way, working on the third
section, De Cive, which was finished in November 1641. Although it was
initially only circulated privately, it was well received, and
included lines of argumentation that were repeated a decade later in
Leviathan. He then returned to hard work on the first two sections of
his work and published little except a short treatise on optics
(Tractatus opticus) included in the collection of scientific tracts
published by Mersenne as Cogitata physico-mathematica in 1644. He
built a good reputation in philosophic circles and in 1645 was chosen
Gilles de Roberval
Gilles de Roberval and others to referee the
John Pell and
Longomontanus over the problem of
squaring the circle.
Civil war in England
English Civil War
English Civil War broke out in 1642, and when the royalist cause
began to decline in mid-1644, the king's supporters fled to Europe.
Many came to Paris and were known to Hobbes. This revitalised Hobbes's
political interests and the
De Cive was republished and more widely
distributed. The printing began in 1646 by
Samuel de Sorbiere
Samuel de Sorbiere through
the Elsevier press at
Amsterdam with a new preface and some new notes
in reply to objections.
In 1647, Hobbes took up a position as mathematical instructor to the
young Charles, Prince of Wales, who had come over from Jersey
around July. This engagement lasted until 1648 when Charles went to
De Cive (1642)
The company of the exiled royalists led Hobbes to produce Leviathan,
which set forth his theory of civil government in relation to the
political crisis resulting from the war. Hobbes compared the State to
a monster (leviathan) composed of men, created under pressure of human
needs and dissolved by civil strife due to human passions. The work
closed with a general "Review and Conclusion", in response to the war,
which answered the question: Does a subject have the right to change
allegiance when a former sovereign's power to protect is irrevocably
During the years of composing Leviathan, Hobbes remained in or near
Paris. In 1647, a serious illness that nearly killed him disabled him
for six months. On recovering, he resumed his literary task and
completed it by 1650. Meanwhile, a translation of
De Cive was being
produced; scholars disagree about whether it was Hobbes who translated
In 1650, a pirated edition of The Elements of Law, Natural and Politic
was published. It was divided into two small volumes (Human Nature, or
the Fundamental Elements of Policie and De corpore politico, or the
Elements of Law, Moral and Politick). In 1651, the translation of De
Cive was published under the title Philosophicall Rudiments concerning
Government and Society. Meanwhile, the printing of the greater work
proceeded, and finally appeared in mid-1651, titled Leviathan, or the
Matter, Forme, and Power of a Common Wealth, Ecclesiasticall and
Civil. It had a famous title-page engraving depicting a crowned giant
above the waist towering above hills overlooking a landscape, holding
a sword and a crozier and made up of tiny human figures.
The work had immediate impact. Soon, Hobbes was more lauded and
decried than any other thinker of his time. The first effect of its
publication was to sever his link with the exiled royalists, who might
well have killed him. The secularist spirit of his book greatly
angered both Anglicans and French Catholics. Hobbes appealed to the
revolutionary English government for protection and fled back to
London in winter 1651. After his submission to the Council of State,
he was allowed to subside into private life in Fetter Lane.
Leviathan (Hobbes book)
Frontispiece of Leviathan
In Leviathan, Hobbes set out his doctrine of the foundation of states
and legitimate governments and creating an objective science of
morality. This gave rise to social contract theory.
written during the English Civil War; much of the book is occupied
with demonstrating the necessity of a strong central authority to
avoid the evil of discord and civil war.
Beginning from a mechanistic understanding of human beings and their
passions, Hobbes postulates what life would be like without
government, a condition which he calls the state of nature. In that
state, each person would have a right, or license, to everything in
the world. This, Hobbes argues, would lead to a "war of all against
all" (bellum omnium contra omnes). The description contains what has
been called one of the best known passages in English philosophy,
which describes the natural state humankind would be in, were it not
for political community:
In such condition, there is no place for industry; because the fruit
thereof is uncertain: and consequently no culture of the earth; no
navigation, nor use of the commodities that may be imported by sea; no
commodious building; no instruments of moving, and removing, such
things as require much force; no knowledge of the face of the earth;
no account of time; no arts; no letters; no society; and which is
worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death; and the
life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.
