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Peace of Westphalia

Protestant
Protestant
princes allowed to continue religious practices Decline of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
mainly, although not exclusively, in northern Europe[9] Habsburg supremacy curtailed Recognition of the independence of the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
by Spanish Empire Recognition of the Spanish sovereignty of Southern Netherlands
Southern Netherlands
and Luxembourg by Dutch Republic Rise of France and the Bourbon dynasty Rise of the Swedish Empire Decline of feudalism in continental Europe[10] Further decentralization of the Holy Roman Empire Franco-Spanish War
War
until 1659 Devastation and major population loss in Imperial states

Belligerents

Anti-Habsburg states and allies: Sweden
Sweden
(from 1630)  Dutch Republic  France (from 1635) Denmark-Norway (1625–1629) Bohemia
Bohemia
(1618–1620) Electoral Palatinate (until 1623)  Saxony (until 1635)[1]   Brandenburg-Prussia
Brandenburg-Prussia
(until 1635)[1]  Brunswick-Lüneburg  England (1625–30)[2]  Scotland (1625–38)[3] Transylvania (from 1619)[4] Supported by:

Ottoman Empire Russian Tsardom[5]

Habsburg states and allies:  Holy Roman Empire

Catholic League[6] Austria

Spanish Empire Hungary[7] Denmark-Norway (1643–45)[8] Supported by:

Poland Zaporizhian Cossacks

Commanders and leaders

Gustavus Adolphus † Axel Oxenstierna Johan Banér Lennart Torstenson Gustav Horn Carl Gustaf Wrangel Charles X Gustav James Spens Alexander Leslie James 3rd Marquis Hamilton Louis XIII
Louis XIII
of France Cardinal Richelieu Cardinal Mazarin Louis XIV
Louis XIV
of France Marquis de Feuquieres  † Henri, Prince of Condé Duke of Gramont Gaspard III de Coligny Louis II de Bourbon Urbain de Maillé-Brézé Vicomte de Turenne John Hepburn † Frederick V, Elector Palatine Jindřich Matyáš Thurn Christian I of Anhalt-Bernburg Christian IV
Christian IV
of Denmark Robert Maxwell, 1st Earl of Nithsdale Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I of Saxony Maurice of Nassau Piet Pieterszoon Hein William of Nassau Frederik Hendrik of Orange Maarten Tromp Ernst Casimir Hendrik Casimir I Charles I Stuart Duke of Buckingham  † Sir Horace Vere Gabriel Bethlen Ernst von Mansfeld  Christian of Brunswick Mikhail Borisovich Shein Ohrili Hüseyin Pasha

Ferdinand II Ferdinand III Albrecht von Wallenstein
Albrecht von Wallenstein
  Count of Tilly † Ottavio Piccolomini Franz von Mercy
Franz von Mercy
 † Johann von Werth Gottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheim
Gottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheim
 † Raimondo Montecuccoli Peter Melander Graf von Holzappel  † Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria Philip III of Spain Philip IV of Spain Count-Duke of Olivares Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba Charles de Longueval, Count of Bucquoy  † Ambrosio Spinola
Ambrosio Spinola
 † Carlos Coloma Duke of Feria Francisco de Melo Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand Matthias Gallas Maximilian I of Bavaria Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine Sigismund III of Poland

Ivan Sirko

Strength

149,000 Swedes (1632)[11] 135,000 Danes (1625)[12] 120,000 French (1635)[13] 77,000 Dutch (1629)[14] 6,000 Transylvanians[15] 60,000 Ottoman cavalry (as support to Frederick V, Elector Palatine) Other smaller forces

Over 150,000 Imperial (1635) Up to 300,000 Spanish[16] About 20,000 Hungarian and Croatian cavalry[17] Other smaller forces

Casualties and losses

110,000 Swedes[18] 118,000 Imperial[18]

8,000,000 dead[19] (~94% were Imperial subjects)[18]

v t e

Thirty Years' War

Bohemian-Palatinate War
War
(1618–1623)

Pilsen Lomnice Sablat Wisternitz Humenné Bad Kreuznach Oppenheim Bacharach White Mountain Érsekújvár Neu Titschein Battle of Tyrnau (de) Mingolsheim Wimpfen Höchst Fleurus Heidelberg Mannheim Frankenthal Hodonín Stadtlohn

Danish War
War
(1625–1629)

Genoa Peasants' War
War
in Upper Austria Dessau Bridge Lutter am Barenberge Stralsund Wolgast

Swedish War
War
(1630–1635)

Swedish landing Frankfurt Magdeburg Werben 1st Breitenfeld Bamberg Rain Wiesloch Nuremberg Alte Veste Fürth Lützen Oldendorf Pfaffenhofen Steinau Konstanz 1st Breisach 1st Rheinfelden Battle of Liegnitz (1634) (de) 1st Nördlingen Willstätt

French-Swedish War
War
(1635–1648)

Les Avins Avesnes Leuven Ray-sur-Saône Battle of Dömitz (de) Battle of Haselünne (de) Raon Tornavento Somme Wittstock Hanau 2nd Rheinfelden Fuenterrabía Vlotho 2nd Breisach Battle of Wittenweiher (de) Thann 1st Freiberg Chemnitz Melnik Saint Omer Thionville Salses Cambrils Montjuïc Preßnitz São Filipe Plauen La Marfée Dorsten Battle of Wolfenbüttel (1641) Honnecourt Kempen Schweidnitz 2nd Breitenfeld Klingenthal 2nd Freiberg Rocroi Tuttlingen Kolding Lister Dyb Colberger Heide Freiburg Fehmarn Jüterbog Bysjön Jankau Brno Mergentheim 2nd Nördlingen Battle of Triebl (de) Neapolitan Revolt Zusmarshausen Lens Wevelinghoven Battle of Dachau (de) Prague

Treaties

v t e

Palatinate campaign

Bad Kreuznach Oppenheim Bacharach Mingolsheim Wimpfen Höchst Heidelberg Mannheim Frankenthal Stadtlohn

v t e

Anglo-Spanish War 1625–1630

Breda Cádiz St. Kitts and Nevis

v t e

Torstenson War

Kolding Lister Dyb Colberger Heide Fehmarn Bysjön

v t e

Franco-Spanish War (1635–59)

Flanders and Northern France

Les Avins Leuven Dole Le Catelet La Capelle Somme Corbie 1st Landrecies 1st Saint Omer 1st Thionville Arras La Marfée Honnecourt Rocroi 2nd Thionville Gravelines Béthune 2nd Saint Omer 1st Lens Courtrai Bergues Mardyck Furnes 1st Dunkirk Armentières Commines 2nd Landrecies Diksmuide Ypres 2nd Lens Arras 3rd Landrecies Valenciennes The Dunes 2nd Dunkirk

Northern Spain
Spain
and Southern France

1st Lérins Islands 2nd Lérins Islands Leucate Fuenterrabía Salses Montjuïc Perpignan Lerida 2nd Lleida Llorens Balaguer 2nd Barcelona

Northern Italy

Livigno Mazzo 1st Valenza Val Fraela Morbegno Tornavento Chieri Casale Turin 2nd Valenza Cremona Pavia 3rd Valenza

Caribbean

Tortuga

Naval battles

Getaria Cádiz 1st Tarragona 2nd Tarragona Barcelona Cartagena Orbetello Cambrils Bordeaux

The Thirty Years' War
War
was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. One of the longest and most destructive conflicts in human history,[20] it resulted in eight million fatalities mainly from violence, famine and plagues, but also from military engagements. People who perished over its course were overwhelmingly and disproportionately inhabitants of the Holy Roman Empire, and the rest were mostly fallen soldiers of foreign armies.[18] It was the deadliest European religious war that left an everlasting national stigma in the German collective memory.[21] Initially a war between various Protestant
Protestant
and Catholic states in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire, it gradually developed into a more general conflict involving most of the great powers. These states employed relatively large mercenary armies, and the war became less about religion and more of a continuation of the France–Habsburg rivalry for European political pre-eminence. The war was preceded by the election of the new Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, who tried to impose religious uniformity on his domains, forcing Roman Catholicism on its peoples. The northern Protestant states, angered by the violation of their rights to choose that had been granted in the Peace of Augsburg, banded together to form the Protestant
Protestant
Union. Ferdinand II was a devout Roman Catholic and relatively intolerant when compared to his predecessor, Rudolf II, who ruled from the largely Protestant
Protestant
city of Prague. Ferdinand's policies were considered strongly pro-Catholic and anti-Protestant. These events caused widespread fears throughout northern and central Europe, and triggered the Protestant
Protestant
Bohemians
Bohemians
living in the then relatively loose dominion of Habsburg Austria to revolt against their nominal ruler, Ferdinand II. After the so-called Prague
Prague
Defenestration deposed the Emperor's representatives in Prague, the Protestant estates and Catholic Habsburgs started gathering allies for war. The Protestant
Protestant
Bohemians
Bohemians
ousted the Habsburgs and elected the Calvinist Frederick V, Elector of the Rhenish Palatinate as the new king of the Kingdom of Bohemia. Frederick took the offer without the support of the Protestant
Protestant
Union. The southern states, mainly Roman Catholic, were angered by this. Led by Bavaria, these states formed the Catholic League to expel Frederick in support of the Emperor. The Empire soon crushed this perceived rebellion in the Battle of White Mountain, executing leading Czech aristocrats shortly after. Protestants across Europe unanimously condemned the Emperor's action. After the atrocities committed in Bohemia, Saxony finally gave its support to the union and decided to fight back. Sweden, at the time a rising military power, soon intervened in 1630 under its king Gustavus Adolphus, transforming what had been simply the Emperor's attempt to curb the Protestant
Protestant
states into a full-scale war in Europe. Spain, wishing to finally crush the Dutch rebels in the Netherlands
Netherlands
and the Dutch Republic, intervened under the pretext of helping its dynastic Habsburg ally, Austria. No longer able to tolerate the encirclement of two major Habsburg powers on its borders, Catholic France entered the coalition on the side of the Protestants in order to counter the Habsburgs. The Thirty Years' War
War
devastated entire regions, with famine and disease resulting in high mortality in the populations of the German and Italian states, the Crown of Bohemia, and the Southern Netherlands. Both mercenaries and soldiers in fighting armies traditionally looted or extorted tribute to get operating funds, which imposed severe hardships on the inhabitants of occupied territories. The war also bankrupted most of the combatant powers. The Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
enjoyed contrasting fortune; it ended its revolt against Spain
Spain
in 1648 and subsequently enjoyed a time of great prosperity and development, known as the Dutch Golden Age, during which it became one of the world's foremost economic and naval powers. The Thirty Years' War
War
ended with the treaties of Osnabrück
Osnabrück
and Münster, part of the wider Peace of Westphalia. The war altered the previous political order of European powers. The rise of Bourbon France, the curtailing of Habsburg ambition, and the ascendancy of Sweden
Sweden
as a great power created a new balance of power on the continent, with France emerging from the war strengthened and increasingly dominant in the latter part of the 17th century.

