THINKPAD is a line of laptop computers and tablets developed by
Lenovo . The series was designed, developed, and sold by
Lenovo acquired the division and brand in 2005. ThinkPads are known
for their minimalist, black and box design which was initially modeled
in 1990 by industrial designer
Richard Sapper based on the concept of
a traditional Japanese _
Bento _ lunchbox revealing its nature only
after being opened. According to later interviews with Sapper, he also
characterized the simple
ThinkPad form to be as elementary as a
simple, black cigar box and with similar proportions that offers a
'surprise' when opened.
ThinkPads are popular with large businesses and schools. Older
ThinkPad models are revered by technology enthusiasts, collectors and
power users due to their durable design, relatively high resale value,
and abundance of aftermarket replacement parts.
ThinkPad laptops have
been used in space and, by 2003, were the only laptops certified for
use on the
International Space Station .
* 1 History
* 1.1 Name
* 1.2 Early models
* 1.3 Industrial design
* 1.4 Reviews and awards
* 1.5 Use in space
* 1.6 Acquisition by
* 1.7 Manufacturing
* 1.8 Batteries
* 2 Recent models
* 2.1 25th anniversary Retro
* 2.2.1 Yoga 14
* 2.2.2 P40 Yoga
* 2.2.3 Yoga 260
* 2.2.4 X1 Yoga
* 2.5 Tablets
ThinkPad Tablet 2
ThinkPad X1 Tablet
ThinkPad Yoga 11e
ThinkPad Yoga 11e (Windows version)
* 2.9 P Series
* 2.9.1 P50
* 2.9.2 P70
* 2.10 T Series
* 2.11 W Series
* 2.12 X Series
* 2.13 L Series
* 2.14 S Series
* 2.15 Edge Series
* 3 Discontinued models
ThinkPad Reserve Edition
* 3.4 300 Series
* 3.5 500 Series
* 3.6 600 Series
* 3.7 700 Series
* 3.8 800 Series
* 3.9 Z Series
* 3.10 SL Series
* 3.11 A Series
* 3.12 G Series
* 3.13 R Series
* 3.14 i Series
* 4 See also
* 5 References
* 6 External links
IBM introduced the
ThinkPad line in 1992.
IBM THINK notepad (above), which inspired the laptop
name, and the notepad refill information (below)
The name "ThinkPad" is a product of IBM's corporate history and
culture. Thomas J. Watson, Sr. , had first introduced "THINK" as an
IBM slogan in the 1920s. With every minicomputer and mainframe IBM
installed (almost all were leased - not sold), a blue plastic sign was
placed atop the operator's console, with the "Think" command on an
aluminum plate. For decades,
IBM distributed small notepads with the
word "THINK" emblazoned on a brown leatherette cover to customers and
employees. The name "ThinkPad" was suggested by
IBM employee Denny
Wainwright, who had a "THINK" notepad in his pocket. The name was
opposed by the
IBM corporate naming committee as the names for IBM
computers were all numeric at that time. "ThinkPad" was kept due to
praise from journalists and the public.
In April 1992,
IBM announced the first
ThinkPad tablet computer at a
news conference. The first
ThinkPad tablet, a
PenPoint -based device
formally known as the
IBM 2521 ThinkPad, was positioned as a
developer's release. The
ThinkPad tablet became available for purchase
by the general public in October of the same year.
In addition to giving it an innovative name,
IBM marketed the
ThinkPad through imaginative activities such as early customer pilot
programs, numerous pre-launch announcements, and an extensive loaner
program designed to showcase the product's strengths and weaknesses.
IBM even worked with archaeologists excavating the ancient Egyptian
city of Leontopolis to field test the ThinkPad. The device was loaned
to the dig team for the summer. The resulting report documented the
ThinkPad's excellent performance under difficult conditions. The
report said, "The
ThinkPad is an impressive machine, rugged enough to
be used without special care in the worst conditions Egypt has to
The first three
ThinkPad notebook models were the 700, 700C, and
700T. They were publicly announced in October 1992. The bright red
TrackPoint , a kind of pointing stick embedded in the keyboard,
enabled the notebook to be used without an external pointing device .
The first ThinkPads were very successful, collecting more than 300
awards for design and quality.
ThinkPad 755C laptop computers were used as Payload and General
Support Computers aboard the
Space Shuttle in the 1990s. The ThinkPad
760ED was also tested as part of the
Shuttle-Mir program in that same
period. The 760ED computer was used without modification. The model
used by the space program contained an
Intel 133 Mega Hertz Pentium
Processor with 48 Megabytes of RAM, a four speed CD-ROM, a power
supply unit, a 1.44 Megabyte floppy disk drive, two 1.2 Gigabyte hard
drives, and accessories. While in use in space, the laptops were
subject to radiation, which could cause errors, and the 760ED was
noted as an improvement in this area over the 755C.
TrackPoint pointer. This feature has gone on to become a
definitive part of the
ThinkPad series. The
keyboard features a wired device, blue ThinkVantage button, TrackPoint
pointer and with no trackpad.
