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Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
(Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki [θesaloˈnici] ( listen)), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.[4][5] Its nickname is η Συμπρωτεύουσα (Symprotévousa), literally "the co-capital",[6] a reference to its historical status as the Συμβασιλεύουσα (Symvasilévousa) or "co-reigning" city of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, alongside Constantinople.[7] Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is located on the Thermaic Gulf, at the northwest corner of the Aegean Sea. It is bounded on the west by the delta of the Axios/Vardar. The municipality of Thessaloniki, the historical center, had a population of 325,182 in 2011,[2] while the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Urban Area had a population of 788,952[2] and the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Metropolitan Area had 1,012,297 inhabitants in 2011.[2] Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is Greece's second major economic, industrial, commercial and political centre; it is a major transportation hub for Greece
Greece
and southeastern Europe, notably through the Port of Thessaloniki.[8][8] The city is renowned for its festivals, events and vibrant cultural life in general,[9] and is considered to be Greece's cultural capital.[9] Events such as the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
International Trade Fair and the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
International Film Festival are held annually, while the city also hosts the largest bi-annual meeting of the Greek diaspora.[10] Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was the 2014 European Youth Capital.[11] The city of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was founded in 315 BC by Cassander
Cassander
of Macedon. An important metropolis by the Roman period, Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was the second largest and wealthiest city of the Byzantine Empire. It was conquered by the Ottomans in 1430, and passed from the Ottoman Empire to Greece
Greece
on 8 November 1912. Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is home to numerous notable Byzantine monuments, including the Paleochristian and Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site, as well as several Roman, Ottoman and Sephardic Jewish
Sephardic Jewish
structures. The city's main university, Aristotle University, is the largest in Greece
Greece
and the Balkans.[12] Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is a popular tourist destination in Greece. In 2013, National Geographic Magazine included Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
in its top tourist destinations worldwide,[13] while in 2014 Financial Times
Financial Times
FDI magazine (Foreign Direct Investments) declared Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
as the best mid-sized European city of the future for human capital and lifestyle.[14][15] Among street photographers, the center of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is also considered the most popular destination for street photography in Greece.[16]

Contents

1 Names and etymology 2 History

2.1 From classical antiquity to the Roman Empire 2.2 Byzantine era and Middle Ages 2.3 Ottoman period 2.4 20th century and since

3 Geography

3.1 Geology 3.2 Climate

4 Government

4.1 Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Municipality 4.2 Other

5 Cityscape

5.1 Architecture 5.2 City centre 5.3 Ano Poli 5.4 Southeastern Thessaloniki 5.5 Northwestern Thessaloniki 5.6 Paleochristian and Byzantine monuments (UNESCO) 5.7 Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
2012 Program

6 Economy

6.1 Services 6.2 Companies 6.3 Macroeconomic indicators

7 Demographics

7.1 Historical ethnic statistics 7.2 Population growth 7.3 Jews
Jews
of Thessaloniki 7.4 Others

8 Culture

8.1 Leisure and entertainment 8.2 Parks and recreation 8.3 Museums and galleries 8.4 Archaeological sites 8.5 Festivals 8.6 Sports 8.7 Media

8.7.1 TV broadcasting 8.7.2 Press

8.8 Notable Thessalonians 8.9 Cuisine 8.10 Music 8.11 In popular culture

9 Education 10 Transport

10.1 Bus
Bus
transport 10.2 Metro 10.3 Commuter/suburban rail (Proastiakos) 10.4 Macedonia International Airport 10.5 Railways and ferry connections 10.6 Motorways

10.6.1 Future plans

11 International relations

11.1 Twin towns – sister cities

12 Gallery 13 See also 14 References

14.1 Notes 14.2 Bibliography

15 External links

15.1 Government 15.2 Tourism 15.3 Cultural 15.4 Events

Names and etymology[edit]

Inscription reading "To Queen Thessalonike, (Daughter) of Philip", Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki

See also: Names of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
in different languages

Philip II of Macedon
Philip II of Macedon
statue

The original name of the city was Θεσσαλονίκη Thessaloníkē. It was named after princess Thessalonike of Macedon, the half sister of Alexander the Great, whose name means "Thessalian victory", from Θεσσαλός 'Thessalos', and Νίκη 'victory' (Nike), honoring the Macedonian victory at the Battle of Crocus Field (353/352 BCE). Minor variants are also found, including Θετταλονίκη Thettaloníkē,[17][18] Θεσσαλονίκεια Thessaloníkeia,[19] Θεσσαλονείκη Thessaloneíkē, and Θεσσαλονικέων Thessalonikéōn.[20][21] The name Σαλονίκη Saloníkē is first attested in Greek in the Chronicle of the Morea
Chronicle of the Morea
(14th century), and is common in folk songs, but it must have originated earlier, as al-Idrisi called it Salunik already in the 12th century. It is the basis for the city's name in other languages: Солѹнь (Solun) in Old Church Slavonic, סלוניקה (Salonika) in Ladino, Selânik سلانیك in Ottoman Turkish and Selanik in modern Turkish, Solun or Солун in the local and neighboring South Slavic languages, Салоники (Saloníki) in Russian, and Sãrunã in Aromanian, and Salonica or Salonika in English.[22] Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was revived as the city's official name in 1912, when it joined the Kingdom of Greece
Greece
during the Balkan Wars.[23] In local speech, the city's name is typically pronounced with a dark and deep L characteristic of Modern Macedonian accent.[24][25] The name is often abbreviated as Θεσ/νίκη.[26]

