HOME
The Info List - Third Carnatic War


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire

* Nizam of Hyderabad
Nizam of Hyderabad
* Nawab of Carnatic * Nawab of Bengal
Nawab of Bengal

Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France

* French East India Company
French East India Company

Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain

* East India Company
East India Company

COMMANDERS AND LEADERS

Alamgir II
Alamgir II
Anwaruddin † Nasir Jung † Muzaffar Jung Chanda Sahib
Chanda Sahib
† Raza Sahib Wala-Jah Murtaza Ali Abdul Wahab Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
Dalwai Nanjaraja Salabat Jung Dupleix De Bussy Comte de Lally d'Auteil (POW) Law (POW) De la Touche Robert Clive
Robert Clive
Stringer Lawrence

* v * t * e

First Carnatic War
First Carnatic War

* Negapatam * Madras * Adyar * Cuddalore
Cuddalore
* Pondicherry
Pondicherry

Part of the War of the Austrian Succession
War of the Austrian Succession

* v * t * e

Second Carnatic War

* Ambur * Divicotta * Tanjore * Trichinopoly * Arcot * Arnee * Chingleput * Golden Rock * Seringham * Sugar-Loaf Rock * Tondeman\'s Woods

* v * t * e

Third Carnatic War
Third Carnatic War

* Chandannagar
Chandannagar
* Plassey * Cuddalore
Cuddalore
* Negapatam * Condore * Madras * Masulipatam * Battle of Pondicherry * Chinsurah * Wandiwash * Pondicherry
Pondicherry
Siege

* v * t * e

Theaters of the Seven Years\' War

* Silesia * Pomerania * Portugal * North America
North America
* West Indies * West Africa * India
India
* Anglo-Spanish * Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul

The CARNATIC WARS (also spelled KARNATIC WARS) were a series of military conflicts in the middle of the 18th century in India
India
. The conflicts involved numerous nominally independent rulers and their vassals, struggles for succession and territory, and included a diplomatic and military struggle between the French East India
India
Company and the British East India Company
East India Company
. They were mainly fought on the territories in India
India
which were dominated by the Nizam of Hyderabad
Nizam of Hyderabad
up to the Godavari
Godavari
delta. As a result of these military contests, the British East India Company
East India Company
established its dominance among the European trading companies within India. The French company was pushed to a corner and was confined primarily to Pondichéry . The East India company's dominance eventually led to control by the British Company over most of India
India
and eventually to the establishment of the British Raj .

In the 18th century, the coastal Carnatic region was a dependency of Hyderabad . Three Carnatic Wars
Carnatic Wars
were fought between 1746 and 1763.

CONTENTS

* 1 Background * 2 First Carnatic War
First Carnatic War
(1744–1748) * 3 Second Carnatic War (1749–1754) * 4 Third Carnatic War
Third Carnatic War
(1756–1763) * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Gallery

BACKGROUND

The Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
died in 1707. He was succeeded by Bahadur Shah I
Bahadur Shah I
, but there was a general decline in central control over the empire during the tenure of Jahandar Shah
Jahandar Shah
and later emperors. Nizam-ul-Mulk established Hyderabad as an independent kingdom. A power struggle ensued after his death between his son, Nasir Jung , and his grandson, Muzaffar Jung , which was the opportunity France
France
and England needed to interfere in Indian politics. France
France
aided Muzaffar Jung while England aided Nasir Jung. Several erstwhile Mughal territories were autonomous such as the Carnatic, ruled by Nawab
Nawab
Dost Ali Khan , despite being under the legal purview of the Nizam of Hyderabad
Nizam of Hyderabad
. French and English interference included those of the affairs of the Nawab. Dost Ali's death sparked a power struggle between his son-in-law Chanda Sahib
Chanda Sahib
, supported by the French, and Muhammad Ali , supported by the English.

One major instigator of the Carnatic Wars
Carnatic Wars
was the Frenchman Joseph François Dupleix , who arrived in India
India
in 1715, rising to become the French East India
India
Company's governor in 1742. Dupleix sought to expand French influence in India, which was limited to a few trading outposts, the chief one being Pondicherry
Pondicherry
on the Coromandel Coast
Coromandel Coast
. Immediately upon his arrival in India, he organized Indian recruits under French officers for the first time, and engaged in intrigues with local rulers to expand French influence. However, he was met by the equally challenging and determined young officer from the British Army, Robert Clive
Robert Clive
.

"The Austrian War of Succession in 1740 and later the war in 1756 automatically led to a conflict in India...and British reverses during the American War of Independence had an impact on events in India."