Contents

1 Origins of the war 2 Beginnings (1618–1625)

2.1 Bohemian Revolt 2.2 Ottoman support for Transylvania 2.3 Catholic intervention 2.4 Huguenot
Huguenot
rebellions

3 Danish intervention (1625–1630) 4 Swedish intervention (1630–1635) 5 French intervention and continued Swedish participation (1635–1648) 6 Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia
(1648) 7 Casualties and disease 8 Witch-hunts 9 Political consequences 10 Outside Europe 11 Involvement 12 Fiction 13 Gallery 14 See also 15 References 16 Further reading

16.1 Primary sources

17 External links

Origins of the war[edit] The Peace of Augsburg
Peace of Augsburg
(1555), signed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, confirmed the result of the Diet of Speyer (1526), ending the war between German Lutherans
Lutherans
and Catholics, and establishing that:[22]

Rulers of the 224 German states could choose the religion (Lutheranism or Catholicism) of their realms. Subjects had to follow that decision or emigrate (the principle of cuius regio, eius religio). Prince-bishoprics and other states ruled by Catholic clergy were excluded and should remain Catholic. Prince-bishops who converted to Lutheranism were required to give up their territories (the principle called reservatum ecclesiasticum). Lutherans
Lutherans
could keep the territory they had taken from the Catholic Church since the Peace of Passau in 1552.

Although the Peace of Augsburg
Peace of Augsburg
created a temporary end to hostilities, it did not resolve the underlying religious conflict, which was made yet more complex by the spread of Calvinism
Calvinism
throughout Germany in the years that followed.[23] This added a third major faith to the region, but its position was not recognized in any way by the Augsburg terms, to which only Catholicism and Lutheranism were parties.[24][25] The rulers of the nations neighboring the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
also contributed to the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War:

Spain
Spain
was interested in the German states because it held the territories of the Spanish Netherlands
Netherlands
in the western part of the Empire and states within Italy that were connected by land through the Spanish Road. The Dutch revolted against Spanish domination during the 1560s, leading to a protracted war of independence that led to a truce only in 1609. France was nearly surrounded by territory controlled by the two Habsburg states – Spain
Spain
and the Holy Roman Empire, and feeling threatened, was eager to exert its power against the weaker German states. This dynastic concern overtook religious ones and led to Catholic France's participation on the otherwise Protestant
Protestant
side of the war. Sweden
Sweden
and Denmark-Norway were interested in gaining control over northern German states bordering the Baltic Sea.

The Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
was a fragmented collection of largely independent states. The position of the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
was mainly titular, but the emperors, from the House of Habsburg, also directly ruled a large portion of imperial territory (lands of the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Bohemia), as well as the Kingdom of Hungary. The Austrian domain was thus a major European power in its own right, ruling over some eight million subjects. Another branch of the House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
ruled over Spain
Spain
and its empire, which included the Spanish Netherlands, southern Italy, the Philippines, and most of the Americas. In addition to Habsburg lands, the Holy Roman Empire contained several regional powers, such as the Duchy of Bavaria, the Electorate of Saxony, the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Electorate of the Palatinate, Landgraviate of Hesse, the Archbishopric of Trier, and the Free Imperial City
Free Imperial City
of Nuremberg. A vast number of minor independent duchies, free cities, abbeys, prince-bishoprics, and petty lordships (whose authority sometimes extended to no more than a single village) rounded out the empire. Apart from Austria and perhaps Bavaria, none of those entities was capable of national-level politics; alliances between family-related states were common, due partly to the frequent practice of partible inheritance, i.e. splitting a lord's inheritance among his various sons.

Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
urged the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
to approve communion in both kinds for German and Bohemian Catholics. Earlier, he also oversaw the 1555 Peace of Augsburg.[26]

Religious tensions remained strong throughout the second half of the 16th century. The Peace of Augsburg
Peace of Augsburg
began to unravel: some converted bishops refused to give up their bishoprics, and certain Habsburg and other Catholic rulers of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and Spain
Spain
sought to restore the power of Catholicism in the region. This was evident from the Cologne War
War
(1583–88), a conflict initiated when the prince-archbishop of the city, Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg, converted to Calvinism. As he was an imperial elector, this could have produced a Protestant
Protestant
majority in the College that elected the Holy Roman Emperor, a position that Catholics had always held. In the Cologne War, Spanish troops expelled the former prince-archbishop and replaced him with Ernst of Bavaria, a Roman Catholic. After this success, the Catholics regained peace, and the principle of cuius regio, eius religio began to be exerted more strictly in Bavaria, Würzburg, and other states. This forced Lutheran residents to choose between conversion or exile. Lutherans
Lutherans
also witnessed the defection of the lords of the Palatinate (1560), Nassau (1578), Hesse-Kassel (1603), and Brandenburg
Brandenburg
(1613) to the new Calvinist
Calvinist
faith. Thus, at the beginning of the 17th century, the Rhine lands and those south to the Danube
Danube
were largely Catholic, while Lutherans
Lutherans
predominated in the north, and Calvinists dominated in certain other areas, such as west-central Germany, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. Minorities of each creed existed almost everywhere, however. In some lordships and cities, the numbers of Calvinists, Catholics, and Lutherans
Lutherans
were approximately equal. Much to the consternation of their Spanish ruling cousins, the Habsburg emperors who followed Charles V (especially Ferdinand I and Maximilian II, but also Rudolf II, and his successor Matthias) were content to allow the princes of the empire to choose their own religious policies. These rulers avoided religious wars within the empire by allowing the different Christian faiths to spread without coercion. This angered those who sought religious uniformity.[27] Meanwhile, Sweden
Sweden
and Denmark-Norway, both Lutheran kingdoms, sought to assist the Protestant
Protestant
cause in the Empire, and wanted to gain political and economic influence there, as well.[citation needed] Religious tensions broke into violence in the German free city of Donauwörth
Donauwörth
in 1606. There, the Lutheran majority barred the Catholic residents of the Swabian town from holding an annual Markus procession, which provoked a riot. This prompted foreign intervention by Duke Maximilian of Bavaria on behalf of the Catholics. After the violence ceased, Calvinists in Germany (who remained a minority) felt the most threatened. They banded together and formed the League of Evangelical Union in 1608, under the leadership of the Elector Palatine Frederick IV, whose son, Frederick V, married Elizabeth Stuart, the Scottish-born daughter of King James VI of Scotland and I of England and Ireland.[28] The establishment of the league prompted the Catholics into banding together to form the Catholic League in 1609, under the leadership of Duke Maximilian.

Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor
and King of Bohemia, whose diligent opposition to Protestantism
Protestantism
contributed to the war's outbreak.

Tensions escalated further in 1609, with the War
War
of the Jülich Succession, which began when John William, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, the ruler of the strategically important United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, died childless.[29] Two rival claimants vied for the duchy. The first was Duchess Anna of Prussia, daughter of Duke John William's eldest sister, Marie Eleonore of Cleves. Anna was married to John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg. The second was Wolfgang William, Count Palatine of Neuburg, who was the son of Duke John William's second-eldest sister, Anna of Cleves. Duchess Anna of Prussia
Duchess Anna of Prussia
claimed Jülich-Cleves-Berg as the heir to the senior line, while Wolfgang William, Count Palatine of Neuburg, claimed Jülich-Cleves-Berg as Duke John William's eldest male heir. Both claimants were Protestants. In 1610, to prevent war between the rival claimants, the forces of Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
occupied Jülich-Cleves-Berg until the Aulic Council
Aulic Council
(Reichshofrat) resolved the dispute. However, several Protestant
Protestant
princes feared that the emperor, a devout Catholic, intended to keep Jülich-Cleves-Berg for himself to prevent the United Duchies falling into Protestant hands.[29] Representatives of Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France
and the Dutch Republic gathered forces to invade Jülich-Cleves-Berg, but these plans were cut short by the assassination of Henry IV by the Catholic fanatic François Ravaillac.[30] Hoping to gain an advantage in the dispute, Wolfgang William converted to Catholicism; John Sigismund, though, converted to Calvinism
Calvinism
(although Anna of Prussia stayed Lutheran).[29] The dispute was settled in 1614 with the Treaty of Xanten, by which the United Duchies were dismantled: Jülich and Berg were awarded to Wolfgang William, while John Sigismund gained Cleves, Mark, and Ravensberg.[29] The background of the Dutch Revolt
Dutch Revolt
also has close relations to the events leading to the Thirty Years' War. It was widely known that the Twelve Years' Truce
Twelve Years' Truce
was set to expire in 1621, and throughout Europe it was recognized that at that time, Spain
Spain
would attempt to reconquer the Dutch Republic. Forces under Ambrogio Spinola, 1st Marquis of the Balbases, the Genoese commander of the Spanish army, would be able to pass through friendly territories to reach the Dutch Republic. The only hostile state that stood in his way was the Electorate of the Palatinate.[31] Spinola's preferred route would take him through the Republic of Genoa, the Duchy of Milan, the Val Telline, around hostile Switzerland bypassing it along the north shore of Lake Constance, then through Alsace, the Archbishopric of Strasbourg, the Electorate of the Palatinate, and then finally through the Archbishopric of Trier, Jülich and Berg, and on to the Dutch Republic.[31] The Palatinate thus assumed a strategic importance in European affairs out of all proportion to its size. This explains why the Protestant
Protestant
James VI and I arranged for the marriage of his daughter Elizabeth Stuart to Frederick V, Elector Palatine
Frederick V, Elector Palatine
in 1612, in spite of the social convention that a princess would only marry another royal. By 1617, it was apparent that Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
and King of Bohemia, would die without an heir, with his lands going to his nearest male relative, his cousin Archduke Ferdinand II of Austria, heir-apparent and Crown Prince of Bohemia. With the Oñate treaty, Philip III of Spain
Spain
agreed to this succession. Ferdinand, educated by the Jesuits, was a staunch Catholic who wanted to impose religious uniformity on his lands. This made him highly unpopular in Protestant
Protestant
(primarily Hussite) Bohemia. The Bohemian nobility rejected Ferdinand, who had been elected Bohemian Crown Prince in 1617. Ferdinand's representatives were thrown out of a window in Prague
Prague
and seriously injured, triggering the Thirty Years' War
War
in 1618. This so-called Defenestration of Prague
Prague
provoked open revolt in Bohemia, which had powerful foreign allies. Ferdinand was upset by the calculated insult, but his intolerant policies in his own lands had left him in a weak position. The Habsburg cause in the next few years would seem to suffer unrecoverable reverses. The Protestant cause seemed to wax toward a quick overall victory. The war can be divided into four major phases: The Bohemian Revolt, the Danish intervention, the Swedish intervention, and the French intervention. Beginnings (1618–1625)[edit] Bohemian Revolt[edit] Main article: Bohemian Revolt