Traditionally black, ThinkPads have commonly featured magnesium,
carbon fiber reinforced plastic or titanium composite cases. The
ThinkPad has introduced innovations, including the
ThinkLight , a LED keyboard light at the top of the LCD
screen, the Active Protection System, an accelerometer sensor which
detects when a
ThinkPad is falling and shuts down the hard disk drive
to prevent damage, roll cage design to minimize motherboard flex,
stainless steel hinges, a biometric fingerprint reader, Client
Security Solution, which improves security using a built-in Trusted
Platform Module (TPM) and facilitates deployment in corporate
ThinkVantage Technologies suite of computer
management applications, and drain holes to help reduce damage to the
keyboard and components from accidental spillage.
The original design concept of
ThinkPad was created in 1990 by
Richard Sapper , a corporate design consultant of
IBM and, since 2005, Lenovo. Sapper is noted for the design of
classic products such as the
Tizio lamp for
Artemide , office chair
for Knoll , kitchenwares for Alessi and ballpoint for
Lamy . The
design was based on the concept of a traditional Japanese _
lunchbox revealing its nature only after being opened. According to
later interviews with Sapper, he also characterized the simple
ThinkPad form to be as elementary as a simple, black cigar box and
with similar proportions that offers a 'surprise' when opened. These
computers are also known for their iconic red TrackPoint, a variation
on a joystick, in the middle of the keyboard.
TrackPoint was invented
IBM Research scientists Ted Selker and Joe Rutledge.
ThinkPad notebook (700C) announced in 1992 was the first
new product to emerge from the
IBM "differentiated product
personality" strategy resulting from a collaboration between Sapper
and Tom Hardy , head of the corporate
IBM Design Program.
Development of the 700C also involved a close working relationship
between Sapper and Kazuhiko Yamazaki, lead notebook designer at IBM's
Yamato Design Center in
Japan and liaison between Sapper and Yamato
engineering. This 1990-1992 "pre-Internet" collaboration between
Japan was facilitated by a special Sony digital
communications system that transmitted high-res images over telephone
lines. This system was established in several key global Design
Centers by Hardy so
IBM designers could visually communicate more
effectively and interact directly with Sapper for advice on their
projects. For his innovative design management leadership during
ThinkPad development, Hardy was named "innovator of the Year 1992" by
PC Magazine. Since 1992, the
ThinkPad design has been regularly
updated, developed and refined over the years by Sapper and the
respective teams at
IBM and later Lenovo, which included Yamazaki, Tom
Takahashi, Sam Lucente and, since 1995, David Hill, Vice President of
User Experience ">
ThinkPad 701 TrackWrite keyboard in mid fold
(also known as the "Butterfly" keyboard)
The fold-out butterfly keyboard , which appeared in the
series designed by Sapper in collaboration with Sam Lucente and John
Karidis, is widely considered a design masterpiece and is on display
Museum of Modern Art in New York City. The late Dr. John
Karidis invented the unique mechanism consistening of two 'triangles'
that enabled the expanding keyboard function.
ThinkPad 760 series also included an unusual keyboard design; the
keyboard was elevated by two arms riding on small rails on the side of
the screen, tilting the keyboard to achieve a more ergonomic design.
Although almost all models feature a trackpoint, not all models have
a touchpad; of those that do, not all have left and right buttons
below, possibly making mouse clicks less ergonomic. The touchpads of
the X220 double as regular mouse buttons, which is also the case with
some newer models (as of December 2013). This can cause problems,
such as accidental clicking if too much pressure is exerted during
On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of ThinkPad's introduction,
David Hill authored and designed a commemorative book about ThinkPad
design. Titled _
ThinkPad Design: Spirit ">
ThinkPad in use on the
ISS Susan Helms works with three laptops in the Destiny
laboratory. ThinkPads in use aboard the International Space
Station, including 760, 770, and A21p models A
used for the STS program Portable In-Flight Landing Operations Trainer
(PILOT), shown here in operation in orbit aboard Space Shuttle
Atlantis, May 2009.
NASA purchased more than 500
ThinkPad 750 laptops for flight
qualification, software development, and crew training.
John Glenn used
ThinkPad laptops on his spaceflight
STS-95 in 1998.
ThinkPad models used on Shuttle missions include:
ThinkPad 750 (first use in December 1993 supporting the Hubble
ThinkPad 760XD (ISS Portable Computing System)
ThinkPad A31p (ISS Portable Computing System)
At least three
ThinkPad 750C were left in the
Spektr module of Mir
when that module depressurized.
Laptops used aboard the space shuttle and International Space Station
feature safety and operational improvements for the weightless
environment they must operate in. Modifications include velcro tape to
attach to surfaces, upgrades to the CPU and video card cooling fans to
accommodate for the lack of gravity (hotter air doesn't rise) and
lower density of the cabin air, and an adapter to the station's 28
volt DC power.
ThinkPad 750 flew aboard the
Space Shuttle Endeavour during a
mission to repair the
Hubble Space Telescope on December 2, 1993. The
ThinkPad 750C's task was to run a
NASA test program which determined
if radiation inherent in the space environment causes memory anomalies
in the 750C or generates other unexpected problems. The 755C was also
used and the 760ED was tested as well as part of a
ThinkPads were used in conjunction with a joystick for Portable
In-Flight Landing Operations Trainer (PILOT).