In such a state, people fear death, and lack both the things necessary
to commodious living, and the hope of being able to toil to obtain
them. So, in order to avoid it, people accede to a social contract and
establish a civil society. According to Hobbes, society is a
population beneath a sovereign authority, to whom all individuals in
that society cede some rights for the sake of protection. Any power
exercised by this authority cannot be resisted, because the
protector's sovereign power derives from individuals' surrendering
their own sovereign power for protection. The individuals are thereby
the authors of all decisions made by the sovereign. "he that
complaineth of injury from his sovereign complaineth that whereof he
himself is the author, and therefore ought not to accuse any man but
himself, no nor himself of injury because to do injury to one's self
is impossible". There is no doctrine of separation of powers in
Hobbes's discussion. According to Hobbes, the sovereign must
control civil, military, judicial and ecclesiastical powers, even the
In 1654 a small treatise, Of Liberty and Necessity, directed at
Hobbes, was published by Bishop John Bramhall. Bramhall, a strong
Arminian, had met and debated with Hobbes and afterwards wrote down
his views and sent them privately to be answered in this form by
Hobbes. Hobbes duly replied, but not for publication. However, a
French acquaintance took a copy of the reply and published it with "an
extravagantly laudatory epistle". Bramhall countered
in 1655, when he printed everything that had passed between them
(under the title of A Defence of the True Liberty of Human Actions
from Antecedent or Extrinsic Necessity). In 1656, Hobbes was ready
with The Questions concerning Liberty, Necessity and Chance, in which
he replied "with astonishing force" to the bishop. As
perhaps the first clear exposition of the psychological doctrine of
determinism, Hobbes's own two pieces were important in the history of
the free-will controversy. The bishop returned to the charge in 1658
with Castigations of Mr Hobbes's Animadversions, and also included a
bulky appendix entitled The Catching of
Leviathan the Great Whale.
Further information: Hobbes–Wallis controversy
Hobbes opposed the existing academic arrangements, and assailed the
system of the original universities in Leviathan. He went on to
publish De Corpore, which contained not only tendentious views on
mathematics but also an erroneous proof of the squaring of the circle.
This all led mathematicians to target him for polemics and sparked
John Wallis to become one of his most persistent opponents. From 1655,
the publishing date of De Corpore, Hobbes and Wallis went round after
round trying to disprove each other's positions. After years of
debate, the spat over proving the squaring of the circle gained such
notoriety that it has become one of the most infamous feuds in
Hobbes has been accused of atheism, or (in the case of Bramhall) of
teachings that could lead to atheism. This was an important
accusation, and Hobbes himself wrote, in his answer to Bramhall's The
Catching of Leviathan, that "atheism, impiety, and the like are words
of the greatest defamation possible". Hobbes always defended
himself from such accusations. In more recent times also, much has
been made of his religious views by scholars such as Richard Tuck and
J. G. A. Pocock, but there is still widespread disagreement about the
exact significance of Hobbes's unusual views on religion.
As Martinich has pointed out, in Hobbes's time the term "atheist" was
often applied to people who believed in God but not in divine
providence, or to people who believed in God but also maintained other
beliefs that were inconsistent with such belief. He says that this
"sort of discrepancy has led to many errors in determining who was an
atheist in the early modern period". In this extended early modern
sense of atheism, Hobbes did take positions that strongly disagreed
with church teachings of his time. For example, he argued repeatedly
that there are no incorporeal substances, and that all things,
including human thoughts, and even God, heaven, and hell are
corporeal, matter in motion. He argued that "though Scripture
acknowledge spirits, yet doth it nowhere say, that they are
incorporeal, meaning thereby without dimensions and quantity". (In
this view, Hobbes claimed to be following Tertullian, whose views were
not condemned in the First Council of Nicaea.) Like John Locke, he
also stated that true revelation can never disagree with human reason
and experience, although he also argued that people should accept
revelation and its interpretations for the reason that they should
accept the commands of their sovereign, in order to avoid war.