A contemporary woodcut depicts the Second Defenestration of Prague (1618), which marked the beginning of the Bohemian Revolt, and therefore of the first phase of the Thirty Years' War.

Without heirs, Emperor Matthias sought to assure an orderly transition during his lifetime by having his dynastic heir (the fiercely Catholic Ferdinand of Styria, later Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor) elected to the separate royal thrones of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Hungary.[32] Some of the Protestant
Protestant
leaders of Bohemia
Bohemia
feared they would be losing the religious rights granted to them by Emperor Rudolf II in his Letter of Majesty (1609). They preferred the Protestant
Protestant
Frederick V, elector of the Palatinate (successor of Frederick IV, the creator of the Protestant
Protestant
Union).[33] However, other Protestants supported the stance taken by the Catholics,[34] and in 1617, Ferdinand was duly elected by the Bohemian Estates to become the crown prince, and automatically upon the death of Matthias, the next king of Bohemia. The king-elect then sent two Catholic councillors (Vilem Slavata of Chlum and Jaroslav Borzita of Martinice) as his representatives to Prague
Prague
Castle in Prague
Prague
in May 1618. Ferdinand had wanted them to administer the government in his absence. On 23 May 1618, an assembly of Protestants seized them and threw them (and also secretary Philip Fabricius) out of the palace window, which was some 21 m (69 ft) off the ground. Although injured, they survived. This event, known as the (Second) Defenestration of Prague, started the Bohemian Revolt. Soon afterward, the Bohemian conflict spread through all of the Bohemian Crown, including Bohemia, Silesia, Upper and Lower Lusatia, and Moravia. Moravia
Moravia
was already embroiled in a conflict between Catholics and Protestants. The religious conflict eventually spread across the whole continent of Europe, involving France, Sweden, and a number of other countries.[33] The death of Emperor Matthias emboldened the rebellious Protestant leaders, who had been on the verge of a settlement. The weaknesses of both Ferdinand (now officially on the throne after the death of Emperor Matthias) and of the Bohemians
Bohemians
themselves led to the spread of the war to western Germany. Ferdinand was compelled to call on his nephew, King Philip IV of Spain, for assistance.

Modern re-enactment of the Battle of White Mountain

The Bohemians, desperate for allies against the emperor, applied to be admitted into the Protestant
Protestant
Union, which was led by their original candidate for the Bohemian throne, the Calvinist
Calvinist
Frederick V, Elector Palatine. The Bohemians
Bohemians
hinted Frederick would become King of Bohemia if he allowed them to join the Union and come under its protection. However, similar offers were made by other members of the Bohemian Estates to the Duke of Savoy, the Elector of Saxony, and the Prince of Transylvania. The Austrians, who seemed to have intercepted every letter leaving Prague, made these duplicities public.[35] This unraveled much of the support for the Bohemians, particularly in the court of Saxony. In spite of these issues surrounding their support, the rebellion initially favoured the Bohemians. They were joined in the revolt by much of Upper Austria, whose nobility was then chiefly Lutheran and Calvinist. Lower Austria
Lower Austria
revolted soon after, and in 1619, Count Thurn led an army to the walls of Vienna
Vienna
itself. Moreover, within the British Isles, Frederick V's cause became seen as that of Elizabeth Stuart, described by her supporters as "The Jewell of Europe",[36] leading to a stream of tens of thousands of volunteers to her cause throughout the course of the Thirty Years' War. In the opening phase, an Anglo-Dutch regiment under Horace Vere
Horace Vere
headed to the Palatinate, a Scots-Dutch regiment under Colonel John Seton moved into Bohemia, and that was joined by a mixed "Regiment of Brittanes" (Scots and English) led by the Scottish Catholic Sir Andrew Gray.[37] Seton's regiment was the last of the Protestant
Protestant
allies to leave the Bohemian theatre after tenaciously holding the town of Třeboň until 1622, and only departing once the rights of the citizens[vague] had been secured.[37] Ottoman support for Transylvania[edit]

Frederick V, Elector Palatine
Frederick V, Elector Palatine
as King of Bohemia, painted by Gerrit von Honthorst in 1634, two years after the subject's death

In the east, the Protestant
Protestant
Hungarian Prince of Transylvania, Gabriel Bethlen, led a spirited campaign into Hungary with the support of the Ottoman Sultan, Osman II. Fearful of the Catholic policies of Ferdinand II, Gabriel Bethlen
Gabriel Bethlen
requested a protectorate by Osman II, so "the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
became the one and only ally of great-power status which the rebellious Bohemian states could muster after they had shaken off Habsburg rule and had elected Frederick V as a Protestant king".[38] Ambassadors were exchanged, with Heinrich Bitter visiting Constantinople
Constantinople
in January 1620, and Mehmed Aga
Mehmed Aga
visiting Prague
Prague
in July 1620. The Ottomans offered a force of 60,000 cavalry to Frederick and plans were made for an invasion of Poland with 400,000 troops, in exchange for the payment of an annual tribute to the sultan.[39] These negotiations triggered the Polish–Ottoman War
War
of 1620–21.[40] The Ottomans defeated the Poles, who were supporting the Habsburgs in the Thirty Years' War, at the Battle of Cecora in September–October 1620,[41] but were not able to further intervene efficiently before the Bohemian defeat at the Battle of the White Mountain in November 1620.[42] Later, Poles defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Chocim and the war ended with a status quo.[43] The emperor, who had been preoccupied with the Uskok War, hurried to muster an army to stop the Bohemians
Bohemians
and their allies from overwhelming his country. Count Bucquoy, the commander of the Imperial army, defeated the forces of the Protestant
Protestant
Union led by Count Mansfeld at the Battle of Sablat, on 10 June 1619. This cut off Count Thurn's communications with Prague, and he was forced to abandon his siege of Vienna. The Battle of Sablat
Battle of Sablat
also cost the Protestants an important ally – Savoy, long an opponent of Habsburg expansion. Savoy
Savoy
had already sent considerable sums of money to the Protestants and even troops to garrison fortresses in the Rhineland. The capture of Mansfeld's field chancery revealed the Savoyards' involvement, and they were forced to bow out of the war. Catholic intervention[edit]

Contemporary painting showing the Battle of White Mountain
Battle of White Mountain
(1620), where Imperial-Spanish forces under Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly won a decisive victory.

Contemporary woodcut depicting the Old Town Square execution
Old Town Square execution
of Protestant
Protestant
aristocrats in Prague, 1621

The Spanish sent an army from Brussels under Ambrogio Spinola
Ambrogio Spinola
to support the Emperor. In addition, the Spanish ambassador to Vienna, Don Íñigo Vélez de Oñate, persuaded Protestant
Protestant
Saxony to intervene against Bohemia
Bohemia
in exchange for control over Lusatia. The Saxons invaded, and the Spanish army in the west prevented the Protestant Union's forces from assisting. Oñate conspired to transfer the electoral title from the Palatinate to the Duke of Bavaria in exchange for his support and that of the Catholic League. The Catholic League's army (which included René Descartes
René Descartes
in its ranks as an observer) pacified Upper Austria, while Imperial forces under Johan Tzerclaes, Count of Tilly, pacified Lower Austria. The two armies united and moved north into Bohemia. Ferdinand II decisively defeated Frederick V at the Battle of White Mountain, near Prague, on 8 November 1620. In addition to becoming Catholic, Bohemia
Bohemia
remained in Habsburg hands for nearly 300 years. This defeat led to the dissolution of the League of Evangelical Union and the loss of Frederick V's holdings despite the tenacious defence of Trebon, Bohemia
Bohemia
(under Colonel Seton) until 1622 and Frankenthal (under Colonel Vere) the following year.[37] Frederick was outlawed from the Holy Roman Empire, and his territories, the Rhenish Palatinate, were given to Catholic nobles. His title of elector of the Palatinate was given to his distant cousin, Duke Maximilian of Bavaria. Frederick, now landless, made himself a prominent exile abroad and tried to curry support for his cause in Sweden, the Netherlands, and Denmark-Norway. This was a serious blow to Protestant
Protestant
ambitions in the region. As the rebellion collapsed, the widespread confiscation of property and suppression of the Bohemian nobility ensured the country would return to the Catholic side after more than two centuries of Hussite
Hussite
and other religious dissent. The Spanish, seeking to outflank the Dutch in preparation for renewal of the Eighty Years' War, took Frederick's lands, the Electorate of the Palatinate. The first phase of the war in eastern Germany ended 31 December 1621, when the prince of Transylvania and the emperor signed the Peace of Nikolsburg, which gave Transylvania a number of territories in Royal Hungary.

Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly, commander of the Imperial, Spanish, and Bavarian armies

Some historians regard the period from 1621 to 1625 as a distinct portion of the Thirty Years' War, calling it the "Palatinate phase". With the catastrophic defeat of the Protestant
Protestant
army at White Mountain and the departure of the prince of Transylvania, greater Bohemia
Bohemia
was pacified. However, the war in the Palatinate continued: Famous mercenary leaders – such as, particularly, Count Ernst von Mansfeld[44] – helped Frederick V to defend his countries, the Upper and the Rhine Palatinate. This phase of the war consisted of much smaller battles, mostly sieges conducted by the Imperial and the Spanish armies. Mannheim
Mannheim
and Heidelberg
Heidelberg
fell in 1622, and Frankenthal was finally transferred two years later, thus leaving the Palatinate in the hands of the Spaniards. The remnants of the Protestant
Protestant
armies, led by Mansfeld and Duke Christian of Brunswick, withdrew into Dutch service. Although their arrival in the Netherlands
Netherlands
did help to lift the siege of Bergen-op-Zoom
Bergen-op-Zoom
(October 1622), the Dutch could not provide permanent shelter for them. They were paid off and sent to occupy neighboring East Frisia. Mansfeld remained in the Dutch Republic, but Christian wandered off to "assist" his kin in the Lower Saxon Circle, attracting the attentions of Count Tilly. With the news that Mansfeld would not be supporting him, Christian's army began a steady retreat toward the safety of the Dutch border. On 6 August 1623, ten miles short of the border, Tilly's more disciplined army caught up with them. In the ensuing Battle of Stadtlohn, Christian was decisively defeated, losing over four-fifths of his army, which had been some 15,000 strong. After this catastrophe, Frederick V, already in exile in The Hague and under growing pressure from his father-in-law, James I, to end his involvement in the war, was forced to abandon any hope of launching further campaigns. The Protestant
Protestant
rebellion had been crushed. Huguenot
Huguenot
rebellions[edit] Main article: Huguenot
Huguenot
rebellions

Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
at the Siege of La Rochelle
Siege of La Rochelle
against the Huguenots (detail of a painting by Henri Motte, 1881)

Following the Wars of Religion of 1562–1598, the Protestant Huguenots of France (mainly located in the northwestern provinces) had enjoyed two decades of internal peace under Henry IV, who was originally a Huguenot
Huguenot
before converting to Catholicism, and had protected Protestants through the Edict of Nantes. His successor, Louis XIII, under the regency of his Italian Catholic mother, Marie de' Medici, was much less tolerant. The Huguenots responded to increasing persecution by arming themselves, forming independent political and military structures, establishing diplomatic contacts with foreign powers, and finally, openly revolting against the central power. The revolt became an international conflict with the involvement of England in the Anglo-French War
War
(1627–29). The House of Stuart in England had been involved in attempts to secure peace in Europe (through the Spanish Match), and had intervened in the war against both Spain
Spain
and France. However, defeat by the French (which indirectly led to the assassination of the English leader the Duke of Buckingham), lack of funds for war, and internal conflict between Charles I and his Parliament led to a redirection of English involvement in European affairs – much to the dismay of Protestant forces on the continent. This had the continued reliance on the Anglo-Dutch brigade as the main agency of English military participation against the Habsburgs, though regiments also fought for Sweden
Sweden
thereafter.[45] France remained the largest Catholic kingdom unaligned with the Habsburg powers, and would later actively wage war against Spain. The French Crown's response to the Huguenot
Huguenot
rebellion was not so much a representation of the typical religious polarization of the Thirty Years' War, but rather of an attempt at achieving national hegemony by an absolutist monarchy. Danish intervention (1625–1630)[edit]

Catholic General Albrecht von Wallenstein

Peace following the Imperial victory at Stadtlohn (1623) proved short-lived, with conflict resuming at the initiation of Denmark-Norway. Danish involvement, referred to as the Low Saxon War or Kejserkrigen ("the Emperor's War"),[46] began when Christian IV
Christian IV
of Denmark, a Lutheran who also ruled as Duke of Holstein, a duchy within the Holy Roman Empire, helped the Lutheran rulers of neighbouring Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
by leading an army against the Imperial forces in 1625.[47] Denmark-Norway had feared that the recent Catholic successes threatened its sovereignty as a Protestant
Protestant
nation. Christian IV
Christian IV
had also profited greatly from his policies in northern Germany. For instance, in 1621, Hamburg
Hamburg
had been forced to accept Danish sovereignty. Denmark-Norway's King Christian IV
Christian IV
had obtained for his kingdom a level of stability and wealth that was virtually unmatched elsewhere in Europe.[48] Denmark-Norway was funded by tolls on the Øresund
Øresund
and also by extensive war reparations from Sweden.[49] Denmark-Norway's cause was aided by France, which together with Charles I, had agreed to help subsidize the war, not the least because Christian was a blood uncle to both the Stuart king and his sister Elizabeth of Bohemia through their mother, Anne of Denmark. Some 13,700 Scottish soldiers were sent as allies to help Christian IV
Christian IV
under the command of General Robert Maxwell, 1st Earl of Nithsdale.[50] Moreover, some 6,000 English troops under Charles Morgan also eventually arrived to bolster the defence of Denmark-Norway, though it took longer for these to arrive than Christian hoped, not the least due to the ongoing British campaigns against France and Spain. Thus, Christian, as war-leader of the Lower Saxon Circle, entered the war with an army of only 20,000 mercenaries, some of his allies from England and Scotland and a national army 15,000 strong, leading them as Duke of Holstein
Duke of Holstein
rather than as King of Denmark-Norway.

Map of the Thirty Years' War

To fight Christian, Ferdinand II employed the military help of Albrecht von Wallenstein, a Bohemian nobleman who had made himself rich from the confiscated estates of his Protestant
Protestant
countrymen.[51] Wallenstein pledged his army, which numbered between 30,000 and 100,000 soldiers, to Ferdinand II in return for the right to plunder the captured territories. Christian, who knew nothing of Wallenstein's forces when he invaded, was forced to retire before the combined forces of Wallenstein and Tilly. Christian's mishaps continued when all of the allies he thought he had were forced aside: France was in the midst of a civil war, Sweden
Sweden
was at war with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and neither Brandenburg
Brandenburg
nor Saxony was interested in changes to the tenuous peace in eastern Germany. Moreover, neither of the substantial British contingents arrived in time to prevent Wallenstein defeating Mansfeld's army at the Battle of Dessau Bridge (1626) or Tilly's victory at the Battle of Lutter (1626).[52] Mansfeld died some months later of illness, apparently tuberculosis, in Dalmatia. Wallenstein's army marched north, occupying Mecklenburg, Pomerania, and Jutland
Jutland
itself, but proved unable to take the Dano-Norwegian capital Copenhagen
Copenhagen
on the island of Zealand. Wallenstein lacked a fleet, and neither the Hanseatic ports nor the Poles would allow the building of an imperial fleet on the Baltic coast. He then laid siege to Stralsund, the only belligerent Baltic port with sufficient facilities to build a large fleet; it soon became clear, however, that the cost of continuing the war would far outweigh any gains from conquering the rest of Denmark.[53] Wallenstein feared losing his northern German gains to a Danish-Swedish alliance, while Christian IV had suffered another defeat in the Battle of Wolgast
Battle of Wolgast
(1628); both were ready to negotiate.[54] Negotiations concluded with the Treaty of Lübeck
Treaty of Lübeck
in 1629, which stated that Christian IV
Christian IV
could retain control over Denmark-Norway (including the duchies of Sleswick and Holstein) if he would abandon his support for the Protestant
Protestant
German states. Thus, in the following two years, the Catholic powers subjugated more land. At this point, the Catholic League persuaded Ferdinand II to take back the Lutheran holdings that were, according to the Peace of Augsburg, rightfully the possession of the Catholic Church. Enumerated in the Edict of Restitution (1629), these possessions included two archbishoprics, 16 bishoprics, and hundreds of monasteries. In the same year, Gabriel Bethlen, the Calvinist
Calvinist
prince of Transylvania, died. Only the port of Stralsund
Stralsund
continued to hold out against Wallenstein and the emperor, having been bolstered by Scottish 'volunteers' who arrived from the Swedish army to support their countrymen already there in the service of Denmark-Norway. These men were led by Colonel Alexander Leslie, who became governor of the city.[55] As Colonel Robert Monro recorded:

Sir Alexander Leslie
Alexander Leslie
being made Governour, he resolved for the credit of his Country-men, to make an out-fall upon the Enemy, and desirous to conferre the credit on his own Nation alone, being his first Essay in that Citie.[56]

Leslie held Stralsund
Stralsund
until 1630, using the port as a base to capture the surrounding towns and ports to provide a secure beach-head for a full-scale Swedish landing under Gustavus Adolphus. Swedish intervention (1630–1635)[edit] Main article: Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years' War

The victory of Gustavus Adolphus
Gustavus Adolphus
at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631)

Some in the court of Ferdinand II did not trust Wallenstein, believing he sought to join forces with the German princes and thus gain influence over the Emperor. Ferdinand II dismissed Wallenstein in 1630. He later recalled him, after the Swedes, led by King Gustavus Adolphus, had successfully invaded the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and turned the tables on the Catholics.[57][58] Like Christian IV
Christian IV
before him, Gustavus Adolphus
Gustavus Adolphus
came to aid the German Lutherans, to forestall Catholic suzerainty in his back yard, and to obtain economic influence in the German states around the Baltic Sea. He was also concerned about the growing power of the Holy Roman Empire, and like Christian IV
Christian IV
before him, was heavily subsidized by Cardinal Richelieu, the chief minister of Louis XIII
Louis XIII
of France, and by the Dutch.[59] From 1630 to 1634, Swedish-led armies drove the Catholic forces back, regaining much of the lost Protestant
Protestant
territory. During his campaign, he managed to conquer half of the imperial kingdoms, making Sweden
Sweden
the continental leader of Protestantism
Protestantism
until the Swedish Empire
Swedish Empire
ended in 1721. Swedish forces entered the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
via the Duchy of Pomerania, which served as the Swedish bridgehead since the Treaty of Stettin (1630). After dismissing Wallenstein in 1630, Ferdinand II became dependent on the Catholic League. Gustavus Adolphus
Gustavus Adolphus
allied with France in the Treaty of Bärwalde
Treaty of Bärwalde
(January 1631). France and Bavaria signed the secret Treaty of Fontainebleau (1631), but this was rendered irrelevant by Swedish attacks against Bavaria. At the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631), Gustavus Adolphus's forces defeated the Catholic League led by Tilly.[60][61] A year later, they met again in another Protestant
Protestant
victory, this time accompanied by the death of Tilly. The upper hand had now switched from the league to the union, led by Sweden. In 1630, Sweden
Sweden
had paid at least 2,368,022 daler for its army of 42,000 men. In 1632, it contributed only one-fifth of that (476,439 daler) towards the cost of an army more than three times as large (149,000 men). This was possible due to subsidies from France, and the recruitment of prisoners (most of them taken at the Battle of Breitenfeld) into the Swedish army. Before that time, Sweden
Sweden
waged war with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and could not support the Protestant
Protestant
states properly. For that reason, the King Gustav II enlisted support of the Russian Tsar Michael I, who also fought the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
in hopes of regaining Smolensk. While a separate conflict, the Smolensk War
War
became an integral part of Thirty Years' confrontation.[62]