Throughout 2006, a
ThinkPad A31p was being used in the Service Module
Central Post of the
International Space Station and seven ThinkPad
A31p laptops were in service in orbit aboard the International Space
Station . As of 2010, the Space Station was equipped with 68 ThinkPad
A31 computers along with 32 new
ThinkPad T61p laptops plus a
IP phone which also has limited video phone capabilities.
Work incorporating those laptops into the station's
LAN continued into
June 2011. All laptops aboard the ISS are connected to the station's
Wi-Fi and are connected to the ground at 3 Mbit/s up and 10
Mbit/s down, comparable to home
DSL connection speeds.
ACQUISITION BY LENOVO
ThinkPad logo comparison
In 2005, Chinese technology company
Lenovo purchased the
computer business and the
ThinkPad brand along with it. Speaking of
the purchase of IBM's personal computer division,
Liu Chuanzhi said,
"We benefited in three ways from the
IBM acquisition. We got the
ThinkPad brand, IBM's more advanced PC manufacturing technology and
the company's international resources, such as its global sales
channels and operation teams. These three elements have shored up our
sales revenue in the past several years."
Lenovo acquired the right to use the
IBM brand name for five
years after its acquisition of IBM's personal computer business,
Lenovo only used it for three years. On 7 December 2007, an event
Lenovo Pride Day" was held. After words of encouragement from
management, employees ceremoniously peeled the
IBM logos off their
ThinkPads and replaced them with
ThinkPad Brand shares its headquarters with
Morrisville, North Carolina where
Lenovo employs 3,500 workers. Each
device made in the company's 240,000-square-foot Guilford County
facility "is packed in a box that sports a red-white-and-blue sticker
proclaiming "Whitsett, North Carolina."
Lenovo partially moved production of its
ThinkPad line of
computers to Japan. ThinkPads will be produced by NEC in Yonezawa,
Yamagata . Akaemi Watanabe, president of
Lenovo Japan, said, "As a
Japanese, I am glad to see the return to domestic production and the
goal is to realize full-scale production as this will improve our
image and make the products more acceptable to Japanese customers."
In 2014, although sales rose 5.6 percent from the previous year,
Lenovo lost its position as the top commercial notebook maker.
However, the company will be celebrating a milestone in 2015 with the
shipment of the 100 millionth unit of its
Lenovo laptops block third-party batteries.
Lenovo calls this
feature "Battery Safeguard." It was first introduced on some models in
May 2012. Laptops with this feature scan for security chips that only
ThinkPad-branded batteries contain. Some
Lenovo laptops flash a
message stating "Genuine
Lenovo Battery Not Attached" when third-party
batteries are used.
25TH ANNIVERSARY RETRO THINKPAD
Lenovo will be making a special edition
ThinkPad as part of the 25th
IBM introduced the
ThinkPad line in 1992, so
ThinkPad will be likely introduced in 2017. It will have a
black rubberized coating, a
TrackPoint (a pointing stick), and a
classic keyboard, which may have a 7-row layout. The last ThinkPad
models with 7-row keyboard were introduced in 2011.
ThinkPad Yoga in tent mode.
ThinkPad Yoga is an Ultrabook-class convertible device that
functions as both a laptop and tablet computer. The Yoga gets its name
from the consumer-oriented
IdeaPad Yoga line of computers with the
same form factor. The
ThinkPad Yoga has a backlit keyboard that
flattens when flipped into tablet mode. This is accomplished with a
platform surrounding the keys rises until level with the keyboard
buttons, a locking mechanism that prevents key presses, and feet that
pop out to prevent the keyboard from directly resting on flat
Lenovo implemented this design in response to complaints
about its earlier Yoga 13 and 11 models being awkward to use in tablet
mode. A reinforced hinge was required to implement this design. Other
than its convertible form factor, the
ThinkPad Yoga is a rather
ThinkPad device with a black magnesium-reinforced chassis,
island keyboard, a red TrackPoint, and a large buttonless trackpad.
The Yoga 14 model reportedly "strikes the middle ground between bulky
workstations and flexible hybrids." The laptop's metal hinge makes it
sturdy, flexible and durable but has a below-average battery life.
Like other models, the display can bend a full 360 degrees and the
keyboard can be folded in half to use as a stand. According to a
review for _Business News Daily_, "The
ThinkPad Yoga 14 is a balancing
act of diverse features. Thankfully,
Lenovo pulled them all together
into a satisfying work machine. The notebook features a high-quality
build and an excellent keyboard and trackpad — all must-have
features for serious productivity. And extras like the TrackPoint
pointing stick are great for legacy
ThinkPad users who prefer those
ThinkPad P40 Yoga, like other Yoga branded products, is a
convertible device with "laptop, stand, tent, and tablet" modes. The
P40 Yoga includes a 2560 by 1440 pixel touchscreen display, designed
in cooperation with
Wacom , using that company's Active ES technology
which can sense 2,048 different pressure levels. The screen works with
a stylus called the
ThinkPad Pen Pro that has various pen tips
designed to give varied forms of tactile feedback. The P40 uses Intel
Core i7 CPUs, can accommodate up to 16 gigabytes of RAM, has SSDs up
to 512 gigabytes in size, and uses an
Nvidia Quadro M500M GPU.