Thomas Hobbes in St John the Baptist's Church, Ault Hucknall
In 1658, Hobbes published the final section of his philosophical
system, completing the scheme he had planned more than 20 years
before. De Homine consisted for the most part of an elaborate theory
of vision. The remainder of the treatise dealt cursorily with some of
the topics more fully treated in the Human Nature and the Leviathan.
In addition to publishing some controversial writings on mathematics
and physics, Hobbes also continued to produce philosophical works.
From the time of the Restoration, he acquired a new prominence;
"Hobbism" became a byword for all that respectable society ought to
denounce. The young king, Hobbes' former pupil, now Charles II,
remembered Hobbes and called him to the court to grant him a pension
The king was important in protecting Hobbes when, in 1666, the House
of Commons introduced a bill against atheism and profaneness. That
same year, on 17 October 1666, it was ordered that the committee to
which the bill was referred "should be empowered to receive
information touching such books as tend to atheism, blasphemy and
profaneness... in particular... the book of Mr. Hobbes called the
Leviathan". Hobbes was terrified at the prospect of being labelled
a heretic, and proceeded to burn some of his compromising papers. At
the same time, he examined the actual state of the law of heresy. The
results of his investigation were first announced in three short
Dialogues added as an Appendix to his Latin translation of Leviathan,
Amsterdam in 1668. In this appendix, Hobbes aimed to show
that, since the High Court of Commission had been put down, there
remained no court of heresy at all to which he was amenable, and that
nothing could be heresy except opposing the Nicene Creed, which, he
Leviathan did not do.
The only consequence that came of the bill was that Hobbes could never
thereafter publish anything in
England on subjects relating to human
conduct. The 1668 edition of his works was printed in Amsterdam
because he could not obtain the censor's licence for its publication
in England. Other writings were not made public until after his death,
including Behemoth: the
History of the Causes of the Civil Wars of
England and of the Counsels and Artifices by which they were carried
on from the year 1640 to the year 1662. For some time, Hobbes was not
even allowed to respond, whatever his enemies tried. Despite this, his
reputation abroad was formidable, and noble or learned foreigners who
England never forgot to pay their respects to the old
His final works were an autobiography in Latin verse in 1672, and a
translation of four books of the
Odyssey into "rugged" English rhymes
that in 1673 led to a complete translation of both
Iliad and Odyssey
In October 1679 Hobbes suffered a bladder disorder, and then a
paralytic stroke, from which he died on 4 December 1679, aged 91. His
last words were said to have been, "A great leap in the dark," uttered
in his final conscious moments. His body was interred in St John
the Baptist's Church, Ault Hucknall, in Derbyshire.
1602. Latin translation of Euripides' Medea (lost).
1620. Three of the discourses in the Horae Subsecivae:
Discourses (A Discourse of Tacitus, A Discourse of Rome, and A
Discourse of Laws).
1626. De Mirabilis Pecci, Being the Wonders of the Peak in
Darby-shire, (a poem first published in 1636)
1629. Eight Books of the Peloponnesian Warre, translation with an
Introduction of Thucydides,
History of the Peloponnesian War
1630. A Short Tract on First Principles, British Museum, Harleian MS
6796, ff. 297–308: critical edition with commentary and French
translation by Jean Bernhardt: Court traité des premiers principes,
Paris, PUF, 1988 (authorship doubtful: this work is attributed by some
critics to Robert Payne).