Scottish soldiers, identified as Donald Mackay Lord Reay's regiment, in service of Gustavus Adolphus, 1630–31

The majority of mercenaries recruited by Gustavus Adolphus
Gustavus Adolphus
were German,[63] but Scottish soldiers were also very numerous. These were composed of some 12,000 Scots already in service before the Swedes entered the war under the command of General Sir James Spens and colonels such as Sir Alexander Leslie, Sir Patrick Ruthven, and Sir John Hepburn. These were joined by a further 8,000 men under the command of James Marquis Hamilton. The total number of Scots in Swedish service by the end of the war is estimated at some 30,000 men,[64] no less than 15 of whom served with the rank of major-general or above.[65] With Tilly dead, Ferdinand II returned to the aid of Wallenstein and his large army. Wallenstein marched up to the south, threatening Gustavus Adolphus's supply chain. Gustavus Adolphus
Gustavus Adolphus
knew that Wallenstein was waiting for the attack and was prepared but found no other option. Wallenstein and Gustavus Adolphus
Gustavus Adolphus
clashed in the Battle of Lützen (1632), where the Swedes prevailed, but Gustavus Adolphus was killed. Ferdinand II's suspicion of Wallenstein resumed in 1633, when Wallenstein attempted to arbitrate the differences between the Catholic and Protestant
Protestant
sides. Ferdinand II may have feared that Wallenstein would switch sides, and arranged for his arrest after removing him from command. One of Wallenstein's soldiers, Captain Devereux, killed him when he attempted to contact the Swedes in the town hall of Eger (Cheb) on 25 February 1634. The same year, the Protestant
Protestant
forces, lacking Gustav's leadership, were smashed at the First Battle of Nördlingen by the Spanish-Imperial forces commanded by Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand.

The Spanish relief of Breisach
Breisach
by the Duke of Feria in 1633

By the spring of 1635, all Swedish resistance in the south of Germany had ended. After that, the Imperial and Protestant
Protestant
German sides met for negotiations, producing the Peace of Prague
Prague
(1635), which entailed a delay in the enforcement of the Edict of Restitution
Edict of Restitution
for 40 years and allowed Protestant
Protestant
rulers to retain secularized bishoprics held by them in 1627. This protected the Lutheran rulers of northeastern Germany, but not those of the south and west (whose lands had been occupied by the imperial or league armies prior to 1627). The treaty also provided for the union of the army of the emperor and the armies of the German states into a single army of the Holy Roman Empire (although John George I of Saxony
John George I of Saxony
and Maximillian I of Bavaria kept, as a practical matter, independent command of their forces, now nominally components of the "imperial" army). Finally, German princes were forbidden from establishing alliances amongst themselves or with foreign powers, and amnesty was granted to any ruler who had taken up arms against the emperor after the arrival of the Swedes in 1630. This treaty failed to satisfy France, however, because of the renewed strength it granted the Habsburgs. France then entered the conflict, beginning the final period of the Thirty Years' War. Sweden
Sweden
did not take part in the Peace of Prague
Prague
and it continued the war together with France. Initially after the Peace of Prague, the Swedish armies were pushed back by the reinforced Imperial army north into Germany. French intervention and continued Swedish participation (1635–1648)[edit]

Soldiers plundering a farm by Sebastian Vrancx, 1620

A landscape with travelers ambushed outside a small town, painted by Vrancx

France, although Roman Catholic, was a rival of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain. Cardinal Richelieu, the chief minister of King Louis XIII of France, considered the Habsburgs too powerful, since they held a number of territories on France's eastern border, including portions of the Netherlands. Richelieu had already begun intervening indirectly in the war in January 1631, when the French diplomat Hercule de Charnacé signed the Treaty of Bärwalde
Treaty of Bärwalde
with Gustavus Adolphus, by which France agreed to support the Swedes with 1,000,000 livres each year in return for a Swedish promise to maintain an army in Germany against the Habsburgs. The treaty also stipulated that Sweden
Sweden
would not conclude a peace with the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
without first receiving France's approval. After the Swedish rout at Nördlingen in September 1634 and the Peace of Prague
Prague
in 1635, in which the Protestant
Protestant
German princes sued for peace with the German emperor, Sweden's ability to continue the war alone appeared doubtful, and Richelieu made the decision to enter into direct war against the Habsburgs. France declared war on Spain
Spain
in May 1635 and the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in August 1636, opening offensives against the Habsburgs in Germany and the Low Countries.[66] France aligned her strategy with the allied Swedes in Wismar (1636) and Hamburg
Hamburg
(1638). After the Peace of Prague, the Swedes reorganised the Royal Army under Johan Banér and created a new one, the Army of the Weser under the command of Alexander Leslie. The two army groups moved south from spring 1636, re-establishing alliances on the way including a revitalised one with Wilhelm of Hesse-Kassel. The two Swedish armies combined and confronted the Imperials at the Battle of Wittstock. Despite the odds being stacked against them, the Swedish army won.[67] This success largely reversed many of the effects of their defeat at Nördlingen, albeit not without creating some tensions between Banér and Leslie. Emperor Ferdinand II died in 1637 and was succeeded by his son Ferdinand III, who was strongly inclined toward ending the war through negotiations. His army did, however, win an important success at the Battle of Vlotho in 1638 against a combined Swedish-English-Palatine force. This victory effectively ended the involvement of the Palatinate in the war. French military efforts met with disaster, and the Spanish counter-attacked, invading French territory. The Imperial general Johann von Werth
Johann von Werth
and Spanish commander Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand
Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand
of Spain
Spain
ravaged the French provinces of Champagne, Burgundy, and Picardy, and even threatened Paris in 1636. Then, the tide began to turn for the French. The Spanish army was repulsed by Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar. Bernhard's victory in the Battle of Breisach pushed the Habsburg armies back from the borders of France.[68] Then, for a time, widespread fighting ensued until 1640, with neither side gaining an advantage.

The Battle of Rocroi, by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau

In 1640 the war reached a climax and the tide turned clearly toward the French and against Spain, starting with the siege and capture of the fort at Arras.[69][70] The French conquered Arras
Arras
from the Spanish following a siege that lasted from 16 June to 9 August 1640. When Arras
Arras
fell, the way was opened to the French to take all of Flanders.[71] The ensuing French campaign against the Spanish forces in Flanders culminated with a decisive French victory at the battle of Rocroi in May 1643.[72] News of these French victories provided strong encouragement to separatist movements in the Spanish province of Catalonia
Catalonia
and in Portugal.[71] The Catalan revolt had sprung up spontaneously in May 1640.[73] Since that time, it had been the conscious goal of Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
to promote a "war by diversion" against the Spanish.[74] Richelieu wanted to create difficulties for the Spanish at home that might encourage them to withdraw from the war. To fight this war by diversion, Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
had been supplying aid to the Catalans.[72] In December 1640, the Portuguese rose up against Spanish rule and once again Richelieu supplied aid to the insurgents.[72] The war by diversion had its intended effect. Philip IV of Spain
Spain
was reluctantly forced to divert his attention from the war in northern Europe to deal with his problems at home.[72] Indeed, even at this time, some of Philip's advisers, including the Count of Oñate, were recommending that Philip withdraw from overseas commitments.[72] With Trier, Alsace, and Lorraine all in French hands and the Dutch in charge of Limburg, the Channel and the North Sea, the "Spanish Road" connecting Habsburg Spain
Spain
with the Habsburg possessions in the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Austria was severed. Philip IV could no longer physically send reinforcements to the Low Countries.[72] On 4 December 1642, Cardinal Richelieu died. However, his policy of war by diversion continued to pay dividends to France. Spain
Spain
was unable to resist the continuing drumbeat of French victories— Gravelines
Gravelines
was lost to the French in 1644, followed by Hulst
Hulst
in 1645 and Dunkirk
Dunkirk
in 1646.[72] The Thirty Years' War
War
would continue until 1648[75] and the conflict between France and Spain
Spain
until 1659, but in the end, a new order on the continent was established. This new order was embodied in the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, which finally ended the war between France and Spain.[76]

The Battle of Lens, 1648

Siege of Prague
Prague
1648 engraving from "Theatri Europæi...".1663.

