In present-day English, the term THIRD WORLD is used in reference to
"the developing countries of Asia,
According to Online Etymology Dictionary the term
Due to the complex history of evolving meanings and contexts, there
is no clear or agreed-upon definition of the Third World. Some
countries in the
* 1 Etymology
French demographer, anthropologist and historian
THIRD WORLD VS. THREE WORLDS
The "Three Worlds Theory" developed by
Main article: Third-Worldism
Third Worldism is a political movement that argues for the unity of third-world nations against first-world influence and the principle of non-interference in other countries\' domestic affairs . Groups most notable for expressing and exercising this idea are the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and the Group of 77 which provide a base for relations and diplomacy between not just the third-world countries, but between the third-world and the first and second worlds. The notion has been criticized as providing a fig leaf for human-rights violations and political repression by dictatorships .
In the 1980s, economist Peter Bauer offered a competing definition for the term "Third World". He claimed that the attachment of Third World status to a particular country was not based on any stable economic or political criteria, and was a mostly arbitrary process. The large diversity of countries considered part of the Third World — from Indonesia to Afghanistan — ranged widely from economically primitive to economically advanced and from politically non-aligned to Soviet- or Western-leaning. An argument could also be made for how parts of the U.S. are more like the Third World.
The only characteristic that Bauer found common in all Third World countries was that their governments "demand and receive Western aid," the giving of which he strongly opposed. Thus, the aggregate term "Third World" was challenged as misleading even during the Cold War period, because it had no consistent or collective identity among the countries it supposedly encompassed.
FOREIGN AID AND DEVELOPMENT
During the Cold War, unaligned countries of the
By the end of the 1960s, the idea of the
However, despite decades of receiving aid and experiencing different development models (which have had very little success), many Third World countries' economies are still dependent on developed countries, and are deep in debt. There is now a growing debate about why Third World countries remain impoverished and underdeveloped after all this time. Many argue that current methods of aid are not working and are calling for reducing foreign aid (and therefore dependency) and utilizing different economic theories than the traditional mainstream theories from the West. Historically, development and aid have not accomplished the goals they were meant to, and currently the global gap between the rich and poor is greater than ever, though not everybody agrees with this.
Some scholars argue the problem of development amongst many third world states through socioeconomic perspectives which study how individuals form organizations amongst each other for all kinds of goals, such as economic matters. Scholars like North and Weingast claim that modern states are composed of natural states and open access order states whereby open access order states have more positive development than natural states, because in these states, legally binding institutions (rules of the game, customs) allow individuals to freely form impersonal organizations that can attract a large group of people who work or compete with each other economically. The more competition, the more wealth and growth is created. Examples of open access states are many Western countries like America and Germany.
In contrast, a natural state (which compromises much of the third world) consists of political elites who try to protect their special privileges by restricting access to the ability to form organizations amongst individuals. These elites must rely on personal communication and the threat of violence to both maintain order and recruit "desirables" into the organizations. Such a set-up not only weakens good governance (as leaders are less accountable) but also leads to weak institutions, where peace is not always assured, as those in control of the means to inflict violence simply restrain themselves out of trust or loyalty, and can easily resort to violence, as has happened in the past (e.g., Biafra against the rest of Nigeria, Bangladesh against the rest of Pakistan).
Over the last few decades, global population growth has largely been
GREAT DIVERGENCE AND GREAT CONVERGENCE
Density Function of the Worlds Income Distribution in 1970 by
Continent, logarithmic scale: The division of the world into "rich"
and "poor" is striking, and the world's poverty is concentrated in
Many times there is a clear distinction between First and Third
Worlds. When talking about the Global North and the Global South, the
majority of the time the two go hand in hand. People refer to the two
as "Third World/South" and "First World/North" because the Global
North is more affluent and developed, whereas the
Global South is less
developed and often poorer. To counter this mode of thought, some
scholars began proposing the idea of a change in world dynamics that
began in the late 1980s, and termed it the Great Convergence. As Jack
A. Goldstone and his colleagues put it, "in the twentieth century, the
Great Divergence peaked before the
Others have observed a return to Cold War-era alignments (MacKinnon ,
2007; Lucas , 2008), this time with substantial changes between
1990–2015 in geography, the world economy and relationship dynamics
between current and emerging world powers; not necessarily redefining
the classic meaning of First, Second, and
* ^ https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/us/Third_World * ^ http://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/third-world * ^ http://etymonline.com/index.php?term=Third+World Wallis, J.J; Weingast, R. (2009). Violence and social orders a conceptual framework for interpreting recorded human history. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 11. * ^ A B North, D.C; Wallis, J.J; Weingast, R. (2009). Violence and social orders a conceptual framework for interpreting recorded human history. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 18. * ^ North, D.C; Wallis, J.J; Weingast, R. (2009). Violence and social orders a conceptual framework for interpreting recorded human history. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 21. * ^ Mimiko, Oluwafemi (2012). "Globalization: The Politics of Global Economic Relations and International Business". Carolina Academic Press: 49. * ^ Phases of global demographic transition correlate with phases of the Great Divergence and Great Convergence. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. Volume 95, June 2015, Page 163.
* Aijaz, Ahmad (1992). In theory: Classes, nations, literatures.
* Aijaz, Charles K. (1973). The political economy of development and
underdevelopment. New York: Random House.
* Bauer, Peter T. (1981). Equality, the Third World, and economic
delusion. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
* Buchanan, Pat J. (2006). State of emergency: The Third World
invasion and conquest of America. New York: Thomas Dunne Books/St.
* Escobar, Arturo (2011). Encountering development: The making and
unmaking of the