The Info List - Third Rome

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Third Rome
is the hypothetical successor to the legacy of ancient Rome (the "first Rome"). Second Rome
usually refers to Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, officially called "New Rome", or one of the claimed successors to the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
such as the Papal States
Papal States
and the Holy Roman Empire.[2]


1 Successor to Byzantium

1.1 Russian claims 1.2 Ottoman claims 1.3 Greek claims 1.4 Bulgarian claims 1.5 Serbian claims

2 Successor to the Holy Roman Empire

2.1 German claims

3 French claims 4 Italy as the Third Rome

4.1 Risorgimento 4.2 Fascist Empire

5 The European Union as Third Rome

5.1 Continuity of European Civilisation and Unity

5.1.1 Greco-Minoan Civilisation 5.1.2 Greco-Roman Civilization 5.1.3 The Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and Modern Era

5.2 Historic Symbolism used by the European Union

5.2.1 Europa and the Bull 5.2.2 Charlemagne

6 In popular culture 7 See also 8 References 9 Bibliography

Successor to Byzantium[edit]

The Byzantine eagle

Symbol of the Palaiologos

Russian claims[edit] See also: The Tale of the Princes of Vladimir

Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
with the double-headed eagle, formerly associated with the Byzantine Empire

Known as a theological and a political concept " Moscow
is the Third Rome", it was formulated in the 15-16th centuries in the Grand Duchy of Moscow.[3] In the concept there could be traced three interrelated and interpenetrating fields of ideas: a) theology that is linked with justification of necessity and inevitability in unity of Eastern Orthodox Church; b) social politics that are derived out of the feeling of unity in East Slavic territories being historically tied through Christian Orthodox faith and Slavic culture; c) state doctrine, according to which the Moscow
Prince should act as a supreme sovereign (Sovereign and legislator) of Christian Orthodox nations and become a defender of the Christian Orthodox Church. Herewith the Church should facilitate the Sovereign in execution of his function supposedly determined by God, the autocratic administration.[3] After the fall of Tǎrnovo
to the Ottoman Turks in 1393, a number of Bulgarian clergymen sought shelter in the Russian lands and transferred the idea of the Third Rome
there, which eventually resurfaced in Tver, during the reign of Boris of Tver, when the monk Foma (Thomas) of Tver had written The Eulogy of the Pious Grand Prince Boris Alexandrovich in 1453.[4][5] Within decades after the capture of Constantinople
by Mehmed II
Mehmed II
of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
on 29 May 1453, some Eastern Orthodox people were nominating Moscow
as the "Third Rome", or the "New Rome".[6] Stirrings of this sentiment began during the reign of Ivan III of Russia
Ivan III of Russia
who had married Sophia Paleologue. Sophia was a niece of Constantine XI, the last Byzantine emperor. By the rules and laws of inheritance followed by most European monarchies of the time, Ivan could claim that he and his offspring were heirs of the fallen Empire, but the Roman traditions of the empire had never recognized automatic inheritance of the Imperial office.[7]. It is also important to note that she was not the heiress of the Byzantine throne: her brother, Andreas Palaiologos, in fact had the rights of succession to the Byzantine throne. Andreas died in 1502, having sold his titles and royal and imperial rights to Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon
and Isabella I of Castile. This would mean that, in a purely legal sense, the Russian tsars were never entitled to the Byzantine throne. A stronger claim was based on religious symbolism. The Orthodox faith was central to Byzantine notions of their identity and what distinguished them from "barbarians". Vladimir the Great had converted Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
to Orthodoxy in 988, in return for which he became the first barbarian to ever get an Imperial princess as a wife. The idea of Muscovy
as heir to Rome
crystallized with a panegyric letter composed by the Russian monk Philotheus (Filofey) of Pskov in 1510 to their son Grand Duke Vasili III,[3] which proclaimed, "Two Romes have fallen. The third stands. And there will be no fourth. No one shall replace your Christian Tsardom!" Contrary to the common misconception, Filofey[8] explicitly identifies Third Rome
with Muscovy
(the country) rather than with Moscow
(the city), although the term "Muscovy" was considered synonymous with the Russian lands at the time. Somewhat notably, Moscow
is placed on seven hills, as were Rome and Constantinople. The whole idea could be traced as early as 1492 when Metropolitan of Moscow
Zosimus expressed it in a foreword to his work of 1492 "Presentation of the Paschalion" (Russian: "Изложение Пасхалии").[3] Shortly before Joseph II inherited the States of the House of Austria, he traveled to Russia
in 1780. In her conversations with him Catherine II made it clear that she would renew the Byzantine empire and to use her one-year-old grandson Konstantin as Emperor of Constantinople. The guest tried to suggest to the guest that he could be held harmless in the Papal States.[9] Ottoman claims[edit]