The Swedish siege of Prague
Prague
in 1648

Meanwhile, an important act in the war was played out by the Swedes. After the battle of Wittstock, the Swedish army regained the initiative in the German campaign. In the Second Battle of Breitenfeld in 1642, outside Leipzig, the Swedish Field Marshal Lennart Torstenson defeated an army of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
led by Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria and his deputy, Prince-General Ottavio Piccolomini, Duke of Amalfi. The imperial army suffered 20,000 casualties. In addition, the Swedish army took 5,000 prisoners and seized 46 guns, at a cost to themselves of 4,000 killed or wounded. The battle enabled Sweden
Sweden
to occupy Saxony and impressed on Ferdinand III the need to include Sweden, and not only France, in any peace negotiations. Louis XIII
Louis XIII
died in 1643, leaving his five-year-old son Louis XIV
Louis XIV
on the throne. Mere days later, French General Louis II de Bourbon, 4th Prince de Condé, Duc d'Enghien, The Great Condé, defeated the Spanish army at the Battle of Rocroi
Battle of Rocroi
in 1643. The same year, however, the French were defeated by the Imperial and Catholic League forces at the battle of Tuttlingen. The chief minister of Louis XIII, Cardinal Mazarin, facing the domestic crisis of the Fronde
Fronde
in 1645, began working to end the war. In 1643, Denmark-Norway made preparations to again intervene in the war, but on the imperial side (against Sweden). The Swedish marshal Lennart Torstenson
Lennart Torstenson
expelled Danish prince Frederick from Bremen-Verden, gaining a stronghold south of Denmark-Norway and hindering Danish participation as mediators in the peace talks in Westphalia.[77] Torstensson went on to occupy Jutland, and after the Royal Swedish Navy
Royal Swedish Navy
under Carl Gustaf Wrangel
Carl Gustaf Wrangel
inflicted a decisive defeat on the Danish Navy
Danish Navy
in the battle of Fehmern Belt in an action of 13 October 1644, forcing them to sue for peace. With Denmark-Norway out of the war, Torstenson then pursued the Imperial army under Gallas from Jutland
Jutland
in Denmark south to Bohemia. At the Battle of Jankau
Battle of Jankau
near Prague, the Swedish army defeated the Imperial army under Gallas and could occupy Bohemian lands and threaten Prague, as well as Vienna. In 1645, a French army under Turenne was almost destroyed by the Bavarians at the Battle of Herbsthausen. However, reinforced by Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, it defeated its opponent in the Second Battle of Nördlingen. The last Catholic commander of note, Baron Franz von Mercy, died in the battle.[78] However, the French army's effort on the Rhine had little result, in contrast to its string of victories in Flanders and Artois.[79] The same year, the Swedes entered Austria and besieged Vienna, but they could not take the city and had to retreat. The siege of Brünn in Bohemia
Bohemia
proved as fruitless, as the Swedish army met with fierce resistance from the Habsburg forces. After five months, the Swedish army, severely worn out, had to withdraw. On 14 March 1647, Bavaria, Cologne, France, and Sweden
Sweden
signed the Truce of Ulm. In 1648, the Swedes (commanded by Marshal Carl Gustaf Wrangel) and the French (led by Turenne) defeated the Imperial army at the Battle of Zusmarshausen, and Condé defeated the Spanish at Lens. However, an Imperial army led by Octavio Piccolomini
Octavio Piccolomini
managed to check the Franco-Swedish army in Bavaria, though their position remained fragile. The Battle of Prague
Prague
in 1648 became the last action of the Thirty Years' War. The general Hans Christoff von Königsmarck, commanding Sweden's flying column, entered the city and captured Prague
Prague
Castle (where the event that triggered the war – the Defenestration of Prague
Prague
– took place, 30 years before). There, they captured many valuable treasures, including the Codex Gigas, which is still today preserved in Stockholm. However, they failed to conquer the right-bank part of Prague
Prague
and the old city, which resisted until the end of the war. These results left only the Imperial territories of Austria safely in Habsburg hands. Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia
(1648)[edit] Main article: Peace of Westphalia

Europe after the Peace of Westphalia, 1648

Over a four-year period, the warring parties (the Holy Roman Empire, France, and Sweden) were actively negotiating at Osnabrück
Osnabrück
and Münster
Münster
in Westphalia.[80] The end of the war was not brought about by one treaty, but instead by a group of treaties such as the Treaty of Hamburg. On 15 May 1648, the Peace of Münster
Münster
was signed, ending the Thirty Years' War. Over five months later, on 24 October, the Treaties of Münster
Münster
and Osnabrück
Osnabrück
were signed.[81] Casualties and disease[edit]

Marauding soldiers, Vranx, 1647, Deutsches Historisches Museum
Deutsches Historisches Museum
Berlin

The war ranks with the worst famines and plagues as the greatest medical catastrophe in modern European history.[82][83] Lacking good census information, historians have extrapolated the experience of well-studied regions.[84] John Theibault agrees with the conclusions in Günther Franz's Der Dreissigjährige Krieg und das Deutsche Volk (1940), that population losses were great but varied regionally (ranging as high as 50%) and says his estimates are the best available.[85] The war killed soldiers and civilians directly, caused famines, destroyed livelihoods, disrupted commerce, postponed marriages and childbirth, and forced large numbers of people to relocate. The overall reduction of population in the German states was typically 25% to 40%.[86] Some regions were affected much more than others.[87] For example, Württemberg
Württemberg
lost three-quarters of its population during the war.[88] In the territory of Brandenburg, the losses had amounted to half, while in some areas, an estimated two-thirds of the population died.[89] Overall, the male population of the German states was reduced by almost half.[90] The population of the Czech lands
Czech lands
declined by a third due to war, disease, famine, and the expulsion of Protestant
Protestant
Czechs.[91][92] Much of the destruction of civilian lives and property was caused by the cruelty and greed of mercenary soldiers.[93] Villages were especially easy prey to the marauding armies. Those that survived, like the small village of Drais near Mainz, would take almost a hundred years to recover. The Swedish armies alone may have destroyed up to 2,000 castles, 18,000 villages, and 1,500 towns in Germany, one-third of all German towns.[94] The war caused serious dislocations to both the economies and populations of central Europe, but may have done no more than seriously exacerbate changes that had begun earlier.[95][96] Also, some historians contend that the human cost of the war may actually have improved the living standards of the survivors.[97] According to Ulrich Pfister, Germany was one of the richest countries in Europe per capita in 1500, but ranked far lower in 1600. Then, it recovered during the 1600–1660 period, in part thanks to the demographic shock of the Thirty Years' War.

A peasant begs for mercy in front of a burning farm

Pestilence of several kinds raged among combatants and civilians in Germany and surrounding lands from 1618 to 1648. Many features of the war spread disease. These included troop movements, the influx of soldiers from foreign countries, and the shifting locations of battle fronts. In addition, the displacement of civilian populations and the overcrowding of refugees into cities led to both disease and famine. Information about numerous epidemics is generally found in local chronicles, such as parish registers and tax records, that are often incomplete and may be exaggerated. The chronicles do show that epidemic disease was not a condition exclusive to war time, but was present in many parts of Germany for several decades prior to 1618.[98] When the Imperial and Danish armies clashed in Saxony and Thuringia during 1625 and 1626, disease and infection in local communities increased. Local chronicles repeatedly referred to "head disease", "Hungarian disease", and a "spotted" disease identified as typhus. After the Mantuan War, between France and the Habsburgs in Italy, the northern half of the Italian peninsula was in the throes of a bubonic plague epidemic (Italian Plague of 1629–1631). During the unsuccessful siege of Nuremberg, in 1632, civilians and soldiers in both the Imperial and Swedish armies succumbed to typhus and scurvy. Two years later, as the Imperial army pursued the defeated Swedes into southwest Germany, deaths from epidemics were high along the Rhine River. Bubonic plague
Bubonic plague
continued to be a factor in the war. Beginning in 1634, Dresden, Munich, and smaller German communities such as Oberammergau
Oberammergau
recorded large numbers of plague casualties. In the last decades of the war, both typhus and dysentery had become endemic in Germany. Witch-hunts[edit]

A 1627 engraving of the Bamberg Malefizhaus, where suspected witches were held and interrogated

Among the other great social traumas abetted by the war was a major outbreak of witch hunts. This violent wave of witch-hunting first erupted in the territories of Franconia
Franconia
during the time of the Danish intervention. The hardship and turmoil the conflict had produced among the general population enabled the hysteria to spread quickly to other parts of Germany. Residents of areas that had been devastated not only by the conflict itself, but also by the numerous crop failures, famines, and epidemics that accompanied it, were quick to attribute these calamities to supernatural causes. In this tumultuous and highly volatile environment, allegations of witchcraft against neighbors and fellow citizens flourished.[99] The sheer volume of trials and executions during this time would mark the period as the peak of the European witch-hunting phenomenon.[100] The persecutions began in the Bishopric
Bishopric
of Würzburg, then under the leadership of Prince-Bishop
Prince-Bishop
Philipp Adolf von Ehrenberg. An ardent devotee of the Counter-Reformation, Ehrenberg was eager to consolidate Catholic political authority in the territories he administered.[101] Beginning in 1626, Ehrenberg staged numerous mass trials for witchcraft in which all levels of society (including the nobility and the clergy) found themselves targeted in a relentless series of purges. By 1630, 219 men, women, and children had been burned at the stake in the city of Würzburg
Würzburg
itself, while an estimated 900 people are believed to have been put to death in the rural areas of the province.[100] Concurrent with the events in Würzburg, Prince-Bishop
Prince-Bishop
Johann von Dornheim would embark upon a similar series of large-scale witch trials in the nearby territory of Bamberg. A specially designed Malefizhaus (witch house) was erected containing a torture chamber, whose walls were adorned with Bible
Bible
verses, in which to interrogate the accused. The Bamberg witch trials
Bamberg witch trials
would drag on for five years and claimed between 300 and 600 lives, among them Dorothea Flock
Dorothea Flock
and the city's long-time Bürgermeister
Bürgermeister
(mayor) Johannes Junius.[102] Meanwhile, 274 suspected witches were put to the torch in the Bishopric
Bishopric
of Eichstätt in 1629, while another 50 perished in the adjacent Duchy of Palatinate-Neuburg
Palatinate-Neuburg
that same year.[103] Elsewhere, the persecutions arrived in the wake of the early Imperial military successes. The witch hunts expanded into Baden following its reconquest by Tilly, while the Imperial victory in the Palatinate opened the way for their eventual spread to the Rhineland.[100] The Rhenish electorates of Mainz
Mainz
and Trier
Trier
both witnessed mass burnings of suspected witches during this time. In Cologne, the territory's Prince-Archbishop, Ferdinand of Bavaria, presided over a particularly infamous series of witchcraft trials that included the controversial prosecution of Katharina Henot, who was burned at the stake in 1627.[100] During this time, the witch hunts also continued their unchecked growth, as new and increased incidents of alleged witchcraft began surfacing in the territories of Westphalia. The witch hunts reached their peak around the time of the Edict of Restitution in 1629, and much of the remaining institutional and popular enthusiasm for them faded in the aftermath of Sweden's entry into the war the following year. However, in Würzburg, the persecutions continued until the death of Ehrenberg in July, 1631.[100] The excesses of this period inspired the Jesuit scholar and poet Friedrich Spee
Friedrich Spee
(himself a former "witch confessor") to author his scathing legal and moral condemnation of the witch trials, the Cautio Criminalis. This influential work later was credited with bringing an end to the practice of witch-burning in some areas of Germany and its gradual abolition throughout Europe.[104] Political consequences[edit]