1637 A Briefe of the Art of Rhetorique (in Molesworth's edition the
title is The Whole Art of Rhetoric). A new edition has been edited by
John T. Harwood: The Rhetorics of
Thomas Hobbes and Bernard Lamy,
Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1986. (Authorship
probable: While Karl Schuhmann firmly rejects the attribution of this
work to Hobbes, disagreeing with Quentin Skinner, who has come to
agree with Schuhmann, a preponderance of scholarship disagrees with
Schuhmann's idiosyncratic assessment.)
1639. Tractatus opticus II (British Library, Harley MS 6796, ff.
193–266; first complete edition 1963)
1640. Elements of Law, Natural and Politic (circulated only in
handwritten copies, first printed edition, without Hobbes's permission
1641. Objectiones ad Cartesii Meditationes de Prima Philosophia (Third
series of Objections)
1642. Elementorum Philosophiae Sectio Tertia de Cive (Latin, first
1643. De Motu, Loco et Tempore (first edition 1973 with the title:
Thomas White's De Mundo Examined)
1644. Part of the Praefatio to Mersenni Ballistica (in F. Marini
Mersenni minimi Cogitata physico-mathematica. In quibus tam naturae
quàm artis effectus admirandi certissimis demonstrationibus
1644. Opticae, liber septimus, (written in 1640) in Universae
geometriae mixtaeque mathematicae synopsis, edited by Marin Mersenne
(reprinted by Molesworth in OL V pp. 215–48 with the title
1646. A Minute or First Draught of the Optiques (Harley MS 3360;
Molesworth published only the dedication to Cavendish and the
conclusion in EW VII, pp. 467–71)
1646. Of Liberty and Necessity (published without the permission of
Hobbes in 1654)
1647. Elementa Philosophica de Cive (second expanded edition with a
new Preface to the Reader)
1650. Answer to Sir William Davenant's Preface before Gondibert
1650. Human Nature: or The fundamental Elements of Policie (first
thirteen chapters of The Elements of Law, Natural and Politic,
published without Hobbes's authorisation)
1650. Pirated edition of The Elements of Law, Natural and Politic,
repackaged to include two parts:
Human Nature, or the Fundamental Elements of Policie (chapters 14–19
of Part One of the Elements of 1640)
De Corpore Politico (Part Two of the Elements of 1640)
1651. Philosophical Rudiments concerning Government and Society
(English translation of De Cive)
1651. Leviathan, or the Matter, Forme, and Power of a Commonwealth,
Ecclesiasticall and Civil
1654. Of Libertie and Necessitie, a Treatise
De Corpore (Latin)
1656. Elements of Philosophy, The First Section, Concerning Body
(anonymous English translation of De Corpore)
1656. Six Lessons to the Professor of Mathematics
1656. The Questions concerning Liberty, Necessity and Chance (reprint
of Of Libertie and Necessitie, a Treatise, with the addition of
Bramhall's reply and Hobbes's reply to Bramahall's reply)
1657. Stigmai, or Marks of the Absurd Geometry, Rural Language,
Scottish Church Politics, and Barbarisms of John Wallis
1658. Elementorum Philosophiae Sectio Secunda De Homine
1660. Examinatio et emendatio mathematicae hodiernae qualis explicatur
in libris Johannis Wallisii
1661. Dialogus physicus, sive De natura aeris
1662. Problematica Physica (translated in English in 1682 as Seven
1662. Seven Philosophical Problems, and Two Propositions of Geometru
1662. Mr. Hobbes Considered in his Loyalty, Religion, Reputation, and
Manners. By way of Letter to Dr. Wallis (English autobiography)
1666. De Principis & Ratiocinatione Geometrarum
1666. A Dialogue between a Philosopher and a Student of the Common
England (published in 1681)
Leviathan (Latin translation)
1668. An Answer to a Book published by Dr. Bramhall (published in
1671. Three Papers Presented to the
Royal Society Against Dr. Wallis.