The Yoga 260 uses a lightweight carbon-fiber hybrid material on its
lid and magnesium-plastic blend on its lower portion.
the Yoga 260 has been subject to extensive testing of its ability to
survive extreme temperatures, vibrations, altitudes, and shocks. Its
keyboard is spill resistant. It has a 12.5-inch 1080p display. An
active stylus, the
ThinkPad Pen Pro, is included for drawing and text
entry; it can be used with Lenovo's WRITEit hand-writing recognition
application. A large fingerprint reader is included for security.
ThinkPad X1 Yoga is revamp of the
ThinkPad X1 Carbon that
includes the multi-mode flexibility of the Yoga line and a 14-inch
display with optional OLED technology. The display has a resolution of
2560 by 1440 pixels. It weighs about 1.3 kg (2.8 pounds).
ThinkPad Twist is a laptop/tablet computer hybrid aimed at
high-end users. The Twist gets its name from its screen's ability to
twist in a manner that converts the device into a tablet. The Twist
has a 12.5" screen and makes use of Intel's Core i7 processor and SSD
technology in lieu of a hard drive.
In a review for _Engadget_ Dana Wollman wrote, "Lately, we feel like
all of our reviews of
Windows 8 convertibles end the same way. The
ThinkPad Twist has plenty going for it: a bright IPS display, a good
port selection, an affordable price and an unrivaled typing
experience. Like ThinkPads past, it also offers some useful software
features for businesses lacking dedicated IT departments. All good
things, but what's a road warrior to do when the battery barely lasts
four hours? Something tells us the Twist will still appeal to Lenovo
loyalists, folks who trust ThinkPad's build quality and wouldn't be
caught dead using any other keyboard. If you're more brand-agnostic,
though, there are other
Windows 8 convertibles with comfortable
keyboards – not to mention, sharper screens, faster performance and
longer battery life."
ThinkPad Helix The
ThinkPad Helix on display in
The Helix is a convertible laptop satisfying both tablet and
conventional notebook users. It uses a "rip and flip" design that
allows the user to detach the display and then replace it facing in a
different direction. It sports an 11.6" Full HD (1920 × 1080)
display, with support for
Windows 8 multi-touch. As all essential
processing hardware is contained in the display assembly and it has
multitouch capability, the detached monitor can be used as a
standalone tablet computer. The Helix's high-end hardware and build
Gorilla Glass , stylus-based input, and
hardware-based security features, are designed to appeal to business
In a review published in _Forbes_ Jason Evangelho wrote, "The first
laptop I owned was a
ThinkPad T20, and the next one may very likely be
ThinkPad Helix which
Lenovo unveiled at CES 2013. In a sea of
Windows 8 hardware, it's the first ultrabook
convertible with a form factor that gets everything right. The first
Windows 8 ultrabooks get high marks for their inspired
designs, but aren’t quite flexible enough to truly be BYOD (Bring
Your Own Device) solutions. Lenovo's own
IdeaPad Yoga came close, but
the sensation of feeling the keyboard underneath your fingers when
transformed into tablet mode was slightly jarring. Dell‘s XPS 12
solved that problem with its clever rotating hinge design, but I
wanted the ability to remove the tablet display entirely from both of
Released in August 2011, the
ThinkPad Tablet is the first in
Lenovo's line of business-oriented Tablets with the
The tablet has been described by Gadget Mix as a premium business
tablet. Since the Tablet is primarily business-oriented, it includes
features for security, such as anti-theft software, the ability to
remotely disable the tablet,
SD card encryption, layered data
Cisco Virtual Private Network (VPN).
ThinkPad Tablet is able to run software such as IBM
Lotus Notes Traveler . The stylus could be used to write notes on
the Tablet, which also included software to convert this handwritten
content to text. Another feature on the Tablet was a drag-and-drop
utility designed to take advantage of the Tablet's touch capabilities.
This feature could be used to transfer data between USB devices,
internal storage, or an SD card.
Slashgear summarized the
ThinkPad Tablet by saying, "The stylus and
the styling add up to a distinctive slate that doesn’t merely
attempt to ape Apple's iPad."
ThinkPad Tablet 2
ThinkPad Tablet 2
ThinkPad Tablet 2
In order to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the ThinkPad, Lenovo
held a large party in New York where it announced several products,
including the Tablet 2.
Lenovo says that the
ThinkPad Tablet 2 will be
available on 28 October 2012 when
Windows 8 is released. The ThinkPad
Tablet 2 runs the
Windows 8 Professional operating system. It will be
able to run any desktop software compatible with this version of
The Tablet 2 is based on the Clover Trail version of the
processor that has been customized for tablets. The Tablet 2 has 2
gigabytes of RAM and a 64-gigabyte SSD. The Tablet 2 has a 10.1-inch
IPS display with a 16:9 aspect ratio and a resolution of 1,366 by 768.