Central Europe
Central Europe
at the end of the Thirty Years' War, showing the fragmentation that resulted in decentralization

The Thirty Years' War
War
rearranged the European power structure. During the last decade of the conflict Spain
Spain
showed clear signs of weakening. While Spain
Spain
was fighting in France, Portugal – which had been under personal union with Spain
Spain
for 60 years – acclaimed John IV of Braganza as king in 1640, and the House of Braganza
House of Braganza
became the new dynasty of Portugal. Spain
Spain
was forced to accept the independence of the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
in 1648, ending the Eighty Years' War. Bourbon France challenged Habsburg Spain's supremacy in the Franco-Spanish War (1635–59), gaining definitive ascendancy in the War
War
of Devolution (1667–68) and the Franco-Dutch War
War
(1672–78), under the leadership of Louis XIV. The war resulted in increased autonomy for the constituent states of the Holy Roman Empire, limiting the power of the emperor and decentralizing authority in German-speaking central Europe. For Austria and Bavaria, the result of the war was ambiguous. Bavaria was defeated, devastated, and occupied, but it gained some territory as a result of the treaty in 1648. Austria had utterly failed in reasserting its authority in the empire, but it had successfully suppressed Protestantism
Protestantism
in its own dominions. Compared to large parts of Germany, most of its territory was not significantly devastated, and its army was stronger after the war than it was before, unlike that of most other states of the empire.[105] This, along with the shrewd diplomacy of Ferdinand III, allowed it to play an important role in the following decades and to regain some authority among the other German states to face the growing threats of the Ottoman Empire and France.

Reduction in population of Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
as a percentage

From 1643–1645, during the last years of the war, Sweden
Sweden
and Denmark-Norway fought the Torstenson War. The result of that conflict and the conclusion of the Thirty Years' War
War
helped establish postwar Sweden
Sweden
as a major force in Europe. The arrangements agreed upon in the Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia
in 1648 were instrumental in laying the legal foundations of the modern sovereign nation-state. Aside from establishing fixed territorial boundaries for many of the countries involved in the ordeal (as well as for the newer ones created afterwards), the Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia
changed the relationship of subjects to their rulers. Previously, many people had borne overlapping, sometimes conflicting political and religious allegiances. Henceforth, the inhabitants of a given state were understood to be subject first and foremost to the laws and edicts of their respective state authority, not to the claims of any other entity, be it religious or secular. This in turn made it easier to levy national armies of significant size, loyal to their state and its leader, so as to reduce the need to employ mercenaries, whose drawbacks had been exposed a century earlier in The Prince. Among the drawbacks were the depravations (such as the Schwedentrunk) and destruction caused by mercenary soldiers, which defied description and resulted in revulsion and hatred of the sponsor of the mercenaries; there would be no other figure such as Albrecht von Wallenstein, and the age of Landsknecht
Landsknecht
mercenaries would end. The war also had more subtle consequences. It was the last major religious war in mainland Europe, ending the large-scale religious bloodshed accompanying the Reformation, which had begun over a century before. Other religious conflicts occurred in the years to come, but no great wars.[106] Outside Europe[edit] The war also had consequences abroad, as the European powers extended their rivalry via naval power to overseas colonies. In 1630, a Dutch fleet of 70 ships took the rich sugar-exporting areas of Pernambuco (Brazil) from the Portuguese, though the Dutch would lose them by 1654. Fighting also took place in Africa and Asia. Phillip II and III of Portugal used forts built from the destroyed temples, including Fort Fredrick
Fort Fredrick
in Trincomalee, and others in southern Ceylon such as Colombo and Galle Fort, to fight sea battles with the Dutch, Danish, French, and English. This was the beginning of the island's loss of sovereignty. Later the Dutch and English succeeded the Portuguese as colonial rulers of the island.[107][108] Involvement[edit]

Directly against Emperor

Indirectly against Emperor

Directly for Emperor

Indirectly for Emperor

Fiction[edit]

Vida y hechos de Estebanillo González, hombre de buen humor, compuesta por él mismo (Antwerp, 1646): The last of the great Spanish Golden Age picaresque novels, this is set against the background of the Thirty Years' War. It is thought to have been written by a man in the entourage of Ottavio Piccolomini. The main character crisscrosses Europe at war in his role as messenger; he witnesses the 1634 battle of Nordlingen, among other events. Simplicius Simplicissimus
Simplicius Simplicissimus
(1668) by Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen, one of the most important German novels of the 17th century, is the comic fictional autobiography of a half-German, half-Scottish peasant turned mercenary. He serves under various powers during the war. The book is based on the author's first-hand experience. An opera adaptation by the same name was produced in the 1930s, written by Karl Amadeus Hartmann. Daniel Defoe
Daniel Defoe
(1720). Memoirs of a Cavalier. "A Military Journal of the Wars in Germany, and the Wars in England. From the Years 1632 to 1648" G. A. Henty, The Lion of the North: The Adventures of a Scottish Lad during the Thirty Years' War
War
(2 vol., 1997 reprint). It is available under a number of subtitle variants, including a comic strip. Also Won By the Sword: A Story of the Thirty Years' War Friedrich Schiller's Wallenstein trilogy (1799) is a fictional account of the downfall of this general. Alessandro Manzoni's The Betrothed (1842) is an historical novel taking place in Italy in 1629. It treats a couple whose marriage is interrupted by the bubonic plague, and other complications of Thirty Years' War. Edmond Rostand's (1897) play Cyrano de Bergerac (act IV is set during the siege of Arras
Arras
in 1640.) Gertrud von Le Fort's historical novel Die Magdeburgische Hochzeit is a fictional account of romantic and political intrigue during the siege of Magdeburg. Alfred Döblin's sprawling historical novel Wallenstein (1920) is set during the Thirty Years' War; it explores the court of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand. Bertolt Brecht's play Mother Courage and Her Children, an antiwar piece, is set during the Thirty Years' War. Queen Christina (1933), the film starring Greta Garbo, opens with the death of Christina's father, King Gustavus Adolphus, at the Battle of Lützen in the Thirty Years' War. The plot of the film is set against the backdrop of the war and Christina's determination as queen, depicted a decade later, to end the war and bring about peace. The Last Valley
The Last Valley
(1971) is a film starring Michael Caine
Michael Caine
and Omar Sharif, who discover a temporary haven from the Thirty Years' War. it was adapted from a novel of the same name written by J B Pick, a Scottish author. Das Treffen in Telgte (1979), by Günter Grass, a Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
winner, is set in the aftermath of the war. He implicitly compared conditions to those in postwar Germany in the late 1940s. It was translated into English in 1981. Michael Moorcock's novel, The War
War
Hound and the World's Pain (1981), features a central character of Ulrich von Bek, a mercenary who took part in the sack of Magdeburg. Eric Flint's Ring of Fire series of alternative history novels, deals with a temporally displaced American town from the early 21st century that occupies territory in the early 1630s in war-torn Germany. Parts of Neal Stephenson's Baroque
Baroque
Cycle are set in lands devastated by the Thirty Years' War. In The Hangman's Daughter by Oliver Pötzsch, the protagonist, hangman Jakob Kuisl, and other prominent characters have served in a General Tylli's army and participated in the sacking of the city of Magdeburg during the Thirty Years' War. "The Great War" and Swedish incursion into north-central Germany are frequently referenced. Hermann Löns' novel Der Wehrwolf
Der Wehrwolf
is about an alliance of peasants using guerrilla tactics to fight the enemy during the Thirty Years' War.

Gallery[edit]

War
War
Scene, by Sebastian Vrancx

Battle of Sablat, 10 June 1619

Bautzen
Bautzen
circa 1620, by Matthäus Merian

Execution of 27 Bohemian rebel leaders, Prague, 21 June 1621

Battle of Wimpfen, 6 May 1622

Battle of Fleurus of 29 August 1622

Battle of Stadtlohn, 6 August 1623

Siege of Stralsund, May to 4 August 1628

A cavalry battle, between 1626 and 1628

Sack of Magdeburg, 1631. Of the 30,000 citizens, only 5,000 survived.

Battle of Frankfurt an der Oder, April 1631

Death of King Gustav II Adolf of Sweden
Sweden
at the Battle of Lützen, 6 November 1632

The capture of Rheinfelden by the troops of the Duke of Feria, 1633

Battle of Rocroi, 1643

Unsuccessful Swedish siege of Brno, 1645

See also[edit]

List of wars and disasters by death toll Scotland and the Thirty Years' War Second Thirty Years' War Contemporary major European conflicts:

Eighty Years' War Franco-Spanish War
War
(1635–59) Wars of the Three Kingdoms

Bishops' Wars Irish Confederate Wars English Civil War

References[edit]