Sultan Mehmed II
Mehmed II
the Conqueror with patriarch Gennadius II
Gennadius II
depicted on an 18th-century mosaic

After the fall of Constantinople
in 1453 AD, Mehmed II
Mehmed II
declared himself Kayser-i Rum, literally "Caesar of Rome".[10] The claim was recognized by the Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople, but not by Roman Catholic Western Europe. Gennadios (Georgios Scholarios), a staunch enemy of the West, had been enthroned Patriarch of Constantinople
with all the ceremonial attributes of Byzantium by Mehmed himself acting as Roman Emperor and in turn Gennadios recognized Mehmed as successor to the throne.[11] Mehmed's claim rested with the concept that Constantinople
was the seat of the Roman Empire, after the transfer of its capital to Constantinople
in 330 AD and the fall of the Western Roman Empire. Mehmed also had a blood lineage to the Byzantine Imperial family; his predecessor, Sultan Orhan I
Orhan I
had married a Byzantine princess, and Mehmed may have claimed descent from John Tzelepes Komnenos.[12] During that period the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
also destroyed Otranto
and its people, and Mehmed II was planning on taking Rome
itself when the Italian campaign was cut short by his sudden death.[13] The title fell into disuse after his death, but the imperial bodies created by Mehmed II
Mehmed II
lived on for centuries to come.[citation needed] Greek claims[edit] Main article: Megali Idea The term appeared for the first time during the debates of Prime Minister Ioannis Kolettis
Ioannis Kolettis
with King Otto that preceded the promulgation of the 1844 constitution.[14] This was a visionary nationalist aspiration that was to dominate foreign relations and, to a significant extent, determine domestic politics of the Greek state for much of the first century of independence. The expression was new in 1844 but the concept had roots in the Greek popular psyche. It long had hopes of liberation from Turkish rule and restoration of the Byzantine Empire.[14]

Πάλι με χρόνια με καιρούς,

πάλι δικά μας θα 'ναι!

(Once more, as years and time go by, once more they shall be ours).[15] The Megali Idea
Megali Idea
implied the goal of reviving the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, by establishing a Greek state, which would be, as ancient geographer Strabo
wrote, a Greek world encompassing mostly the former Byzantine lands from the Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
to the west, to Asia Minor and the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the east and from Thrace, Macedonia and Epirus
to the north, to Crete
and Cyprus
to the south. This new state would have Constantinople
as its capital: it would be the " Greece
of Two Continents and Five Seas" (Europe and Asia, the Ionian, Aegean, Marmara, Black and Libyan seas, respectively). Bulgarian claims[edit] In 913, Simeon I of Bulgaria
Simeon I of Bulgaria
was crowned Emperor (Tsar) by the Patriarch of Constantinople
and imperial regent Nicholas Mystikos outside of the Byzantine capital. In its final simplified form, the title read "Emperor and Autocrat of all Bulgarians and Romans" ( Tsar
i samodarzhets na vsichki balgari i gartsi in the modern vernacular). The Roman component in the Bulgarian imperial title indicated both rulership over Greek speakers and the derivation of the imperial tradition from the Romans, however this component was never recognised by the Byzantine court. Byzantine recognition of Simeon's imperial title was revoked by the succeeding Byzantine government. The decade 914–924 was spent in destructive warfare between Byzantium and Bulgaria over this and other matters of conflict. The Bulgarian monarch, who had further irritated his Byzantine counterpart by claiming the title "Emperor of the Romans" (basileus tōn Rōmaiōn), was eventually recognized, as "Emperor of the Bulgarians" (basileus tōn Boulgarōn) by the Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
Romanos I Lakapenos in 924. Byzantine recognition of the imperial dignity of the Bulgarian monarch and the patriarchal dignity of the Bulgarian patriarch was again confirmed at the conclusion of permanent peace and a Bulgarian-Byzantine dynastic marriage in 927. In the meantime, the Bulgarian imperial title may have been also confirmed by the pope. The Bulgarian imperial title "tsar" was adopted by all Bulgarian monarchs up to the fall of Bulgaria under Ottoman rule. 14th-century Bulgarian literary compositions clearly denote the Bulgarian capital (Tarnovo) as a successor of Rome
and Constantinople, in effect, the "Third Rome". Serbian claims[edit] See also: Emperor of the Serbs