Statue of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
at the city's waterfront, with sarissas in the background

History[edit] Main article: History of Thessaloniki From classical antiquity to the Roman Empire[edit]

Cassander, founder of the city

The 4th-century AD Rotunda of Galerius, one of several Roman monuments in the city and a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site

The city was founded around 315 BC by the King Cassander
Cassander
of Macedon, on or near the site of the ancient town of Therma and 26 other local villages.[27] He named it after his wife Thessalonike,[28] a half-sister of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and princess of Macedonia as daughter of Philip II. Under the kingdom of Macedonia the city retained its own autonomy and parliament[29] and evolved to become the most important city in Macedonia.[28] After the fall of the kingdom of Macedonia in 168 BC, in 148 BC Thessalonica was made the capital of the Roman province of Macedonia.[30] Thessalonica became a free city of the Roman Republic under Mark Antony
Mark Antony
in 41 BC.[28][31] It grew to be an important trade-hub located on the Via Egnatia,[32] the road connecting Dyrrhachium
Dyrrhachium
with Byzantium,[33] which facilitated trade between Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
and great centers of commerce such as Rome
Rome
and Byzantium.[34] Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
also lay at the southern end of the main north-south route through the Balkans
Balkans
along the valleys of the Morava and Axios
Axios
river valleys, thereby linking the Balkans
Balkans
with the rest of Greece.[35] The city later became the capital of one of the four Roman districts of Macedonia.[32] Later it became the capital of all the Greek provinces of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
because of the city's importance in the Balkan peninsula. At the time of the Roman Empire, about 50 A.D., Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was also one of the early centers of Christianity; while on his second missionary journey, Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle
visited this city's chief synagogue on three Sabbaths and sowed the seeds for Thessaloniki's first Christian church. Later, Paul wrote two letters to the new church at Thessaloniki, preserved in the Biblical canon
Biblical canon
as First and Second Thessalonians. Some scholars hold that the First Epistle to the Thessalonians is the first written book of the New Testament.[36] In 306 AD, Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
acquired a patron saint, St. Demetrius, a native of Thessalonica whom Galerius
Galerius
put to death. A basilical church was first built in the 5th century AD dedicated to St. Demetrius. When the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
was divided into the tetrarchy, Thessaloniki became the administrative capital of one of the four portions of the Empire under Galerius
Galerius
Maximianus Caesar,[37][38] where Galerius commissioned an imperial palace, a new hippodrome, a triumphal arch and a mausoleum among others.[38][39][40] In 379, when the Roman Prefecture of Illyricum was divided between the East and West Roman Empires, Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
became the capital of the new Prefecture of Illyricum.[32] In 390, Gothic troops under the Roman Emperor Theodosius I, led a massacre against the inhabitants of Thessalonica, who had risen in revolt against the Gothic soldiers. By the time of the Fall of Rome
Rome
in 476, Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was the second-largest city of the Eastern Roman Empire.[34] Byzantine era and Middle Ages[edit] See also: Byzantine Greece, Demetrius of Thessaloniki, Kingdom of Thessalonica, and Zealots of Thessalonica

Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
church was erected in the 8th century AD based on the Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
in Constantinople. Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
is one of 15 UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites in the city.

Section of the Walls of Thessaloniki

From the first years of the Byzantine Empire, Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was considered the second city in the Empire after Constantinople,[41][42][43] both in terms of wealth and size.[41] with a population of 150,000 in the mid-12th century.[44] The city held this status until its transfer to Venetian control in 1423. In the 14th century, the city's population exceeded 100,000 to 150,000,[45][46][47] making it larger than London at the time.[48]

Fresco of 8th century in Hagios Demetrios. Entrace of the emperor, possibly Justinian II, in the city