^ a b Reconciled with the Emperor and switched sides in the Peace of Prague
Prague
(1635). ^ At war with Spain
Spain
1625–30 (and France 1627–29): 6000 Englishmen also fought under Charles Morgan in the Danish campaigns. These were largely drawn from the English brigade of four regiments which were based in the Dutch Republic. ^ Scotland declared war and fought against Spain
Spain
1625–1630 and France 1627–1629, mostly conducting the war at sea. In addition to providing 2000 troops for the campaign against France in 1627, Scottish privateers harried French shipping and captured and occupied Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, and Quebec. The Scottish Privy Council also provided warrants for 13,700 troops for Danish service who fought under Scottish flag with a Dannerbrog in the top left corner. These were led initially by the Catholic Robert Maxwell, Earl of Nithsdale and more famously by Donald Mackay Lord Reay. In 1630, 8000 more Britons, mostly Scots led by James 3rd Marquis Hamilton landed in Germany under British flag. They were explicitly called the "British army" and had been raised on warrants issued by the English and Scottish Privy councils for allied service alongside Sweden. They joined an estimated 12,000 Scots already in Swedish service commanded by General Sir James Spens, Alexander Leslie, Patrick Ruthven, and John Hepburn. The latter man led a Scottish brigade in France from 1634–1636, after which it fell under the control of the Douglas family. Throughout the entire period of the war, the Scots maintained a brigade of three regiments in Dutch service. The 1625–1638 period represents the period of greatest engagement, though Scots were active as allies in the anti-Habsburg alliance throughout the whole course of the war. ^ "into line with army of Gabriel Bethlen
Gabriel Bethlen
in 1620." Ágnes Várkonyi: Age of the Reforms, Magyar Könyvklub publisher, 1999. ISBN 963-547-070-3 ^ Russia supported Sweden
Sweden
against Poland ( Smolensk
Smolensk
War). ^ Abolished in the Peace of Prague
Prague
(1635). Its former members continued to support the Holy Roman Emperor. ^ Ervin Liptai: Military history of Hungary, Zrínyi Military Publisher, 1985. ISBN 9633263379 ^ Denmark–Norway
Denmark–Norway
fought Sweden
Sweden
and the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
in the Torstenson War. ^ The Consequences and Effects of the Thirty Years War
War
"The later divisions that occurred made Europe more like it is now with the Catholic areas in the south and the Lutherans
Lutherans
farther north and more importantly, it took the central power from the Catholic Church." ^ Helmolt, Hans Ferdinand (1903). The World's History: Western Europe to 1800. W. Heinemann. p. 573. ISBN 0-217-96566-0.  ^ Swedish Intervention ^ Danish Military Intervention ^ Johnson, Curt. "The French Army of the Thirty Years' War: Introduction and Maison du Roi". Xenophon Group. Early Modern Warfare Society. Retrieved 11 January 2018.  ^ page 54 Rennoldson, Neil. "Review Article: Spain
Spain
and the Netherlands in the 17th Century" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 7 October 2014.  "When the Dutch army was increased to 77.000 in 1629 during the threatened Spanish invasion..." ^ "Gabriel Bethlen's army numbered 5,000 Hungarian pikemen and 1,000 German mercenary, with the anti-Habsburg Hungarian rebels numbered together approx. 35,000 men." László Markó: The Great Honors of the Hungarian State (A Magyar Állam Főméltóságai), Magyar Könyvklub 2000. ISBN 963-547-085-1 ^ Trueman, C N. "Military developments in the Thirty Years War". Retrieved 16 July 2017.  ^ László Markó: The Great Honors of the Hungarian State (A Magyar Állam Főméltóságai), Magyar Könyvklub 2000. ISBN 963-547-085-1 ^ a b c d Clodfelter, Micheal (2017). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492-2015. McFarland. p. 40. ISBN 978-0786474707.  ^ Peter H. Wilson, Europe's Tragedy: A New History of the Thirty Years War
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War
(Roultledge Pub.: London, 1997) pp. 17–18. ^ "The Peace of Prague". historylearningsite.co.uk. Retrieved 24 May 2008.  ^ "Peace of Prague
Prague
(1635) – Historic Event  — German Archive: The Peace of Prague
Prague
of 30 May 1635 was a treaty between the Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, and most of the Protestant
Protestant
states of the Empire. It effectively brought to an end the civil war aspect of the Thirty Years' War
War
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Renaissance
monarchy. Oxford University Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-19-927121-4. Retrieved 7 August 2009.  ^ "Danish Kings · Christian 4". danskekonger.dk. Archived from the original on 4 April 2008. Retrieved 24 May 2008.  ^ Lockhart, Paul D. (2007). Denmark, 1513–1660: the rise and decline of a Renaissance
Renaissance
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Renaissance
Monarchy. Oxford University Press. p. 170. ISBN 0-19-927121-6. Retrieved 5 August 2009.  ^ Murdoch and Grosjean, pp. 47–51 ^ Monro, His Expedition, vol. 1, pp. 77–8 ^ "The Thirty-Years-War". Archived from the original on 9 October 1999.  ^ "Thirty Years War". hyperhistory.com. Retrieved 25 May 2008.  ^ "Lecture 6: Europe in the Age of Religious Wars, 1560–1715". historyguide.org. Retrieved 25 May 2008.  ^ "Thirty Years' War: Battle of Breitenfeld". historynet.com. Retrieved 24 May 2008.  ^ "History of the Thirty Years' War". historyworld.net. Retrieved 25 May 2008.  ^ Dukes, Paul, ed. (1995). Muscovy and Sweden
Sweden
in the Thirty Years' War 1630–1635. Cambridge University Press. p. [page needed]. ISBN 9780521451390.  ^ "Soldater i trettioåriga kriget". Sfhm.se. Retrieved 18 May 2012.  ^ Alexia Grosjean, An Unofficial Alliance, p. 106. NB Grosjean rounds down the previous figure of 35,000 Scots believing that that number is to high as it does not separate out the English and Irish contingents ^ Murdoch and Grosjean, Alexander Leslie
Alexander Leslie
and the Scottish Generals, passim ^ Thion, S. French Armies of the Thirty Years' War
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(Auzielle: Little Round Top Editions, 2008). ^ Murdoch, S.; Zickermann, K.; Marks, A. (2012). "The Battle of Wittstock 1636: Conflicting Reports on a Swedish Victory in Germany". Northern Studies. 43: 71–109. ; Murdoch and Grosjean, pp. 80–85. ^ Geoffrey Parker, The Thirty Years' War
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(Routledge Press: London, 1984) p. 134. ^ Rhea Marsh Smith, Spain: A Modern History (University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1965) p. 195. ^ This battle is mentioned in Edmond Rostand's play, Cyrano de Bergerac, as the battle in which Rostand's fictional character Cyrano fought. ^ a b Rhea Marsh Smith, Spain: A Modern History, p. 195. ^ a b c d e f g Geoffrey Parker, The Thirty Years' War, p. 153; Thion, French Armies, pp.108, 129 ^ Geoffrey Parker, The Thirty Years' War
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Further reading[edit]

Åberg, A. (1973). "The Swedish army from Lützen to Narva". In Roberts, M. Sweden's Age of Greatness, 1632–1718. London: St. Martin's Press.  Asbach, Olaf, and Peter Schröder, eds. The Ashgate Research Companion to the Thirty Years’ War
War
(2014). 347pp. online review Benecke, Gerhard (1978). Germany in the Thirty Years War. London: St. Martin's Press.  Bonney, Richard (2002). The Thirty Years' War
War
1618–1648. Osprey. ; focus on combat Dukes, Paul, ed. (1995). Muscovy and Sweden
Sweden
in the Thirty Years' War 1630–1635. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521451390.  Grosjean, Alexia (2003). An Unofficial Alliance: Scotland and Sweden, 1569–1654. Leiden: Brill.  Cramer, Kevin (2007). The Thirty Years' War
War
& German Memory in the Nineteenth Century. Lincoln: University of Nebraska. ISBN 978-0-8032-1562-7.  Gindely, Antonín (1884). History of the Thirty Years' War. Putnam.  Gutmann, Myron P. (1988). "The Origins of the Thirty Years' War". Journal of Interdisciplinary History. 18 (4): 749–770. doi:10.2307/204823. JSTOR 204823.  Kamen, Henry (1968). "The Economic and Social Consequences of the Thirty Years' War". Past and Present. 39: 44–61. doi:10.1093/past/39.1.44. JSTOR 649855.  Kennedy, Paul (1988). The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000. New York: Harper Collins.  Langer, Herbert (1980). The Thirty Years' War. Poole, England: Blandford Press.  Lynn, John A. (1999). The Wars of Louis XIV: 1667–1714. Harlow, England: Longman.  Murdoch, Steve (2001). Scotland and the Thirty Years' War, 1618–1648. Brill.  Murdoch, S.; Zickermann, K.; Marks, A. (2012). "The Battle of Wittstock 1636: Conflicting Reports on a Swedish Victory in Germany". Northern Studies. 43: 71–109.  Murdoch, Steve; Alexia, Grosjean (2014). Alexander Leslie
Alexander Leslie
and the Scottish generals of the Thirty Years' War, 1618–1648. London: Pickering & Chatto.  Parker, Geoffrey (1984). The Thirty Years' War. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.  Parrott, D (2001). Richelieu's Army: War, Government and Society in France, 1624–1642. Cambridge University Press.  Polišenský, J. V. (1954). "The Thirty Years' War". Past and Present. 6: 31–43. doi:10.1093/past/6.1.31. JSTOR 649813.  Polišenský, J. V. (1968). "The Thirty Years' War
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Primary sources[edit]

Sir Thomas Kellie, Pallas Armata or Military Instructions for the Learned, The First Part (Edinburgh, 1627). Monro, R. His Expedition with a worthy Scots Regiment called Mac-Keyes, (2 vols., London, 1637) www.exclassics.com/monro/monroint.htm. Helfferich, Tryntje, ed. The Thirty Years' War: A Documentary History, (Indianapolis: Hackett, 2009). 352 pages. 38 key documents including diplomatic correspondence, letters, broadsheets, treaties, poems, and trial records. excerpt and text search Wilson, Peter H. ed. The Thirty Years' War: A Sourcebook (2010); includes state documents, treaties, correspondence, diaries, financial records, artwork; 240pp Dr Bernd Warlich has edited four diaries of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648). These diaries can be viewed (in German) at: http://www.mdsz.thulb.uni-jena.de/sz/index.php

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Thirty Years War.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Thirty Years War.

 "Thirty Years' War". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 (11th ed.). 1911.   Spahn, Martin (1912). "The Thirty Years War". Catholic Encyclopedia. 14.  The Thirty Years' War
War
– Czech republic The Thirty Years' War
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LearningSite Thirty Years' War
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Timeline Project "Peace of Westphalia" (among others with Essay Volumes of the 26th Exhibition of the Council of Europe "1648: War
War
and Peace in Europe", 1998/99) History of the Thirty Years' War
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by Friedrich von Schiller
Friedrich von Schiller
at Project Gutenberg BBC Radio4 documentary – The Invention of Germany: The Thirty Years' War
War
and Magdeburg

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