Flag of the Serbian Empire

In 1345, the Serbian King Stefan Uroš IV Dušan proclaimed himself Emperor (Tsar) and was crowned as such at Skopje
on Easter
1346 by the newly created Serbian Patriarch, and by the Patriarch of Bulgaria and the autocephalous Archbishop of Ohrid. His imperial title was recognized by Bulgaria and various other neighbors and trading partners but not by the Byzantine Empire. In its final simplified form, the Serbian imperial title read "Emperor of Serbs and Greeks" (цар Срба и Грка in modern Serbian). It was only employed by Stefan Uroš IV Dušan and his son Stefan Uroš V in Serbia (until his death in 1371), after which it became extinct. A half-brother of Dušan, Simeon Uroš, and then his son Jovan Uroš, claimed the same title, until the latter's abdication in 1373, while ruling as dynasts in Thessaly. The "Greek" component in the Serbian imperial title indicates both rulership over Greeks and the derivation of the imperial tradition from the Romans. Successor to the Holy Roman Empire[edit] German claims[edit]

Austrian Empire

German Empire

Both claimed to be the heir of the Holy Roman Empire.

The Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
has been claimed to have deliberately sought to revive the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the West.[16] According to early German nationalism, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
transformed into the Holy Roman Empire as a continuation of the Western Roman Empire.[16] In 800, the title of Emperor of the Romans was granted to Charlemagne
by Pope
Leo III. The word "holy" (often retroactively applied to all emperors since Charlemagne) was added under the reign of emperor Frederick I Barbarossa in 1157.[17] After the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
was dismantled in 1806, the Austrian Empire sought to lay claim as the heir of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
as Austria's Habsburgs attempted to unite Germany under their rule.[16] Later the German Empire
German Empire
in 1871 also claimed to be the Third Rome, also through lineage of the HRE.[18][19] The title for emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
and the German Empire
German Empire
was Kaiser
(derived from Latin Caesar), the German word for emperor. Claims by the German Empire
German Empire
of 1871 to 1918 of being a "Third Rome" have been criticized because the German Empire
German Empire
was led by a Protestant ruler and no concordat had been achieved with the Catholic Church (that was a major basis of the continuation of Roman culture in the West).[19] French claims[edit] Main article: First French Empire

Eagle of Napoleon Bonaparte of France

In four campaigns, Napoleon transformed his "Carolingian" feudal and federal empire into one modelled on the Roman Empire. The memories of imperial Rome
were for a third time, after Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
and Charlemagne, used to modify the historical evolution of France. Though the vague plan for an invasion of Great Britain was never executed, the Battle of Ulm
Battle of Ulm
and the Battle of Austerlitz
Battle of Austerlitz
overshadowed the defeat of Trafalgar, and the camp at Boulogne put at Napoleon's disposal the best military resources he had commanded, in the form of La Grande Armée. Italy as the Third Rome[edit] In Italy, the concept of a "Third Rome" is related to the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, created in 1861, and the current Italian Republic, created in 1946. Risorgimento[edit] Giuseppe Mazzini, Italian nationalist and patriot, promoted the notion of the "Third Rome" during the Risorgimento. He said, "After the Rome of the emperors, after the Rome
of the Popes, there will come the Rome of the people", addressing Italian unification
Italian unification
and the establishment of Rome
as the capital.[20] After the unification of Italy into the Kingdom of Italy, the state was referred to as the Third Rome
by Italian figures.[21] After the unification, Mazzini spoke of the need of Italy as a Third Rome
to have imperial aspirations.[22] Mazzini said that Italy should "invade and colonize Tunisian lands" as it was the "key to the Central Mediterranean", and he viewed Italy as having the right to dominate the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
as ancient Rome
had done.[22] Fascist Empire[edit] See also: Italian Empire
Italian Empire
and Italian Fascism

An aquila clutching a fasces was a common symbol used in Fascist Italy.