During the 6th and 7th centuries, the area around Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was invaded by Avars and Slavs, who unsuccessfully laid siege to the city several times, as narrated in the Miracles of Saint Demetrius.[49] Traditional historiography stipulates that many Slavs settled in the hinterland of Thessaloniki;[50] however, modern scholars consider this migration to have been on a much smaller scale than previously thought.[50][50][51] In the 9th century, the Byzantine Greek missionaries Cyril and Methodius, both natives of the city, created the first literary language of the Slavs, the Glagolic alphabet, most likely based on the Slavic dialect used in the hinterland of their hometown.[52][53][54][55][56] An Arab naval attack in 904 resulted in the sack of the city.[57] The economic expansion of the city continued through the 12th century as the rule of the Komnenoi
Komnenoi
emperors expanded Byzantine control to the north. Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
passed out of Byzantine hands in 1204,[58] when Constantinople
Constantinople
was captured by the forces of the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
and incorporated the city and its surrounding territories in the Kingdom of Thessalonica[59] — which then became the largest vassal of the Latin Empire. In 1224, the Kingdom of Thessalonica
Kingdom of Thessalonica
was overrun by the Despotate of Epirus, a remnant of the former Byzantine Empire, under Theodore Komnenos Doukas
Theodore Komnenos Doukas
who crowned himself Emperor,[60] and the city became the capital of the short-lived Empire of Thessalonica.[60][61][62][63] Following his defeat at Klokotnitsa however in 1230,[60][64] the Empire of Thessalonica
Empire of Thessalonica
became a vassal state of the Second Bulgarian Empire
Second Bulgarian Empire
until it was recovered again in 1246, this time by the Nicaean Empire.[60] In 1342,[65] the city saw the rise of the Commune of the Zealots, an anti-aristocratic party formed of sailors and the poor,[66] which is nowadays described as social-revolutionary.[65] The city was practically independent of the rest of the Empire,[65][66][67] as it had its own government, a form of republic.[65] The zealot movement was overthrown in 1350 and the city was reunited with the rest of the Empire.[65] The capture of Gallipoli by the Ottomans in 1354 kicked off a rapid Turkish expansion in the southern Balkans, conducted both by the Ottomans themselves and by semi-independent Turkish ghazi warrior-bands. By 1369, the Ottomans were able to capture Adrianople.[68] Thessalonica, ruled by Manuel II Palaiologos (r. 1391–1425– ) itself surrendered after a lengthy siege in 1383–1387, along with most of eastern and central Macedonia.[69] Initially, the surrendered cities were allowed complete autonomy in exchange for payment of the kharaj poll-tax. Following the death of Emperor John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
in 1391, however, Manuel II escaped Ottoman custody and went to Constantinople, where he was crowned emperor, succeeding his father. This angered Sultan Bayezid I, who laid waste to the remaining Byzantine territories, and then turned on Chrysopolis, which was captured by storm and largely destroyed.[70] Thessalonica too submitted again to Ottoman rule at this time, possibly after brief resistance, but was treated more leniently: although the city was brought under full Ottoman control, the Christian population and the Church retained most of their possessions, and the city retained its institutions.[71][72] Thessalonica remained in Ottoman hands until 1403, when Emperor Manuel II sided with Bayezid's eldest son Süleyman in the Ottoman succession struggle that broke out following the crushing defeat and capture of Bayezid at the Battle of Ankara
Battle of Ankara
against Tamerlane
Tamerlane
in 1402. In exchange for his support, in the Treaty of Gallipoli
Treaty of Gallipoli
the Byzantine emperor secured the return of Thessalonica, part of its hinterland, the Chalcidice
Chalcidice
peninsula, and the coastal region between the rivers Strymon and Pineios.[73][74] Thessalonica and the surrounding region were given as an autonomous appanage to John VII Palaiologos. After his death in 1408, he was succeeded by Manuel's third son, the Despot Andronikos Palaiologos, who was supervised by Demetrios Leontares until 1415. Thessalonica enjoyed a period of relative peace and prosperity after 1403, as the Turks were preoccupied with their own civil war, but was attacked by the rival Ottoman pretenders in 1412 (by Musa Çelebi[75]) and 1416 (during the uprising of Mustafa Çelebi against Mehmed I[76]).[77][78] Once the Ottoman civil war ended, the Turkish pressure on the city began to increase again. Just as during the 1383–1387 siege, this led to a sharp division of opinion within the city between factions supporting resistance, if necessary with Western help, or submission to the Ottomans.[79] In 1423, Despot Andronikos Palaiologos ceded it to the Republic of Venice
Venice
with the hope that it could be protected from the Ottomans who were besieging the city. The Venetians held Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
until it was captured by the Ottoman Sultan Murad II
Murad II
on 29 March 1430. Ottoman period[edit] See also: Ottoman Greece, Salonica Eyalet, and Salonica Vilayet

Detail of the dome of the tepid chamber in the Bey Hamam
Bey Hamam
(15th century)