Together with Considerations on Dr. Wallis his Answer to them
1671. Rosetum Geometricum, sive Propositiones Aliquot Frustra antehac
tentatae. Cum Censura brevi Doctrinae Wallisianae de Motu
1672. Lux Mathematica. Excussa Collisionibus Johannis Wallisii
1673. English translation of Homer's
Iliad and Odyssey
1674. Principia et Problemata Aliquot Geometrica Antè Desperata, Nunc
breviter Explicata & Demonstrata
1678. Decameron Physiologicum: Or, Ten Dialogues of Natural Philosophy
1679. Thomae Hobbessii Malmesburiensis Vita. Authore seipso (Latin
autobiography, translated into English in 1680)
1680. An Historical Narration concerning Heresie, And the Punishment
1681. Behemoth, or The
Long Parliament (written in 1668, unpublished
at the request of the King, first pirated edition 1679)
1682. Seven Philosophical Problems (English translation of
Problematica Physica, 1662)
1682. A Garden of Geometrical Roses (English translation of Rosetum
1682. Some Principles and Problems in
Geometry (English translation of
Principia et Problemata, 1674)
1688. Historia Ecclesiastica Carmine Elegiaco Concinnata
Thomae Hobbes Malmesburiensis Opera Philosophica quae Latina Scripsit,
Studio et labore Gulielmi Molesworth, (Londini, 1839–1845). 5
volumes. Reprint: Aalen, 1966 (= OL).
Volume I. Elementorum Philosophiae I: De Corpore
Volume II. Elementorum Philosophiae II and III: De Homine and De Cive
Volume III. Latin version of Leviathan.
Volume IV. Various concerning mathematics, geometry and physics.
Volume V. Various short works.
The English Works of
Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury; Now First Collected
and Edited by Sir William Molesworth, Bart., (London: Bohn,
1839–45). 11 volumes. Reprint London, 1939-–; reprint: Aalen, 1966
De Corpore translated from Latin to English.
Volume 2. De Cive.
Volume 3. The Leviathan
TRIPOS ; in Three Discourses:
I. Human Nature, or the Fundamental Elements of Policy
De Corpore Politico, or the Elements of Law
III. Of Liberty and Necessity
An Answer to Bishop Bramhall's Book, called "The Catching of the
An Historical Narration concerning Heresy, and the Punishment thereof
Considerations upon the Reputation, Loyalty, Manners, and Religion of
Answer to Sir William Davenant's Preface before "Gondibert"
Letter to the Right Honourable Edward Howard
Volume 5. The Questions concerning Liberty, Necessity and Chance,
clearly stated and debated between Dr Bramhall Bishop of Derry and
Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury.
A Dialogue Between a Philosopher & a Student of the Common Laws of
A Dialogue of the Common Law
History of the Causes of the Civil Wars of England, and
of the Counsels and Artifices By Which They Were Carried On From the
Year 1640 to the Year 1660
The Whole Art of
Rhetoric (Hobbes's translation of his own Latin
summary of Aristotle's
Rhetoric published in 1637 with the title A
Briefe of the Art of Rhetorique)
The Art of
Rhetoric Plainly Set Forth. With Pertinent Examples For the
More Easy Understanding and Practice of the Same (this work is not of
Hobbes but by Dudley Fenner, The Artes of Logike and Rethorike, 1584)
The Art of Sophistry
Seven Philosophical Problems
Proportion of a straight line to half the arc of a quadrant
Six lessons to the Savilian Professors of the Mathematics
ΣΤΙΓΜΑΙ, or Marks of the absurd
Geometry etc. of Dr Wallis
Extract of a letter from Henry Stubbe
Three letters presented to the
Royal Society against Dr Wallis
Considerations on the answer of Dr Wallis
Letters and other pieces
Volume 8 and 9.
The Peloponnesian War
The Peloponnesian War by Thucydides, translated into
English by Hobbes.
Volume 10. The Iliad, and The Odyssey, translated by Hobbes into
Volume 11. Index.