In his speeches, Italian leader Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
referred to his Fascist Italy as a "Third Rome" or as a New Roman Empire.[23] Terza Roma (Third Rome; the Fascist Rome
after the Imperial and the Papal ones) was also a name for Mussolini's plan to expand Rome
towards Ostia and the sea. The EUR neighbourhood was the first step in that direction.[24] The European Union as Third Rome[edit] Although the European Union has never officially claimed to be the resurrection of the Roman Empire, it has a substantial cultural, geographical and historical claim. Greco-Roman culture was spread throughout Europe during the Empire and has laid the foundation of European civilisation,[25] and as such, Roman laws, philosophy and cultural institutions have largely survived in Europe and the territories that make up the European Union, whereas they have been close to completely lost in the non-European parts of the Empire post the Islamic Expansion.[26] With the spread of Latin Christendom, the establishment of the Holy Roman Empire, and the survival of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and the Roman Catholic Church, the Roman identity was never completely lost, but transformed into a Christian Identity, as Europe became synonymous with the Land of Christendom during the Carolingian Renaissance[27]. As Greco-Roman culture was imitated and consciously resurrected during the Italian Renaissance of the 14th century, this Christian identity lost its emphasis on religion and gained focus on shared linguistic, historic and cultural origins, transforming into the European Identity. These three identities (Roman, Christian and European) are ultimately based on a sense of belonging to European Civilisation, and as such, one can claim that the European identity is a modern version of the Roman, making a union of Europeans a modern version of Rome. Continuity of European Civilisation and Unity[edit] Greco-Minoan Civilisation[edit] European Civilisation started in Crete
as the Minoans created the first European high culture in the middle of the 3rd millennium BC[28]. The Minoans remained the only high culture in Europe for over 1000 years, and spread their civilisation throughout the Aegean world, most notably to the Mycenaean Greeks, who had settled on the Greek mainland. By the middle of the 2nd millennium BC, the Mycenaeans had become heavily "Minoanised" and made large parts of Minoan culture their own, including art, writing system, architecture and religion[29]. After the Mycenaean conquest of Crete
and remaining Minoan territories, these two cultures merged into a single Graco-minoan culture. This culture was largely lost in the Bronze Age collapse, after which the Greek Dark Ages ensued.[30] Greco-Roman Civilization[edit] In the early 9th century BC, the Greeks embarked on a conscious effort to restore their former grandeur and sophistication, leading to the Greek Renaissance ca. 900-600 BC and revival of Greco-Minoan culture. This period is followed by Classical Antiquity, during which the Greeks established the intellectual core of European civilization. They spent most of this time disunited, with the most powerful Greek states, Athens, Sparta and Thebes, competed for hegemony. However, they did unite for short periods, most notably during the Persian wars and under Phillip the Great of Macedonia. More importantly, they had an extremely strong in-out-group mentality with regards to their culture, considering the peoples of Asia alien degenerates,[31] and viewing the non-hellenized peoples in Europe as barbarians. As such, even though political unity was mostly absent during this time, Greek (and thus European) civilization was viewed as something very distinct from other peoples. As the Greek influence grew, much of European Mediterranean was colonized and Hellenized. This included modern Italy from Sicily to Naples (founded by the Greeks as Neapolis). In particular, the Latin people and the City-state of Rome
was Hellenized to an extent where they adopted Greek philosophy, architecture, writing system and religion and made it their own, much like the Greeks had adopted the Minoan culture. As the Romans expanded their power and conquered all of Southern and most of Western and Central Europe, these regions were Romanized, many of them to an extent that they adopted the Roman identity, Latin as their primary language (e.g. all of France and Iberia), and as Rome
converted to Christendom, so did all of Roman Europe. As the West Roman Empire
Roman Empire
collapsed in 476 AD,[32] Roman civilization in Western Europe was severely damaged, and the European Dark Ages began. The Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and Modern Era[edit] In the 8th century, the Franks, with the support of the Catholic Church, had established an Empire that comprised most of Western Europe. As Charlemagne
(German: Karl der Große) inherited the Frankish realm, he expanded it to all of Central and Western Europe except the southern tip of Italy and Iberia, and proclaimed the Roman Empire (calling it the Holy Roman Empire) to have been reestablished,[33] and was crowned as Roman Emperor by the Pope
in Rome. During his reign, he launched an enormous project to resurrect Roman culture, copying the former Empire's organisational, education and legal systems, art, and classical literature. This is today known as the Carolingian Renaissance, and its main instrument was the Catholic church, the only Roman institution that had survived the collapse, and preserved major elements of Greco-Roman thought, philosophy, science and administration. This, combined with the influence of the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