View of the New Mosque

When Sultan Murad II
Murad II
captured Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
and sacked it in 1430, contemporary reports estimated that about one-fifth of the city's population was enslaved.[80] Upon the conquest of Thessaloniki, some of its inhabitants escaped,[81] including intellectuals such as Theodorus Gaza
Theodorus Gaza
"Thessalonicensis" and Andronicus Callistus.[82] However, the change of sovereignty from the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
to the Ottoman one did not affect the city's prestige as a major imperial city and trading hub.[83][84] Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
and Smyrna, although smaller in size than Constantinople, were the Ottoman Empire's most important trading hubs.[83] Thessaloniki's importance was mostly in the field of shipping,[83] but also in manufacturing,[84] while most of the city's trade was controlled by ethnic Greeks.[83] During the Ottoman period, the city's population of Ottoman Muslims (including those of Turkish and Albanian origin, as well as Bulgarian Muslim and Greek Muslim
Greek Muslim
convert origin) grew substantially. According to the 1478 census Selânik (سلانیك), as the city came to be known in Ottoman Turkish, had a population of 4,320 Muslims, 6,094 Greek Orthodox and some Catholics. No Jews
Jews
were recorded in the census suggesting that the subsequent influx of Jewish population was not linked[85] to the already existing Romaniots community.[86] Soon after the turn of the 15th to 16th century, however, nearly 20,000 Sephardic Jews
Jews
immigrated to Greece
Greece
from the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
following their expulsion from Spain by the 1492 Alhambra Decree.[87] By c. 1500, the numbers had grown to 7,986 Greeks, 8,575 Muslims, and 3,770 Jews. By 1519, Sephardic Jews
Sephardic Jews
numbered 15,715, 54% of the city's population. Some historians consider the Ottoman regime's invitation to Jewish settlement was a strategy to prevent the ethnic Greek population from dominating the city.[88] Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was the capital of the Sanjak of Selanik
Sanjak of Selanik
within the wider Rumeli Eyalet
Rumeli Eyalet
(Balkans)[89] until 1826, and subsequently the capital of Selanik Eyalet
Selanik Eyalet
(after 1867, the Selanik Vilayet).[90][91] This consisted of the sanjaks of Selanik, Serres
Serres
and Drama between 1826 and 1912.[92] With the break out of the Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
in the spring of 1821, the governor Yusuf Bey imprisoned in his headquarters more than 400 hostages. On 18 May, when Yusuf learned of the insurrection to the villages of Chalkidiki, he ordered half of his hostages to be slaughtered before his eyes. The Mulla of Thessalonica, Hayrıülah, gives the following description of Yusuf's retaliations: "Every day and every night you hear nothing in the streets of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
but shouting and moaning. It seems that Yusuf Bey, the Yeniceri Agasi, the Subaşı, the hocas and the ulemas have all gone raving mad."[93] It would take until the end of the century for the city's Greek community to recover.[94] Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was also a Janissary
Janissary
stronghold where novice Janissaries were trained. In June 1826, regular Ottoman soldiers attacked and destroyed the Janissary
Janissary
base in Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
while also killing over 10,000 Janissaries, an event known as The Auspicious Incident
The Auspicious Incident
in Ottoman history.[95] In 1870–1917, driven by economic growth, the city's population expanded by 70%, reaching 135,000 in 1917.[96] The last few decades of Ottoman control over the city were an era of revival, particularly in terms of the city's infrastructure. It was at that time that the Ottoman administration of the city acquired an "official" face with the creation of the Government House[97] while a number of new public buildings were built in the eclectic style in order to project the European face both of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
and the Ottoman Empire.[97][98] The city walls were torn down between 1869 and 1889,[99] efforts for a planned expansion of the city are evident as early as 1879,[100] the first tram service started in 1888[101] and the city streets were illuminated with electric lamp posts in 1908.[102] In 1888 Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was connected to Central Europe
Europe
via rail through Belgrade, Monastir in 1893 and Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1896.[100] 20th century and since[edit] See also: Balkan Wars, Macedonian front, Provisional Government of National Defence, and Axis occupation of Greece

The seafront of Thessaloniki, as it was in 1917.

In the early 20th century, Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was in the center of radical activities by various groups; the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, founded in 1897,[103] and the Greek Macedonian Committee, founded in 1903.[104] In 1903 an anarchist group known as the Boatmen of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
planted bombs in several buildings in Thessaloniki, including the Ottoman Bank, with some assistance from the IMRO. The Greek consulate in Ottoman Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
(now the Museum of the Macedonian Struggle) served as the center of operations for the Greek guerillas. Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was also the center of activities of the Young Turks, a political reform movement, which goal was to replace the Ottoman Empire's absolute monarchy with a constitutional government. The Young Turks started out as an underground movement, until finally in 1908, they started the Young Turk Revolution
Young Turk Revolution
from the city of Thessaloniki, by which their revolutionaries gained control over the Ottoman Empire.[105]

Constantine I of Greece
Greece
with George I of Greece
Greece
and the Greek army enter the city.

From left to right: a soldier from Indochina, a Frenchman, a Senegalese, an Englishman, a Russian, an Italian, a Serb, a Greek and an Indian soldier, at the Entente's camp of the city during WWI.