Posthumous works not included in the Molesworth editions
The Elements of Law, Natural and Politic, edited with a preface and
critical notes by Ferdinand Tönnies, London, 1889 (first complete
Short Tract on First Principles, in The Elements of Law, Natural and
Politic, Appendix I, pp. 193–210. (this work is now
attributed to Robert Payne).
Tractatus opticus II (1639, British Library, Harley MS 6796, ff.
193–266): first partial edition in The Elements of Law, Natural and
Politic, Appendix II, pp. 211–26; first complete edition (but
omitting the diagrams) by Franco Alessio, Rivista critica di storia
della filosofia, 18, 1963, pp. 147–228.
Critique du 'De mundo' de Thomas White, edited by Jean Jacquot and
Harold Whitmore Jones, Paris, 1973, with three appendixes:
De Motibus Solis, Aetheris & Telluris (pp. 439–47: a Latin
poem on the movement of the Earth).
Notes in English on an ancient redaction of some chapters of De
Corpore (July 1643; pp. 448–60: MS 5297, National Library of
Notes for the Logica and Philosophia prima of the De Corpore
(pp. 461–513: Chatsworth MS A10 and the notes of Charles
Cavendish on a draft of the De Corpore: British Library, Harley MS
Of the Life and
History of Thucydides, in Hobbes's Thucydides, edited
by Richard Schlatter, New Brunswick, pp. 10–27, 1975.
Three Discourses: a Critical Modern Edition of Newly Identified Work
of the Young Hobbes (TD), edited by
Noel B. Reynolds and Arlene
Saxonhouse, Chicago, 1975.
A Discourse upon the Beginning of Tacitus, in TD, pp. 31–67.
A Discourse of Rome, in TD, pp. 71–102.
A Discourse of Law, in TD, pp. 105–19.
Thomas Hobbes' A Minute or First Draught of the Optiques (British
Library, Harley MS 3360). Critical Edition by Elaine C. Stroud, Ph.D.
dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1983.
Of Passions, Edition of the unpublished manuscript Harley 6093 by Anna
Minerbi Belgrado, in: Rivista di storia della filosofia, 43, 1988,
The Correspondence of Thomas Hobbes, edited by Noel Malcolm, Oxford:
the Clarendon Edition, vol. 6–7, 1994 (I: 1622–1659; II:
Translations in modern English
De Corpore, Part I. Computatio Sive Logica. Edited with an
Introductory Essay by L C. Hungerland and G. R. Vick. Translation and
Commentary by A. Martinich. New York: Abaris Books, 1981.
Thomas White's De mundo Examined, translation by H. W. Jones,
Bradford: Bradford University Press, 1976 (the appendixes of the Latin
edition (1973) are not enclosed).
New critical editions of Hobbes' works (in progress)
Clarendon Edition of the Works of Thomas Hobbes, Oxford: Clarendon
Press (10 volumes published of 27 planned).
Traduction des œuvres latines de Hobbes, under the direction of Yves
Charles Zarka, Paris: Vrin (5 volumes published of 17 planned).
Natural and legal rights § Thomas Hobbes
Natural law § Hobbes
Conatus § In Hobbes
^ a b Sorell, Tom (January 26, 1996). The Cambridge Companion to
Hobbes. Cambridge University Press. p. 155.
doi:10.1017/CCOL0521410193. ISBN 9780521422444.
^ Hobbes, Thomas (1682). Tracts of Mr. Thomas Hobbs of Malmsbury:
Containing I. Behemoth, the history of the causes of the civil wars of
England, from 1640. to 1660. printed from the author's own copy: never
printed (but with a thousand faults) before. II. An answer to
Arch-bishop Bramhall's book, called the Catching of the Leviathan:
never printed before. III. An historical narration of heresie, and the
punishment thereof: corrected by the true copy. IV. Philosophical
problems, dedicated to the King in 1662. but never printed before. W.
Crooke. p. 339.
^ "Thomas Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy". Internet
Encyclopedia of Philosophy. UTM. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
^ Sheldon, Dr. Garrett Ward (2003). The
History of Political Theory:
Ancient Greece to Modern America. Peter Lang. p. 253.