over eastern Europe and the spread of Orthodox Christendom, lead to the subsequent European renaissances (i.e. the Ottoian, 12th century and in particular the Italian Renaissance from the 14th to 17th centuries), which transferred Roman culture to modern era Europe. The most successful effort of any Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
to ever fully revive the West Roman Empire
Roman Empire
was arguably made by Emperor Charles V Quint of Hapsburg, who at the height of his power ruled all of Spain, half of Italy, the Netherlands, Alsace and Loarraine, Austria and Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.[34] He had the ambition to unite all the Lands of Christendom, but had to abdicate due to religious tension within the Empire, debt in Spain and humiliating loss of Imperial territory to France. The Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
survived as a super-national institution until 1806, when it was conquered by Napoleon,[35] and saw itself as the legitimate heir of Rome
and uniter of the Lands of Christendom during most if not all of its existence. After this, Napoleon laid his own claim to having resurrected the Roman Empire, as he had united not only the regions of Charlemagne's Empire, but also Italy and Spain, giving him control of close to all of the West Roman Empire. In 1804 he crowned himself Emperor in the presence of the Pope
in Paris, adopted the Roman eagle as his standard and proclaimed the following in 1812:[36] “I am a true Roman Emperor; I am of the best race of the Caesars – those who are founders.” After Napoleon's final defeat and the dissolution of his Empire in 1815, no European ruler has claimed to revive the Roman Empire. The 19th century did, however, see the birth of the first pan-European movements, calling for a united Europe. This idea was popular among intellectuals, and the term "United States of Europe" became widespread, perhaps most famously used be Victor Hugo during his speech at the International Peace Conference 1847:[37][better source needed] "A day will come when all nations on our continent will form a European brotherhood ... A day will come when we shall see ... the United States of America and the United States of Europe face to face, reaching out for each other across the seas." During the second world war, Nazi Germany did subjugate France and the Netherlands, giving it political control over much of Charlemagne's original empire, however, it saw itself as an entirely German entity with no pan-European identity. It considered itself as the Third German Reich, with the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
being the first and Imperial Germany being the second, its symbolism was modeled on pre-Romanised pagan Germanic culture, using runes and other pagan symbols in its iconography, and its ultimate goal was to expand ethic Germany, exterminating other European peoples (especially to the east), as opposed to uniting European civilisation. After the war, France launched a European unification project with itself at its core, starting with the Coal and Steel union, followed by the European Community, and finally the European Union. As such, throughout all of European history, there has powerful driving force for political unity. A similar phenomenon can be found at the other side of the Eurasian continent in China, although this driving force has arguably been much stronger than the European equivalent for the past 2000 years. [38] Historic Symbolism used by the European Union[edit] Europa and the Bull[edit] The European Union uses a variety symbols from Greco-Roman culture. In its official buildings are statues of the Goddess Europa and the bull, taken from ancient Crete. In Greek mythology, Zeus transforms himself into a bull, and carries Europa to Crete, where they have the son Minos, who is the first ruler of Crete. This is hence a reference not only to the Hellenic religion practiced by both the Greeks, the Romans, and the peoples they brought into European civilisation, but also to the Minoans, and it represents the ancient Greeks understanding and veneration of where their culture comes from. This bull can further be seen on the Residence Permit of all non-European residing within the Union[39][better source needed]. Charlemagne[edit] Since 2008, the European Parliament, together with the city of Aachen (which was Charlemagne's capital city), hands out Charlemagne's Youth Price to a young European who has done a great service to European Unity. This is a recognition of Charlemagne's contribution to resurrecting European civilisation in Western Europe and his ambition for European unity. Perhaps it is also a recognition of the fact that the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
laid the institutional groundwork for the Union, as it too was an entity above ethnic groups that provided politically alignment and collective protection for a range of different European peoples[40][better source needed]. In popular culture[edit] The concept of a "Third Rome" figures greatly in the second memoir of Whittaker Chambers. Although published posthumously as Cold Friday (1964), Chambers had planned it from inception as "The Third Rome". A long chapter called "The Third Rome" appears in the memoir.[41][42][43] Third Rome
is also a DLC for Europa Universalis IV, a grand strategy history game adding features for the Russians. See also[edit]