As the First Balkan War
First Balkan War
broke out, Greece
Greece
declared war on the Ottoman Empire and expanded its borders. When Eleftherios Venizelos, Prime Minister at the time, was asked if the Greek army should move towards Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
or Monastir (now Bitola, Republic of Macedonia), Venizelos replied "Θεσσαλονίκη με κάθε κόστος!" (Thessaloniki, at all costs!).[106] As both Greece
Greece
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
wanted Thessaloniki, the Ottoman garrison of the city entered negotiations with both armies.[107] On 8 November 1912 (26 October Old Style), the feast day of the city's patron saint, Saint Demetrius, the Greek Army accepted the surrender of the Ottoman garrison at Thessaloniki.[108] The Bulgarian army arrived one day after the surrender of the city to Greece
Greece
and Tahsin Pasha, ruler of the city, told the Bulgarian officials that "I have only one Thessaloniki, which I have surrendered".[107] After the Second Balkan War, Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
and the rest of the Greek portion of Macedonia were officially annexed to Greece
Greece
by the Treaty of Bucharest
Bucharest
in 1913.[109] On 18 March 1913 George I of Greece
Greece
was assassinated in the city by Alexandros Schinas.[110] In 1915, during World War I, a large Allied expeditionary force established a base at Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
for operations against pro-German Bulgaria.[111] This culminated in the establishment of the Macedonian Front, also known as the Salonika Front.[112][113] In 1916, pro-Venizelist Greek army officers and civilians, with the support of the Allies, launched an uprising,[114] creating a pro-Allied[115] temporary government by the name of the "Provisional Government of National Defence"[114][116] that controlled the "New Lands" (lands that were gained by Greece
Greece
in the Balkan Wars, most of Northern Greece including Greek Macedonia, the North Aegean
North Aegean
as well as the island of Crete);[114][116] the official government of the King in Athens, the "State of Athens",[114] controlled "Old Greece"[114][116] which were traditionally monarchist. The State of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was disestablished with the unification of the two opposing Greek governments under Venizelos, following the abdication of King Constantine in 1917.[111][116]

The 1st Battalion of the Army of National Defence
Army of National Defence
marches on its way to the Macedonian Front.

Aerial picture of the Great Fire of 1917.

On 30 December 1915 an Austrian air raid on Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
alarmed many town civilians and killed at least one person, and in response the Allied troops based there arrested the German and Austrian and Bulgarian and Turkish vice-consuls and their families and dependents and put them on a battleship, and billeted troops in their consulate buildings in Thessaloniki.[117] Most of the old center of the city was destroyed by the Great Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Fire of 1917, which was started accidentally by an unattended kitchen fire on 18 August 1917.[118] The fire swept through the centre of the city, leaving 72,000 people homeless; according to the Pallis Report, most of them were Jewish (50,000). Many businesses were destroyed, as a result, 70% of the population were unemployed.[118] Two churches and many synagogues and mosques were lost. Nearly one-quarter of the total population of approximately 271,157 became homeless.[118] Following the fire the government prohibited quick rebuilding, so it could implement the new redesign of the city according to the European-style urban plan[7] prepared by a group of architects, including the Briton Thomas Mawson, and headed by French architect Ernest Hébrard.[118] Property values fell from 6.5 million Greek drachmas to 750,000.[119] After the defeat of Greece
Greece
in the Greco-Turkish War and during the break-up of the Ottoman Empire, a population exchange took place between Greece
Greece
and Turkey.[115] Over 160,000 ethnic Greeks
Greeks
deported from the former Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
– particularly Greeks
Greeks
from western Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and Pontic Greeks
Greeks
as well as Caucasus Greeks
Greeks
from various parts of Eastern Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
and the South Caucasus
South Caucasus
– were resettled in the city,[115] changing its demographics. Additionally many of the city's Muslims, including Ottoman Greek Muslims, were deported to Turkey, ranging at about 20,000 people.[120]

Part of Eleftherias Square
Eleftherias Square
during the Axis occupation.

During World War II
World War II
Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was heavily bombarded by Fascist Italy
Italy
(with 232 people dead, 871 wounded and over 800 buildings damaged or destroyed in November 1940 alone),[121] and, the Italians having failed in their invasion of Greece, it fell to the forces of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
on 8 April 1941[122] and remained under German occupation until 30 October 1944 when it was liberated by the Greek People's Liberation Army.[123] The Nazis
Nazis
soon forced the Jewish residents into a ghetto near the railroads and on 15 March 1943 began the deportation process of the city's 56,000 Jews
Jews
to its Nazi concentration camps.[124][125] They deported over 43,000 of the city's Jews
Jews
in concentration camps,[124] where most were killed in gas chambers. The Germans also deported 11,000 Jews
Jews
to forced labor camps, where most perished.[126] Only 1,200 Jews
Jews
live in the city today.

Deportation
Deportation
of the Jews
Jews
of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
by the German occupiers, July 1942

The importance of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
to Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
can be demonstrated by the fact that, initially, Hitler
Hitler
had planned to incorporate it directly in the Third Reich[127] (that is, make it part of Germany) and not have it controlled by a puppet state such as the Hellenic State or an ally of Germany
Germany
( Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
had been promised to Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
as a reward for joining the Axis on 25 March 1941).[128] Having been the first major city in Greece
Greece
to fall to the occupying forces just two days after the German invasion, it was in Thessaloniki that the first Greek resistance
Greek resistance
group was formed (under the name Ελευθερία, Eleutheria, "Freedom")[129] as well as the first anti-Nazi newspaper in an occupied territory anywhere in Europe,[130] also by the name Eleutheria. Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was also home to a military camp-converted-concentration camp, known in German as "Konzentrationslager Pavlo Mela" ( Pavlos Melas
Pavlos Melas
Concentration Camp),[131] where members of the resistance and other non-favourable people towards the German occupation from all over Greece[131] were held either to be killed or sent to concentration camps elsewhere in Europe.[131] In the 1946 monarchy referendum, the majority of the locals voted in favour of a republic, contrary to the rest of Greece.[132] After the war, Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was rebuilt with large-scale development of new infrastructure and industry throughout the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. Many of its architectural treasures still remain, adding value to the city as a tourist destination, while several early Christian and Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
were added to the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage list in 1988.[133] In 1997, Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was celebrated as the European Capital of Culture,[134] sponsoring events across the city and the region. Agency established to oversee the cultural activities of that year 1997 was still in existence by 2010.[135] In 2004 the city hosted a number of the football events as part of the 2004 Summer Olympics.[136] Today, Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
has become one of the most important trade and business hubs in Southeastern Europe, with its port, the Port of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
being one of the largest in the Aegean and facilitating trade throughout the Balkan hinterland.[8] On 26 October 2012 the city celebrated its centennial since its incorporation into Greece.[137] The city also forms one of the largest student centres in Southeastern Europe, is host to the largest student population in Greece
Greece
and was the European Youth Capital
European Youth Capital
in 2014.[11][138] Geography[edit]

