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The Info List - Thirty-first Dynasty Of Egypt


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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Standard of Cyrus the Great

PHARAOH

• 343–338 BC Artaxerxes III (first)

• 336–332 BC Darius III
Darius III
(last)

HISTORICAL ERA Achaemenid era

• Conquests of Artaxerxes III 343 BC

Conquests of Alexander the Great 332 BC

DYNASTIES OF ANCIENT EGYPT

All years are BC

Early

First Dynasty I c. 3150–2890

Second Dynasty II 2890–2686

Old Kingdom

Third Dynasty III 2686–2613

Fourth Dynasty IV 2613–2498

Fifth Dynasty V 2498–2345

Sixth Dynasty VI 2345–2181

First Intermediate

Seventh Dynasty VII spurious

Eighth Dynasty VIII 2181–2160

Ninth Dynasty IX 2160–2130

Tenth Dynasty X 2130–2040

Early Eleventh Dynasty XI 2134–2061

Middle Kingdom

Late Eleventh Dynasty XI 2061–1991

Twelfth Dynasty XII 1991–1803

Thirteenth Dynasty XIII 1803–1649

Fourteenth Dynasty XIV 1705–1690

Second Intermediate

Fifteenth Dynasty XV 1674–1535

Sixteenth Dynasty XVI 1660–1600

Abydos Dynasty

1650–1600

Seventeenth Dynasty XVII 1580–1549

New Kingdom

Eighteenth Dynasty XVIII 1549–1292

Nineteenth Dynasty XIX 1292–1189

Twentieth Dynasty XX 1189–1077

Third Intermediate

Twenty-first Dynasty XXI 1069–945

Twenty-second Dynasty XXII 945–720

Twenty-third Dynasty XXIII 837–728

Twenty-fourth Dynasty XXIV 732–720

Twenty-fifth Dynasty XXV 732–653

Late Period

Twenty-sixth Dynasty XXVI 672–525

Twenty-seventh Dynasty (1st Persian Period) XXVII 525–404

Twenty-eighth Dynasty XXVIII 404–398

Twenty-ninth Dynasty XXIX 398–380

Thirtieth Dynasty XXX 380–343

Thirty-first Dynasty (2nd Persian Period) XXXI 343–332

Ptolemaic (Hellenistic)

Argead Dynasty 332–305

Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
305–30

* v * t * e

The THIRTY-FIRST DYNASTY OF EGYPT (notated DYNASTY XXXI, alternatively 31ST DYNASTY or DYNASTY 31), also known as the SECOND EGYPTIAN SATRAPY, was effectively a short-lived province (satrapy ) of the Achaemenid Persian Empire between 343 BC to 332 BC. It was founded by Artaxerxes III , the King of Persia , after his reconquest of Egypt and subsequent crowning as Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Egypt , and was disestablished upon the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
.

The period of the 31st Dynasty was the second occasion in which Persian pharaohs ruled Egypt, hence the term "Second Egyptian Satrapy". Before the 31st Dynasty was founded, Egypt had enjoyed a brief period of independence, during which three indigenous dynasties reigned (the 28th , 29th , and 30th dynasties). The period before this is referred to as the "First Egyptian Satrapy" or the 27th Dynasty .

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Culture * 3 Pharaohs of the 31st Dynasty * 4 Timeline of the 31st Dynasty (Achaemenid Pharaohs only) * 5 Sources * 6 See also * 7 References

HISTORY

It is not known who served as satrap after Artaxerxes III, but under Darius III
Darius III
(336–330 BC) there was Sabaces , who fought and died at Issus and was succeeded by Mazaces. Egyptians also fought at Issus, for example, the nobleman Somtutefnekhet of Heracleopolis , who described on the "Naples stele" how he escaped during the battle against the Greeks and how Arsaphes, the god of his city, protected him and allowed him to return home.

In 332 BC, Mazaces handed over the country to Alexander the Great without a fight. The Achaemenid empire had ended, and for a while Egypt was a satrapy in Alexander's empire . Later the Ptolemies and the Romans successively ruled the Nile valley.

CULTURE

Egyptian Man in a Persian Costume, c. 343-332 BC, 71.139, Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn Museum

Occasionally Egyptians wore foreign costumes and jewelry. The taste for non-Egyptian fashion arose during periods of extensive trade or diplomatic contact with distant courts, or when Egypt was controlled by a foreign power. The Persians, who twice invaded the Nile Valley from their Iranian homeland, dominated Egypt during Dynasty 27 (525–404 BC) and Dynasty 31 (342–332 BC). This statue to the left dates to the later period of Persian rule in Egypt.

The long skirt shown wrapped around this statue's body and tucked in at the upper edge of the garment is typically Persian. The necklace, called a torque, is decorated with images of ibexes, symbols in ancient Persia of agility and sexual prowess. The depiction of this official in Persian dress may have been a demonstration of loyalty to the new rulers.

PHARAOHS OF THE 31ST DYNASTY

NAME OF PHARAOH IMAGE REIGN THRONE NAME COMMENTS

Artaxerxes III

343–338 BC

Placed Egypt under Persian rule for a second time

Artaxerxes IV

338–336 BC

Only reigned in Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt

Khababash

338–335 BC Senen-setepu-ni-ptah Led a revolt against Persian rule in Upper Egypt, declared himself Pharaoh

Darius III
Darius III

336–332 BC

Upper Egypt returned to Persian control in 335 BC

TIMELINE OF THE 31ST DYNASTY (ACHAEMENID PHARAOHS ONLY)

SOURCES

* Fragments of Ctesias ( Persica ) * Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
(Bibliotheca historica) * Fragments of Manetho (Aegyptiaca) * Flavius Josephus ( Antiquities of the Jews )

SEE ALSO

* Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt
Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt
(525 BC−404 BC) — also known as the First Egyptian Satrapy. * Sassanid conquest of Egypt

REFERENCES

* v * t * e

* Provinces of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
* (Behistun / Persepolis
Persepolis
/ Naqsh-e Rustam / Susa
Susa
/ Daiva inscriptions)

* Amyrgoi * Arabia * Arachosia * Aria * Armenia * Assyria * Babylonia * Bactria * Cappadocia * Caria
Caria
* Carmania * Caucasian Albania
Caucasian Albania
* Chorasmia * Cilicia
Cilicia
* Colchis
Colchis
* Dahae * Drangiana * 1st Egypt / 2nd Egypt * Eber-Nari
Eber-Nari
* Elam
Elam
* Kusha (Nubia) * Gandhara * Gedrosia * Hyrcania * Ionia * Hindush
Hindush
* Libya * Maka * Margiana * Media * Lesser Media * Massagetae * Parthia