Europe portal History portal

Byzantium after Byzantium (monograph) Legacy of the Roman Empire Russian Empire Translatio imperii


^ Koon, Tracy H. (1985). Believe, Obey, Fight: Political Socialization of Youth in Fascist Italy, 1922-1943. UNC Press Books. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-8078-1652-3.  Extract of page 20 ^ https://www.rbth.com/arts/history/2017/03/30/why-do-russians-call-moscow-the-third-rome_730921 ^ a b c d Mashkov, A.D. Moscow
is the Third Rome
(МОСКВА - ТРЕТІЙ РИМ). Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia. ^ Robert Auty, Dimitri Obolensky (Ed.), An Introduction to Russian Language and Literature, p. 94, Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
1997, ISBN 0-521-20894-7 ^ Alar Laats, The concept of the Third Rome
and its political implications[permanent dead link], p. 102 ^ Parry, Ken; Melling, David, eds. (1999). The Blackwell Dictionary of Eastern Christianity. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. p. 490. ISBN 0-631-23203-6.  ^ Nicol, Donald MacGillivray, Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261–1453, Cambridge University Press, Second Edition, 1993, p. 72 ^ Filofey ^ Derek Beales: Joseph II, Band 1, Cambridge 1987, p. 431–438. ^ İlber Ortaylı, "Büyük Constantin ve İstanbul", Milliyet, 28 May 2011. ^ Dimitri Kitsikis, Türk-Yunan İmparatorluğu. Arabölge gerçeği ışığında Osmanlı Tarihine bakış – İstanbul, İletişim Yayınları, 1996. ^ Norwich, John Julius (1995). Byzantium:The Decline and Fall. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 81–82. ISBN 0-679-41650-1.  ^ Bunson, Matthew. "How the 800 Martyrs of Otranto
Saved Rome". Catholic Answers. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2014.  ^ a b History of Greece
Encyclopædia Britannica Online ^ D. Bolukbasi and D. Bölükbaşı, Turkey And Greece: The Aegean Disputes, Routledge Cavendish 2004 ^ a b c Craig M. White. The Great German Nation: Origins and Destiny. AuthorHouse, 2007. P. 139. ^ Peter Moraw, Heiliges Reich, in: Lexikon des Mittelalters, Munich & Zurich: Artemis 1977–1999, vol. 4, columns 2025–2028. ^ Warwick Ball. Rome
in the East: The Transformation of an Empire. London, England, UK: Routledge, 2000. P. 449. ^ a b Craig M. White. The Great German Nation: Origins and Destiny. AuthorHouse, 2007. P. 169. ^ Rome
Seminar Archived 4 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Christopher Duggan. The Force of Destiny: A History of Italy Since 1796. New York, New York, USA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2008. P. 304. ^ a b Silvana Patriarca, Lucy Riall. The Risorgimento
Revisited: Nationalism and Culture in Nineteenth-Century Italy. P. 248. ^ Martin Clark, Mussolini: Profiles in Power (London: Pearson Longman, 2005), 136. ^ Discorso pronunciato in Campidoglio per l'insediamento del primo Governatore di Roma il 31 dicembre 1925, Internet Archive
Internet Archive
copy of a page with a Mussolini speech. ^ https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/legal-roman-eagles_how-ancient-rome-influenced-european-law/36688830 ^ f ^ Cite error: The named reference Dawson, Christopher; Glenn Olsen (1961). Crisis in Western Education (reprint ed.). p. 108. ISBN 9780813216836. was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Cite error: The named reference Hood, Sinclair. The Minoans: Crete in the Bronze Age. Thames and Hudson, 1971, pg.114 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Cite error: The named reference Karl-Wilhelm Welwei: Die Griechische Frühzeit, C.H. Beck, München, 2002. ISBN 3406479855. pp.12–18 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ http://etc.ancient.eu/interviews/what-caused-the-bronze-age-collapse/ ^ https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=-mVFAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA284&lpg=PA284&dq=ancient+greek+asia+degenerate&source=bl&ots=RxC-Jm68Vm&sig=T3Njm0OVqyrYNM0gFC2B0wavjB4&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwij-IvAkcHYAhVC6RQKHarZBOQQ6AEIPjAF#v=onepage&q=ancient%20greek%20asia%20degenerate&f=false ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/romans/fallofrome_article_01.shtml ^ https://www.britannica.com/biography/Charlemagne ^ https://www.britannica.com/biography/Charles-V-Holy-Roman-emperor ^ http://www.historytoday.com/richard-cavendish/end-holy-roman-empire ^ https://www.warhistoryonline.com/ancient-history/napoleon-as-augustus.html ^ Ideas of European unity before 1945 ^ http://www.historyguide.org/ancient/lecture5b.html ^ Third Rome#The Holy Roman Empire
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Chambers, Whittaker (1964). Cold Friday. New York: Random House.  Dmytryshyn, Basil (transl). 1991. Medieval Russia: A Source Book, 850–1700. 259–261. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Fort Worth, Texas. Poe, Marshall. "Moscow, the Third Rome: the Origins and Transformations of a 'Pivotal Moment'." Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas (2001) (In Russian: "Izobretenie kontseptsii "Moskva—Tretii Rim". Ab Imperio. Teoriia i istoriia natsional'nostei i natsionalizma v postsovetskom prostranstve 1: 2 (2000), 61–86.) Martin, Janet. 1995. Medieval Russia: 980-1584. 293. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK. Stremooukhoff, Dimitri (January 1953). " Moscow
The Third Rome: Sources of the Doctrine". Speculum. 84–101.