FIRST CARNATIC WAR (1744–1748)

Main article: First Carnatic War
First Carnatic War
Dupleix meeting the Subedar
Subedar
of the Deccan
Deccan
, Muzaffar Jung . Siege of Arcot
Siege of Arcot
was a major battle fought between Robert Clive
Robert Clive
and the combined forces of the Mughal Empire 's Nawab
Nawab
of the Carnatic , Chanda Sahib
Chanda Sahib
, assisted by a small number of troops from the French East India Company
French East India Company
.

In 1740 the War of the Austrian Succession
War of the Austrian Succession
broke out in Europe. Great Britain was only drawn into the war in 1744, when it entered the war opposed to France
France
and its allies. The trading companies of both countries maintained cordial relations among themselves in India
India
while their parent countries were bitter enemies on the European continent. Dodwell writes, "Such were the friendly relations between the English and the French that the French sent their goods and merchandise from Pondicherry
Pondicherry
to Madras for safe custody." Although French company officials were ordered to avoid conflict, British officials were not, and were furthermore notified that a Royal Navy
Royal Navy
fleet was en route. After the British initially captured a few French merchant ships, the French called for backup from as far afield as Isle de France
France
(now Mauritius
Mauritius
), beginning an escalation in naval forces in the area. In July 1746 French commander La Bourdonnais and British Admiral Edward Peyton fought an indecisive action off Negapatam, after which the British fleet withdrew to Bengal. On 21 September 1746, the French captured the British outpost at Madras . La Bourdonnais had promised to return Madras to the English, but Dupleix withdrew that promise, and one to give Madras to Anwar-ud-din after the capture. The Nawab then sent a 10,000-man army to take Madras from the French, but was decisively repulsed by a small French force in the Battle of Adyar . The French then made several attempts to capture the British Fort St. David at Cuddalore
Cuddalore
, but the timely arrivals of reinforcements halted these, and eventually turned the tables on the French. British Admiral Edward Boscawen
Edward Boscawen
besieged Pondicherry
Pondicherry
in the later months of 1748, but lifted the siege with the advent of the monsoon rains in October.

With the termination of the War of Austrian Succession in Europe, the First Carnatic War
First Carnatic War
also came to an end. In the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) , Madras was given back to the British in exchange for the French fortress of Louisbourg in North America
North America
, which the British had captured . The war was principally notable in India
India
as the first military experience of Robert Clive
Robert Clive
, who was taken prisoner at Madras, but managed to escape, and who then participated in the defense of Cuddalore
Cuddalore
and the siege of Pondicherry.

SECOND CARNATIC WAR (1749–1754)

Death of the Nawab
Nawab
Anwaruddin Mohammed Khan
Anwaruddin Mohammed Khan
in a battle (battle of Ambur) against the French in 1749 (by Paul Philipoteaux).

Though a state of war did not exist in Europe, the proxy war continued in India. On one side was Nasir Jung, the Nizam and his protege Muhammad Ali, supported by the English, and on the other was Chanda Sahib
Chanda Sahib
and Muzaffar Jung, supported by the French, vying to become the Nawab
Nawab
of Arcot. Muzaffar Jung and Chanda Sahib
Chanda Sahib
were able to capture Arcot while Nasir Jung's subsequent death allowed Muzaffar Jung to take control of Hyderabad. Muzaffar's reign was short as he was soon killed, and Salabat Jung became Nawab. In 1751, however, Robert Clive
Robert Clive
led British troops to capture Arcot , and successfully defend it. The war ended with the Treaty of Pondicherry , signed in 1754, which recognised Muhammad Ali Khan Walajah as the Nawab
Nawab
of the Carnatic . Charles Godeheu replaced Dupleix , who died in poverty back in France.

THIRD CARNATIC WAR (1756–1763)

The outbreak of the Seven Years\' War in Europe in 1756 resulted in renewed conflict between French and British forces in India. The THIRD CARNATIC WAR spread beyond southern India
India
and into Bengal
Bengal
where British forces captured the French settlement of Chandernagore (now Chandannagar
Chandannagar
) in 1757. However, the war was decided in the south, where the British successfully defended Madras , and Sir Eyre Coote decisively defeated the French, commanded by Comte de Lally at the Battle of Wandiwash
Battle of Wandiwash
in 1760. After Wandiwash, the French capital of Pondicherry
Pondicherry
fell to the British in 1761 .

The war concluded with the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1763, which returned Chandernagore and Pondichéry to France, and allowed the French to have "factories" (trading posts ) in India
India
but forbade French traders from administering them. The French agreed to support British client governments, thus ending French ambitions of an Indian empire and making the British the dominant foreign power in India.