Panoramic view of the city with Mount Olympus
Mount Olympus
in the background.

Aerial photo of Thessaloniki

White Tower in Thessaloniki

Geology[edit] Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
lies on the northern fringe of the Thermaic Gulf
Thermaic Gulf
on its eastern coast and is bound by Mount Chortiatis
Mount Chortiatis
on its southeast. Its proximity to imposing mountain ranges, hills and fault lines, especially towards its southeast have historically made the city prone to geological changes. Since medieval times, Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was hit by strong earthquakes, notably in 1759, 1902, 1978 and 1995.[139] On 19–20 June 1978, the city suffered a series of powerful earthquakes, registering 5.5 and 6.5 on the Richter scale.[140][141] The tremors caused considerable damage to a number of buildings and ancient monuments,[140] but the city withstood the catastrophe without any major problems.[141] One apartment building in central Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
collapsed during the second earthquake, killing many, raising the final death toll to 51.[140][141] Climate[edit] Thessaloniki's climate is directly affected by the sea it is situated on.[142] The city lies in a transitional climatic zone, so its climate displays characteristics of several climates. According to the Köppen climate classification, it has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) that borders on a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
(Csa), as well as a semi-arid climate (BSk), observed on the periphery of the region. Its average annual precipitation of 450 mm (17.7 inches) is due to the Pindus rain shadow drying the westerly winds. However, the city has a summer precipitation between 20 to 30 mm (0.79 to 1.18 inches), which prevents it from qualifying as a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
(Csa), and increases gradually towards the north and west, turning humid subtropical.[citation needed] Winters are relatively dry, with common morning frost. Snowfalls οccur sporadically more or less every winter, but the snow cover does not last for more than a few days. Fog is common, with an average of 193 foggy days in a year.[143] During the coldest winters, temperatures can drop to −10 °C (14 °F).[143] The record minimum temperature in Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was −14 °C (7 °F).[144] On average, Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
experiences frost (sub-zero temperature) 32 days a year.[143] The coldest month of the year in the city is January, with an average 24-hour temperature of 6 °C (43 °F).[145] Wind is also usual in the winter months, with December and January having an average wind speed of 26 km/h (16 mph).[143] Thessaloniki's summers are hot with rather humid nights.[143] Maximum temperatures usually rise above 30 °C (86 °F),[143] but rarely go over 40 °C (104 °F);[143] the average number of days the temperature is above 32 °C (90 °F) is 32.[143] The maximum recorded temperature in the city was 42 °C (108 °F).[143][144] Rain seldom falls in summer, mainly during thunderstorms. In the summer months Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
also experiences strong heat waves.[146] The hottest month of the year in the city is July, with an average 24-hour temperature of 26 °C (79 °F).[145] The average wind speed for June and July in Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is 20 kilometres per hour (12 mph).[143]

Climate data for Thessaloniki

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 21.2 (70.2) 22.9 (73.2) 32.0 (89.6) 31.0 (87.8) 36.0 (96.8) 41.4 (106.5) 44.0 (111.2) 40.4 (104.7) 37.3 (99.1) 32.2 (90) 27.0 (80.6) 23.6 (74.5) 44.0 (111.2)

Average high °C (°F) 9.3 (48.7) 10.9 (51.6) 14.2 (57.6) 19.0 (66.2) 24.5 (76.1) 29.2 (84.6) 31.5 (88.7) 31.1 (88) 27.2 (81) 21.2 (70.2) 15.4 (59.7) 11.0 (51.8) 20.4 (68.7)

Daily mean °C (°F) 5.3 (41.5) 6.6 (43.9) 9.4 (48.9) 13.3 (55.9) 18.3 (64.9) 22.8 (73) 25.1 (77.2) 24.7 (76.5) 21.1 (70) 16.0 (60.8) 11.1 (52) 7.0 (44.6) 15.1 (59.2)

Average low °C (°F) 1.3 (34.3) 2.2 (36) 4.5 (40.1) 7.5 (45.5) 12.1 (53.8) 16.3 (61.3) 18.6 (65.5) 18.3 (64.9) 14.9 (58.8) 10.8 (51.4) 6.8 (44.2) 3.0 (37.4) 9.7 (49.5)