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Albanian Kingdom Islands of the Aegean Kingdom of Croatia Dalmatia Greece

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Italian Province of Lubiana Kingdom of Montenegro

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Planned expansion

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The Italian empire before WWII is shown in red. Pink areas were annexed/occupied for various periods between 1940 and 1943. Italian concessions and forts in China are not shown.

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Mogadishu Cathedral Church of Our Lady of the Rosary, Asmara Benghazi Cathedral Tripoli Cathedral Cinema Impero Fiat Tagliero Building Marble Arch Asmara's Opera Lighthouse "Francesco Crispi" (Cape Guardafui)


Italian Tripoli Mogadishu under Italian rule Italian Benghazi Italian Asmara Italian Massaua


Mogadishu–Villabruzzi Railway Ethio-Djibouti Railways Eritrean Railway Asmara-Massawa Cableway Railway stations in Eritrea Railway stations in Somalia Via Balbia Via della Vittoria Linea dell'Impero Italian Libya
Italian Libya
Railways Libyan Railway stations History of Italian colonial railways

Political concepts

Greater Italy Mare Nostrum New Roman Empire Spazio vitale Fourth Shore Third Rome

Police and military

Eritrean Ascari Italian African Police Bands (Italian Army irregulars) Zaptié Dubats Savari Spahis Royal Corps of Colonial Troops Royal Corps of Somali Colonial Troops Ascari del Cielo Paratroops Italian 1st Eritrean Division Italian 2nd Eritrean Division 1st Libyan Division Sibelle 2nd Libyan Division Pescatori Italian Libyan Colonial Division Italian Somali Divisions (101 and 102) Maletti Group Legione Redenta Italian guerrilla units (A.O.I.)

Currencies and Stamps

Eritrean tallero Italian East African lira Italian Somaliland
Italian Somaliland
lira Italian Somaliland
Italian Somaliland
rupia Italian Somaliland
Italian Somaliland
somalo Postage stamps and postal history of Italian East Africa Postage stamps and postal history of Oltre Giuba Postage stamps of Italian Libya

Authority control