*

French and English boats position near Pondicherry
Pondicherry
. French National Archives . *

Ruins of Pondicherry
Pondicherry
after its destruction by British troops following the capitulation of the city.

SEE ALSO

* French India
India
* Subedar
Subedar
of Deccan
Deccan
* Nawab
Nawab
* Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
* Anwaruddin Muhammed Khan
Anwaruddin Muhammed Khan

REFERENCES

* ^ The Cambridge History of the British Empire. 1929. p. 126. Retrieved 16 December 2014. * ^ A B C D E Naravane, M.S. (2014). Battles of the Honorourable East India
India
Company. A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. pp. 150–159. ISBN 9788131300343 . * ^ Dodwell, H. H. (ed), Cambridge History of India, Vol. v.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to CARNATIC WARS .

GALLERY

*

Lally at Pondicherry
Pondicherry
*

Jean Law's Memoire: Mémoires sur quelques affaires de l’Empire Mogol 1756–1761 contains detailed information about the campaign of the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Shah Alam II and his French allies against the British East India Company
East India Company
.

* v * t * e

French colonial conflicts

16TH–17TH CENTURIES

* Brazil (1557–60) * Florida (1562–65) * Brazil (1612–15) * Morocco (1629) * Beaver Wars
Beaver Wars
(1641–1701) * French colonization of Texas
French colonization of Texas
(1685–89) * Siam (1688) * King William\'s War (1689–97)

18TH CENTURY

* Queen Anne\'s War (1702–13) * Chickasaw Wars (1721–52) * Dummer\'s War (1721–25) * Burma– France
France
relations (1729–56) * King George\'s War (1744–48) * First Carnatic War
First Carnatic War
(1746–48) * Carnatic Wars#Second Carnatic War (1749–54) * Nova Scotia (1749–55) * French and Indian War
French and Indian War
(1754–60) * East Indies (1757–63) * Larache expedition 1765 * Vietnam (1777–1820) * North America
North America
(1778–83) * Caribbean and East Indies (1778–83) * Haitian Revolution
Haitian Revolution
(1791–1804) * French acquisition of Santo Domingo (1795–1809) * French campaign in Egypt and Syria
French campaign in Egypt and Syria
(1798–1801)

19TH CENTURY

* West Indies (1804–10) * Indian Ocean (1809–11) * Java (1811) * Algeria (1830–47) * Algeria (1835–1903) * Río de la Plata (1838–40) * Mexico (1838–39) * Argentina–Uruguay (1845–50) * Morocco (1844) * Philippines (1844–45) * Bombardment of Tourane
Bombardment of Tourane
Vietnam (1847) * Franco-Tahitian War (1844–47) * French conquest of Senegal
French conquest of Senegal
(1854) * Cochinchina Campaign
Cochinchina Campaign
(1858–62) * Second Opium War
Second Opium War
(1860) * Intervention in Mexico (1861–67) * Japan (1863–64) * Korea (1866) * North Vietnam (1873–74) * Tunisia (1881) * Madagascar (1883) * Ivory Coast (1883–98) * Tonkin Campaign
Tonkin Campaign
(1883–86) * Sino-French War
Sino-French War
(1884–85) * North Vietnam (1886–96) * Leewards War (1888–97) * First Franco-Dahomean War (1890) * Second Franco-Dahomean War (1892–94) * Franco-Siamese War
Franco-Siamese War
(1893) * Second Madagascar expedition (1895) * Voulet–Chanoine Mission
Voulet–Chanoine Mission
(1898)

20TH CENTURY

* Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
(1901) * Holy Man\'s Rebellion (1901-36) * Ouaddai War (1909–11) * Morocco (1911) * Zaian War
Zaian War
(1914-1921) * Volta-Bani War (1915-1916) * Kaocen Revolt
Kaocen Revolt
(1916-1917) * Syria (1919–21) * Cilicia (1920–21) * Rif War
Rif War
(1920–26) * Kongo-Wara rebellion (1928–31) * Franco-Thai War (1940–41) * Indochina (1945) * South Vietnam (1945–46) * First Indochina War
First Indochina War
(1946–54) * Malagasy Uprising (1947–48) * Tunisian independence
Tunisian independence
(1952–56) * Algerian War
Algerian War
(1954–62) * Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
(1956) * Ifni War
Ifni War
(1957–58) * Cameroonian Independence War (1955-1960) * Bizerte crisis
Bizerte crisis
(1961) * Ouvéa cave hostage taking (1988)

* ^ "Niall Ferguson - Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World - Why Britain? 4/5". YouTube. Retrieved 28 Septe

.