In a preview,
CNET wrote, "
Windows 8 looked readable and functional,
both in Metro and standard Windows-based interfaces." A mini-
is included for video output. An 8-megapixel rear camera and a
2-megapixel front camera are included along with a noise-canceling
microphone in order to facilitate video conferencing.
Announced and released in January 2014, the
ThinkPad 8 is based on
the Intel's Bay Trail Atom Z3770 processor, with 2 GB of RAM and up to
128 GB of built-in storage.
ThinkPad 8 has an 8.3-inch IPS display
with a 16:10 aspect ratio and a resolution of 1920 by 1200 pixels.
Other features include an aluminum chassis, micro-
8-megapixel back camera (with flash), and optional 4G connectivity. It
Windows 8 as an operating system.
Announced in May 2014,
ThinkPad 10 is a successor to the
ThinkPad Tablet 2 and was scheduled to launch in the summer of 2014
along with accessories such as a docking station and external
detachable magnetic keyboards. It used
Windows 8.1 Pro as its
operating system. It was available in 64 and 128 GB variants with 1.6
Intel Atom Baytrail processor and 2 GB or 4 GB of RAM.
It optionally supported both 3G and 4G (LTE). Display resolution was
announced to be 1920×1200, paired with a stylus pen.
ThinkPad X1 Tablet
ThinkPad X1 Tablet is a fanless tablet powered by Core M CPUs.
It's available with 4, 8 or 16 GB of LPDDR3 RAM and SATA or a PCIe
NVMe SSDs with up to 1 TB. It has a 2160x1440 IPS screen and supports
touch and pen input.
THINKPAD YOGA 11E
ThinkPad 11e is a
Chromebook that has a matte black chassis with
reinforced hinges and corners, a sturdy lid, and a rubber bumper
protecting its display in order to help it survive accidental
dropping, spills, and general rough handling. It uses a quad-core
Celeron CPU, has 4 GB of RAM which can not be upgraded, an 11.6
inch screen, and 16GB or eMMC flash storage. Reviewers claim it is
somewhat heavier than a typical
Chromebook with a weight of 3.1
pounds. This is likely because of its ruggedized and reinforced
It uses typical ThinkPad-style keyboard with customized Chrome OS
keys. It does not have Trackpoint but only a touchpad. The screen is
matte with and anti-glare coating and has a resolution of 1,366 by 768
pixels. A 720p webcam is mounted above the screen. It has media card
reader, a USB 2.0 port, a
USB 3.0 port, and
HDMI 1.4 port and a
headphone jack. Connectivity is provided by 802.11ac
The 11e fully support the openSUSE flavor of the
ThinkPad Yoga 11e (Windows Version)
ThinkPad Yoga 11e (Windows Version)
ALSO KNOWN AS
ThinkPad Yoga 11e (Windows)
500 GB HDD
Windows 8.1 ,
8GB max DDR3L 1600 MHz
11.6 in (29 cm), 1366px × 768px diagonal HD LED IPS display with
Dolby Advanced Audio v2
Keyboard , mouse
720p HD webcam
USB 3.0 input, USB 2.0 ,
SD card reader, RJ-45
and a headphone/microphone port.
W×H×D 11.8 in (30 cm) × 7.9 in (20 cm) × 0.826772 in (2.10000
3.3 lb (1.5 kg)
The Windows version has the same specs as the Chromebook, but comes
with a 320GB hard drive for storage and also accepts SSDs. The memory
can be upgraded, up to 8GB. The Windows model of the 11e is the more
versatile of the two offerings from Lenovo, with upgradable hardware.
It would also have the same processors but not at the same price.
ThinkPad 13 is a "budget" laptop computer with a 13-inch screen.
Windows 10 and Google's Chrome OS are options. The
most powerful configuration has a Skylake Core i5 processor and a
512-gigabyte SSD. Connectivity includes HDMI, USB 3.0, OneLink+, USB
Type-C, etc. It weights 2.3 pounds and measures about 10mm in width.
ThinkPad Stack line of products includes accessories designed for
portability and interoperability. This line includes external hard
drives, a wireless router, a power bank, and a Bluetooth 4.0 speaker.
Each Stack device includes rubber feet, magnets, and pogo-pin power
connections that allow the use of a single cable. The combined weight
of all the Stack devices is slightly less than two pounds. The Stack
series was announced in January 2015 at the International CES. The
Stack series of accessories was expanded at the 2016 International CES
to include a 720p resolution projector with 150 lumens of brightness
and a wireless charging station.
The Stack has a "blocky, black, and rectangular" look with the
ThinkPad logo. It shares a common design language with
The P Series line of laptops replaced Lenovo's W Series. The P Series
is designed for engineers, architects, animators, etc. and comes with
a variety of "high-end" options such as
Intel Xeon processors, 4K
screens and DDR4 RAM up to 64 GB. 1080p screens and Core Series CPUs
come standard. PCIe SSDs also come standard. P Series models all
included fingerprint readers. The P Series uses a cooling system known
as FLEX that features two fans connected by a heat pipe and located
near the CPU and GPU. A three-button touchpad is included.