^ Lloyd, Sharon A.; Sreedhar, Susanne (February 12, 2012). "Hobbes's
Moral and Political Philosophy". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Retrieved February 25, 2014.
^ Manent, Pierre (1994). "Hobbes and the New Political Art". An
History of Liberalism. Princeton University Press.
pp. 20–38. ISBN 9780691034379.
Thomas Hobbes Biography". Encyclopedia of World Biography. Advameg,
Inc. Retrieved July 24, 2009.
^ Hobbes, Thomas (1679). "Opera Latina". In Molesworth, William. Vita
carmine expressa. I. London. p. 86.
^ Jacobson, Norman; Rogow, Arnold A. (1986). "Thomas Hobbes: Radical
in the Service of Reaction". Political Psychology. W.W. Norton. 8 (3):
469. doi:10.2307/3791051. ISBN 9780393022889.
ISSN 0162-895X. JSTOR 3791051. LCCN 79644318.
^ "Philosophy at Hertford College". Oxford: Hertford College.
Retrieved July 24, 2009.
^ Helden, Al Van (1995). "Hobbes, Thomas". The Galileo Project. Rice
University. Retrieved July 24, 2009.
^ King, Preston T. (1993). Thomas Hobbes: Politics and law. Routledge.
p. 89. ISBN 978-0-41508083-5.
^ O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. (November 2002). "Thomas Hobbes".
School of Mathematics and Statistics. Scotland: University of St
Andrews. Retrieved July 24, 2009.
^ Hobbes, Thomas (1995). Reynolds, Noel B.; Saxonhouse, Arlene W.,
eds. Three Discourses: A Critical Modern Edition of Newly Identified
Work of the Young Hobbes. University of Chicago Press.
^ "People". NNDB. Retrieved 24 July 2009.
^ Gaskin. "Introduction". Human Nature and
De Corpore Politico. Oxford
University Press. p. xxx.
^ "Chapter XIII.: Of the Natural Condition of Mankind As Concerning
Their Felicity, and Misery.". Leviathan.
^ Gaskin. "Of the
Rights of Sovereigns by Institution". Leviathan.
Oxford University Press. p. 117.
^ "1000 Makers of the Millennium", p. 42. Dorling Kindersley, 1999
^ Vélez, F., La palabra y la espada (2014)
^ p. 282 of Molesworth's edition.
^ Martinich, A. P. (1995). A Hobbes Dictionary. Cambridge: Blackwell.
^ Martinich, A. P. (1995). A Hobbes Dictionary. Cambridge: Blackwell.
^ Human Nature I.XI.5.
Leviathan III.xxxii.2. "...we are not to renounce our Senses, and
Experience; nor (that which is undoubted Word of God) our naturall
^ "House of Commons Journal Volume 8". British
Retrieved 14 January 2005.
^ Norman Davies, Europe: A history p. 687
^ Hobbes, Thomas (1995). Reynolds, Noel; Saxonhouse, Arlene, eds.
Three Discourses: A Critical Modern Edition of Newly Identified Work
of the Young Hobbes. University of Chicago Press.
^ Richard Tuck, Timothy Raylor, and
Noel Malcolm vote for Robert
Payne. Karl Schuhmann, Cees Leijenhorst, and Frank Horstmann vote for
Thomas Hobbes. See the excellent and extended essays Robert Payne, the
Hobbes Manuscripts, and the 'Short Tract' (Noel Malcolm, in: Aspects
of Hobbes. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2002. pp. 80–145) and Der
vermittelnde Dritte (Frank Horstmann, in: Nachträge zu Betrachtungen
über Hobbes' Optik. Mackensen, Berlin 2006,
ISBN 978-3-926535-51-1. pp. 303–428.)