Record low °C (°F) −14.0 (6.8) −10.0 (14) −7.0 (19.4) −2.0 (28.4) 2.8 (37) 6.0 (42.8) 10.0 (50) 7.8 (46) 3.0 (37.4) −1.0 (30.2) −6.2 (20.8) −9.8 (14.4) −14.0 (6.8)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 36.8 (1.449) 38.0 (1.496) 40.6 (1.598) 37.5 (1.476) 44.4 (1.748) 29.6 (1.165) 23.9 (0.941) 20.4 (0.803) 27.4 (1.079) 40.8 (1.606) 54.4 (2.142) 54.9 (2.161) 448.7 (17.664)

Average precipitation days 11.8 11.3 12.4 11.2 10.7 7.5 5.9 4.7 5.9 8.7 11.5 12.5 114.1

Average relative humidity (%) 76.1 73.0 72.4 67.8 63.8 55.9 53.2 55.3 62.0 70.2 76.8 78.0 67.04

Mean monthly sunshine hours 98.7 102.6 147.2 202.6 252.7 296.4 325.7 295.8 229.9 165.5 117.8 102.6 2,337.5

Source: World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization
(UN),[147] NOAA[148] for data of sunshine hours Hellenic National Meteorological Service[149] for data of relative humidity Greek Weather Records[150] for record highs and lows

Government[edit]

Thessaloniki's urban and metropolitan areas as of 2011[update].

According to the Kallikratis reform, as of 1 January 2011 the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Urban Area (Greek: Πολεοδομικό Συγκρότημα Θεσσαλονίκης) which makes up the "City of Thessaloniki", is made up of six self-governing municipalities (Greek: Δήμοι) and one municipal unit (Greek: Δημοτική ενότητα). The municipalities that are included in the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Urban Area are those of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
(the city center and largest in population size), Kalamaria, Neapoli-Sykies, Pavlos Melas, Kordelio-Evosmos, Ampelokipoi-Menemeni, and the municipal unit of Pylaia, part of the municipality of Pylaia-Chortiatis. Prior to the Kallikratis reform, the Thessaloniki Urban Area was made up of twice as many municipalities, considerably smaller in size, which created bureaucratic problems.[151] Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Municipality[edit] See also: List of mayors of Thessaloniki The municipality of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
(Greek: Δήμος Θεσαλονίκης) is the second most populous in Greece, after Athens, with a resident population of 325,182[152] (in 2011) and an area of 19.307 square kilometres (7.454 square miles), includes the municipal unit of Triandria. The municipality forms the core of the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Urban Area, with its central district (the city center), referred to as the Kentro, meaning 'center' or 'downtown'. The institution of mayor of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was inaugurated under the Ottoman Empire, in 1912. The first mayor of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was Osman Sait Bey, while the current mayor of the municipality of Thessaloniki is Yiannis Boutaris. In 2011, the municipality of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
had a budget of €464.33 million[153] while the budget of 2012 stands at €409.00 million.[154] According to an article in The New York Times, the way in which the present mayor of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is treating the city's debt and oversized administration problems could be used as an example by Greece's central government for a successful strategy in dealing with these problems.[155] Other[edit] See also: Ministry of Macedonia and Thrace
Ministry of Macedonia and Thrace
and Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
A ( Hellenic Parliament
Hellenic Parliament
constituency)

The Ottoman-era Government House, now the Ministry for Macedonia and Thrace, designed by Vitaliano Poselli
Vitaliano Poselli
in 1891.

The Prefecture building (Villa Allatini).

Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is the second largest city in Greece. It is an influential city for the northern parts of the country and is the capital of the region of Central Macedonia
Central Macedonia
and the Thessaloniki regional unit. The Ministry of Macedonia and Thrace
Ministry of Macedonia and Thrace
is also based in Thessaloniki, being that the city is the de facto capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. It is customary every year for the Prime Minister of Greece
Greece
to announce his administration's policies on a number of issues, such as the economy, at the opening night of the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
International Trade Fair. In 2010, during the first months of the 2010 Greek debt crisis, the entire cabinet of Greece
Greece
met in Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
to discuss the country's future.[156] In the Hellenic Parliament, the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
urban area constitutes a 16-seat constituency. As of the national elections of 20 September 2015 the largest party in Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is the Coalition of the Radical Left with 35.8% of the vote, followed by New Democracy (25.3%) and Golden Dawn (7.3%).[157] The table below summarizes the results of the latest elections.

20 September 2015 election results for Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
A[158]

Party Votes % Shift MPs (16) Change

Coalition of the Radical Left 108,293 35.82% 1.70%

6 / 16 (38%)

1

New Democracy 76,454 25.29% 0.45%

4 / 16 (25%)

0

Golden Dawn 21,969 7.27% 0.20%

1 / 16 (6%)

0

Union of Centrists 20,483 6.77% 1.65%

1 / 16 (6%)

1

Communist Party of Greece 16,046 5.31% 0.30%

1 / 16 (6%)

0

The River (To Potami) 14,641 4.84% 2.16%

1 / 16 (6%)

0

PASOK—Democratic Left 13,049 4.32%

1 / 16 (6%)

0

Independent Greeks 11,665 3.86% 1.72%

1 / 16 (6%)

0

Other parties (unrepresented) 19,575 6.53% 0.14%

0

Cityscape[edit]

Plan for central Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
by Ernest Hébrard. Much of the plan can be seen in today's city center.