The P50 has a 15-inch display. It supports up to three internal
storage devices and has a single USB Type-C Thunderbolt 3 port. It
weighs 2.54 kilograms and has a thickness of 2.59 centimeters.
The P70 has a 17-inch display. It weighs 3.45 kilograms and is 3.05
centimeters thick. It supports up to four internal storage devices and
includes two USB Type-C Thunderbolt 3 ports.
IBM X31 with an
IBM T43 notebook Main
ThinkPad T Series
The T Series historically had high-end features, such as magnesium
alloy rollcages, high-density IPS screens known as FlexView
(discontinued after the T60 series), 7-row keyboards, screen latches,
Lenovo UltraBay , and
ThinkLight . Models included both 14.1-inch
and 15.4-inch displays available in 4:3 and 16:10 aspect ratios.
Since 2012 the entire
ThinkPad line was given a complete overhaul,
with modifications such as the removal of separate buttons for use
TrackPoint (reintroduced 2015), removal of separate audio
control buttons, removal of screen latch, and the removal of LED
indicator lights. Some of new ultra-portable models, such as T430u and
T431s, have non-replaceable batteries; newer models have a combination
of built-in and replaceable battery, enabling the user to switch the
replaceable without putting the computer into hibernation. Also,
non-widescreen displays are no longer available, with 16:9 aspect
ratio as the only remaining choice.
ThinkPad W Series
The W Series was introduced in 2008 to replace the p-suffixed
performance T Series (e.g. T61p), and are geared towards CAD users,
photographers, power users, and others, who need a high-performance
system for demanding tasks.
The W530 was released in June 2012. Minimum specifications include an
Intel Core i5 (or i7) CPU, 15.6" HD screen,
Nvidia Quadro K1000M
graphics processor and four DIMM slots capable of accepting up to a
maximum of 32 GB of RAM.
Previously available were the W7xx series (17" widescreen model), the
W500 (15.4" 16:10 ratio model), the W510 (15.6" 16:9 ratio model), and
W520 (15.6" 16:9 ratio model). The W700DS and the W701DS both had two
displays: a 17" main LCD and a 10" slide-out secondary LCD. The W7xx
series were also available with a
Wacom digitizer built into the palm
rest. These high-performance workstation models offer better screens
and faster components, such as quad core CPUs and higher-end
workstation graphics compared to the T-series, and are the most
ThinkPad laptops available. These retain the ThinkLight,
UltraBay, roll cage, and lid latch found on the T-series. The W7xx
line has been discontinued.
ThinkPad X Series Two X60 units running Libreboot
The X Series is the main ultraportable
ThinkPad line, offering a
lightweight, highly portable laptop with moderate performance. The 12"
X200-series carries all the high-end
ThinkPad features like a
ThinkLight, 7-row keyboard, and rollcage. The 11.6" X100e and X120e
though are all plastic, lacking both the latch and the
and using a variant of the island keyboard (known as chiclet keyboard
) found on the Edge series. The X100e was also offered in red in
addition to blue, and white in some countries. Those were more like
high-end netbooks, whereas the X200 series were more like full
Intel i series CPUs rather than AMD netbook
CPUs. The 12.5" X220 features a roll cage, Thinklight, 7-row keyboard,
and an optional premium IPS display, the first IPS display on a
ThinkPad since the T60p. However, it lacks lid latch (which the
previous X201 and X200 had). A 13.3" thin and light line was offered
(the X300/X301), though it has been discontinued. A slim 12" line
(X201s) with low voltage CPUs and high resolution displays was also
offered, though they were also discontinued.
The X Series tablet is a variant of the 12" X Series models, with low
voltage CPUs and a flip-screen tablet screen. These include the
ThinkPad features, and have been noted for using a higher
quality AFFS-type screen with better viewing angles compared to the
screens used on other ThinkPads. A 12.5" X220T model is available.
ThinkPad L Series
The L Series replaced the former R Series, and is positioned as a
ThinkPad offering with second generation Core i3/i5/i7 CPUs.
The L Series as launched had two models, the 14" L412 and the 15.6"
L512. In March 2011,
Lenovo revamped the series to launch the 14"
L420/L421 and the 15" L520/L521.
The S Series is positioned as a mid-range
containing ultrabooks derived from the Edge Series. As of August 2013,
the S Series includes S531 and S440 models; their cases are made of
aluminum and magnesium alloy, available in silver and gunmetal colors.
The Edge Series was released early in 2010 as small business and
consumer-end machines. The design was a radical departure compared to
the traditional black boxy
ThinkPad design, with glossy surfaces
(optional matte finish on later models), rounded corners, and silver
trim. They were also offered in red, a first for the traditionally
black ThinkPads. Like the SL, this series was targeted towards small
businesses and consumers, and lack the roll cage, UltraBay, lid latch,
ThinkLight of traditional ThinkPads (though the 2011 E220s and
E420s had ThinkLights). This also introduced an island-style keyboard
with a significantly different layout.