^ Schuhmann, Karl (1998). "Skinner's Hobbes". British Journal of the
History of Philosophy. 6 (1): 115. p. 118. Skinner, in Visions
of Politics, affirms Schuhmann's view: see vol. 3, p. 4, fn. 27.
Ioannis Evrigenis presents a summary of this confusing episode, as
well as most relevant literature, in Evrigenis, Ioannis D. (2016).
Images of Anarchy: The
Rhetoric and Science in Hobbes's State of
Nature. Cambridge: Cambridge U.P. , p. 48, n. 13.
^ For this dating see the convincing arguments given by Frank
Horstmann, Nachträge zu Betrachtungen über Hobbes' Optik. Mackensen,
Berlin 2006, ISBN 978-3-926535-51-1. pp. 19–94
^ A critical analysis of Thomas White (1593–1676) De mundo dialogi
tres, Parisii, 1642.
^ Modern scholars are divided as to whether or not this translation
was done by Hobbes. For a pro-Hobbes account see H. Warrender's
introduction to De Cive: The English Edition in The Clarendon Edition
of the Works of
Thomas Hobbes (Oxford, 1984). For the contra-Hobbes
account see Noel Malcolm, "Charles Cotton, Translator of Hobbes's De
Cive" in Aspects of Hobbes (Oxford, 2002)
^ critical edition: Court traité des premiers principes, text, French
translation and commentary by Jean Bernhardt, Paris: PUF, 1988
^ Timothy Raylor, "Hobbes, Payne, and A Short Tract on First
Principles", The Historical Journal, 44, 2001, pp. 29–58.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Hobbes, Thomas".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 13 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
"Hinduism" to "Home, Earls of" at Project Gutenberg
MacDonald, Hugh & Hargreaves, Mary. Thomas Hobbes, a Bibliography,
London: The Bibliographical Society, 1952.
Hinnant, Charles H. (1980). Thomas Hobbes: A Reference Guide, Boston:
G. K. Hall & Co.
Garcia, Alfred (1986). Thomas Hobbes: bibliographie internationale de
1620 à 1986, Caen: Centre de Philosophie politique et juridique
Université de Caen.
Brandt, Frithiof (1928). Thomas Hobbes' Mechanical Conception of
Nature, Copenhagen: Levin & Munksgaard.
Jesseph, Douglas M. (1999). Squaring the Circle. The
Hobbes and Wallis, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Leijenhorst, Cees (2002). The Mechanisation of Aristotelianism. The
Late Aristotelian Setting of Thomas Hobbes' Natural Philosophy,
Lemetti, Juhana (2011). Historical Dictionary of Hobbes's Philosophy,
Lanham: Scarecrow Press.
Macpherson, C. B. (1962). The Political Theory of Possessive
Individualism: Hobbes to Locke, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Malcolm, Noel (2002). Aspects of Hobbes, New York: Oxford University
Malcolm, Noel (2007). Reason of State, Propaganda, and the Thirty
Years' War: An Unknown Translation by Thomas Hobbes, New York: Oxford
Manent, Pierre (1996). An Intellectual
History of Liberalism,
Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Martinich, A. P. (2003) "Thomas Hobbes" in The Dictionary of Literary
Biography, Volume 281: British Rhetoricians and Logicians,
1500–1660, Second Series, Detroit: Gale, pp. 130–44.
Martinich, A. P. (1995). A Hobbes Dictionary, Cambridge: Blackwell.
Martinich, A. P. (1997). Thomas Hobbes, New York: St. Martin's Press.
Martinich, A. P. (1992). The Two Gods of Leviathan:
Thomas Hobbes on
Religion and Politics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Martinich, A. P. (1999). Hobbes: A Biography, Cambridge: Cambridge
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Shapin, Steven and Shaffer, Simon (1995).
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Vieira, Monica Brito (2009). The Elements of Representation in Hobbes,
Leiden: Brill Publishers.
Zagorin, Perez (2009). Hobbes and the
Law of Nature, Princeton NJ:
Princeton University Press.
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