Models included 12.5"(E220, E220s) 13.3" (Edge 13), 14"(Edge 14,
E420, E420s), and 15.6" (Edge 15, E520, E545 ) sizes. An 11.6" Edge 11
model was offered, but not available in the United States.
THINKPAD RESERVE EDITION
This model was initially known inside of
Lenovo as the "Scout." This
was the name of the horse ridden by
Tonto , the sidekick from the
1950s television series _The Lone Ranger_.
Lenovo envisioned the Scout
as a very high-end
ThinkPad that would be analogous to a luxury car.
Each unit was covered in fine leather embossed with its owners
initials. Extensive market research was conducted on how consumers
would perceive this form factor. It was determined that they
appreciated that it emphasised warmth, nature, and human relations
over technology. The Scout was soon renamed the
Edition. It came bundled with premium services including a dedicated
24-hour technical support hotline that would be answered immediately.
It was released in 2007 and sold for $5,000 in the United States.
ThinkPad 235 (or Type 2607), was the progeny of the
IBM/Ricoh RIOS project. Also known as Clavius or Chandra2, it contains
unusual features like the presence of three PCMCIA slots and the use
of dual camcorder batteries as a source of power. Features an Intel
Pentium MMX 233 MHz CPU, support for up to 160 MB of EDO memory, and a
built-in 2.5 in (64 mm) hard drive with UDMA support.
Chandra2 as the Prius Note 210.
ThinkPad 240 (X, Z) started with an
processor and went up to the 600 MHz
Pentium III . In models
Intel 440BX chipset, the RAM was expandable to 320 MB max
with a BIOS update. With a 10.4 in (260 mm) screen and an 18 mm (0.71
in) key pitch (a standard key pitch is 19 mm (0.75 in)). They were
also one of the first
ThinkPad series to contain a built-in Mini PCI
card slot (form factor 3b). The 240s have no optical disc drives and
an external floppy drive. An optional extended battery sticks out the
bottom like a bar and props up the back of the laptop. Weighing in at
2.9 lb (1.3 kg), these were the smallest and lightest ThinkPads ever
The 300-series (300, 310 , 340, 350, 360, 365, 380 , 385, 390 (all
with various sub-series)) was a long-running value series starting at
the 386SL/25 processor, all the way to the
Pentium III 450. The 300
series was offered as a slightly lower-price alternative from the 700
series, with a few exceptions.
ThinkPad 360PE was a unique model in the series in that it could
be used as a regular laptop, or transform into a tablet by flipping
the monitor on top of itself. Retailing for $3,699 in 1995, the 360PE
featured a touch sensitive monitor that operated with the stylus; the
machine could run operating systems that supported the touch screen
such as PenDOS 2.2.
ThinkPad 310ED and a 760ED, both from the 1996-97 era. The
760ED boasts the unique flip-up keyboard that was standard on all 760
The 360PE opened in its 'natural' mode
The 360PE in mid-fold showing how the monitor rotates over the unit
The 360PE folded in its 'tablet' mode allowing the laptop to be held
as a tablet would
The 360PE's keyboard opens up on hinges for easy serviceability
The 500-series (500, 510, 560 (E, X, Z), 570 (E)) were the main line
of the ultraportable ThinkPads. Starting with the 486SLC2-50 Blue
Lightning to the
Pentium III 500, these machines had only a hard disk
on board. Any other drives were external (or in the 570's case in the
UltraBase). They weighed in at around 4 lb (1.8 kg).
The 600 -series (600, 600E, and 600X) are the direct predecessors of
the T series. The 600-series packed a 12.1 in (310 mm) SVGA or a 13.3
in (340 mm) XGA TFT LCD, Pentium MMX, Pentium II or III processor,
full-sized keyboard, and optical bay into a package weighing roughly 5
lb (2.3 kg).
IBM was able to create this light, fully featured machine
by using lightweight but strong carbon fiber composite plastics. The
battery shipped with some 600-series models had a manufacturing defect
that left it vulnerable to memory effect and resulted in poor battery
life, but this problem can be avoided by use of a third-party battery.
The 700 Series (700, 701, 720, 730 (tablet), 750, 755, 760 , 765, 770
with various sub-models) were once considered cutting-edge Intel-based
ThinkPads. They featured the best screens, largest hard drives and
fastest processors available at the time. This was the first
ThinkPad introduced in 1992 (the first
ThinkPad was a
tablet PC without a keyboard and a mouse).
ThinkPad 850 with its custom IBM-branded Logitech Chroma
ThinkPad logo as found on the 850 carrying
case; similar to Lenovo's redesigned logo with the red dotted i
ThinkPad 800 Series (800/820/821/822/823/850/851/860) were unique
as they were based on the
PowerPC architecture rather than the Intel
x86 architecture. Most of the 800 Series laptops used the
CPU, at speeds of 100 MHz, or 166 MHz in the 860 model, although the
earliest 800 (Type 6020), the direct ancestor of the 850, used a 603
and was apparently only offered to developers. All units used
instead of IDE hard disks, and the ID of every
SCSI device on the
system could be configured in the cursor driven GUI-based BIOS.
Another unusual aspect of the series is their unique startup chime,
reminiscent of Apple
Macintosh computers of the time.
ThinkPad line was considerably more expensive than the
standard x86 ThinkPads—even a modestly configured 850 cost upwards
of $12,000. On the other hand, the 800, 850 and 851 (and later the
860 and 861) were capable of supporting an optional web camera, one of
the first commercially available webcams available on a laptop. These
units could also record PAL and NTSC signals with onboard composite
connectors, and the batteries contained internal processors to
regulate power usage for optimized battery longevity.
All of the
PowerPC ThinkPads could run
Windows NT 3.5 and 4.0, OS/2
PowerPC Edition, AIX 4.1.x, and Solaris Desktop 2.5.1
PowerPC Edition. Many of these
PowerPC operating systems and the
corresponding compilers are very scarce and hard to find. However, it
is also possible to run certain
PowerPC versions of
Linux on the 800
603 @ 66 MHz
603e @ 100 MHz
603e @ 100 MHz
603e @ 100 MHz
603e @ 100 MHz
603e @ 166 MHz
LCD and Resolution
10.4" @ 640x480
10.4" @ 640x480 or 800x600
10.4" @ 640x480 or 800x600
10.4" @ 640x480 or 800x600
10.4" @ 640x480 or 800x600
12.1" @ 1024x768
The Z series was released as a high-end multimedia laptop; as a
result this was the first
ThinkPad to feature a widescreen (16:10
aspect ratio) display. The Z-Series was also unique in that certain
models featured an (optional) titanium lid. Integrated WWAN and a
webcam were also found on some configurations. The series has only
ever included the Z60 (Z60m and Z60t) and Z61 (Z61m, Z61t and Z61p);
the latter of which is the first Z-Series
Intel "Yonah "
Dual Core Technology. The processor supports
Intel VT-x ; this is
disabled in the BIOS but can be turned on with a BIOS update. Running
fully virtualised operating systems via
VMware is therefore
possible. Despite the Z61 carrying the same number as the T61, the
hardware of the Z61 is closer to a T60 (and likewise the Z60 being
closer to a T43).
The Z61 featuring a titanium lid (note the duality of colors)
ThinkPad Z61t accompanied by a silver ScrollPoint Pro
ThinkPad Z61t opened showing the internal keyboard
The SL Series was launched in 2008 as a low-end
mainly geared toward small businesses. These lacked several
ThinkPad features, such as the ThinkLight, magnesium alloy
roll cage, UltraBay, and lid latch, and use a 6-row keyboard with a
different layout than the traditional 7-row
ThinkPad keyboard. Models
offered included 14" (SL400 and SL410) and 15.6" (SL500 and SL510). A
13.3" model (SL300) was previously offered, but discontinued.
The A-series was developed as an all-around productivity machine,
equipped with hardware powerful enough to make it a desktop
replacement. Hence it was the biggest and heaviest
ThinkPad series of
its time, but also had features not even found in a T-series of the
same age. The A-series was dropped in favor of the G-series and
The A31 was released in 2002 as a desktop replacement system equipped
with: A Pentium 4-M processor clocked at 1.6, 1.8, 1.9, or 2.0 GHz
(max supported is a 2.6 GHz), An ATI Mobility Radeon 7500, 128 or 256
MB of PC2100 RAM (officially upgradable to 1 GB but can be
unofficially upgraded to 2 GB),
IBM High Rate Wireless (PRISM 2.5
Based, can be modified to support WPA-TKIP) and equipped with a 20,
30, or 40 GB hard disk drive.
The G-series consisted of only three models, the G40, G41 and G50.
Being large and heavy machines, equipped with powerful desktop
processors, this line of ThinkPads consequently served mainly as
replacements for desktop computers.
The R Series was a budget line, beginning with the R30 in 2002 and
ending with the R500 in 2008.
ThinkPad R500 (lid closed)
ThinkPad i Series was introduced by
IBM in 1999 and was geared
towards a multimedia focus with many models featuring independent
integrated CD players and multimedia access buttons. The 1400 and
1500 models were designed by Acer for
IBM under contract and featured
similar hardware found in Acer laptops (including ALi chipsets, three
way audio jacks and the internal plastics painted with a copper
paint). Some of the i Series ThinkPads, particularly the Acer
developed models, are prone to broken hinges and stress damage on the
ThinkPad in the i Series lineup are the S3x (S30/S31)
models: featuring a unique keyboard and lid design allowing a standard
size keyboard to fit in a chassis that otherwise wouldn't be able to
support the protruding keyboard. These models were largely only
available in Asia Pacific.
IBM offered an optional piano black lid on
these models (designed by the Yamato Design lab). This is the only
ThinkPad since the 701C to feature a special design to accommodate a
keyboard that's physically larger than the laptop and also the only
ThinkPad (aside from the Z61) to deviate away from the standard matte
ThinkPad S31 with the piano black finish option sitting on top of
a Z61t; both ThinkPads deviate from the usual matte black.
The S31 with the lid open showing the unique protruding keyboard; no
touchpad was offered, to keep the laptop compact.
ThinkPad 1400 i Series with the integrated CD-Player and
customizable multimedia access buttons
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