Architecture[edit] Architecture in Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is the direct result of the city's position at the centre of all historical developments in the Balkans. Aside from its commercial importance, Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was also for many centuries the military and administrative hub of the region, and beyond this the transportation link between Europe
Europe
and the Levant (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine). Merchants, traders and refugees from all over Europe
Europe
settled in the city. The need for commercial and public buildings in this new era of prosperity led to the construction of large edifices in the city center. During this time, the city saw the building of banks, large hotels, theatres, warehouses, and factories. Architects who designed some of the most notable buildings of the city, in the late 19th and early 20th century, include Vitaliano Poselli, Pietro Arrigoni, Xenophon Paionidis, Leonardo Gennari, Eli Modiano, Moshé Jacques, Jean Joseph Pleyber, Frederic Charnot, Ernst Ziller, Roubens Max, Levi Ernst, Angelos Siagas and others, using mainly the styles of Eclecticism
Eclecticism
and Art Nouveau.

Aerial view of the city center

The city layout changed after 1870, when the seaside fortifications gave way to extensive piers, and many of the oldest walls of the city were demolished, including those surrounding the White Tower, which today stands as the main landmark of the city. As parts of the early Byzantine walls were demolished, this allowed the city to expand east and west along the coast.[159] The expansion of Eleftherias Square
Eleftherias Square
towards the sea completed the new commercial hub of the city and at the time was considered one of the most vibrant squares of the city. As the city grew, workers moved to the western districts, because of their proximity to factories and industrial activities; while the middle and upper classes gradually moved from the city-center to the eastern suburbs, leaving mainly businesses. In 1917, a devastating fire swept through the city and burned uncontrollably for 32 hours.[96] It destroyed the city's historic center and a large part of its architectural heritage, but paved the way for modern development and allowed Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
the development of a proper European city center, featuring wider diagonal avenues and monumental squares; which the city initially lacked – much of what was considered to be 'essential' in European architecture.[96][160]

Panoramic view of Aristotelous Square, one of Thessaloniki's most recognizable areas, which was designed by Ernest Hebrard.

City centre[edit] See also: Great Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Fire of 1917

View of the port and part of the city centre.

After the Great Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Fire of 1917, a team of architects and urban planners including Thomas Mawson
Thomas Mawson
and Ernest Hebrard, a French architect, chose the Byzantine era as the basis of their (re)building designs for Thessaloniki's city centre. The new city plan included axes, diagonal streets and monumental squares, with a street grid that would channel traffic smoothly. The plan of 1917 included provisions for future population expansions and a street and road network that would be, and still is sufficient today.[96] It contained sites for public buildings and provided for the restoration of Byzantine churches and Ottoman mosques.

The Metropolitan Church of Saint Gregory Palamas, designed by Ernst Ziller.

Today, the city center of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
includes the features designed as part of the plan and forms the point in the city where most of the public buildings, historical sites, entertainment venues and stores are located. The center is characterized by its many historical buildings, arcades, laneways and distinct architectural styles such as Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
and Art Deco, which can be seen on many of its buildings. Also called the historic centre, it is divided into several districts, of which include Ladadika
Ladadika
(where many entertainment venues and tavernas are located), Kapani (were the city's central city market is located), Diagonios, Navarinou, Rotonda, Agia Sofia
Sofia
and Ippodromio, which are all located around Thessaloniki's most central point, Aristotelous Square. Various commercial stoas around Aristotelous are named from the city's past and historic personalities of the city, like stoa Francais, stoa Baron Hirsch, Carasso/Ermou, Pelosov, Colombo, Saul (Modiano), Morpurgo, Mordoch, Simcha, Malakopi, Olympios etc. The west point of the city centre is home to Thessaloniki's law courts, its central international railway station and the port, while on its eastern side stands the city's two universities, the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
International Exhibition Centre, the city's main stadium, its archaeological and Byzantine museums, the new city hall and its central parklands and gardens, namely those of the ΧΑΝΘ/Palios Zoologikos Kipos and Pedio tou Areos. The central road arteries that pass through the city centre, designed in the Ernest Hebrard
Ernest Hebrard
plan, include those of Tsimiski, Egnatia, Nikis, Mitropoleos, Venizelou and St Demetrius avenues. Ano Poli[edit] Main article: Upper Town (Thessaloniki)

Typical architecture of the "Ano Poli" (Upper Town) district

Ano Poli (also called Old Town and literally the Upper Town) is the heritage listed district north of Thessaloniki's city center that was not engulfed by the great fire of 1917 and was declared a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site by ministerial actions of Melina Merkouri, during the 1980s. It consists of Thessaloniki's most traditional part of the city, still featuring small stone paved streets, old squares and homes featuring old Greek and Ottoman architecture. Ano Poli also, is the highest point in Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
and as such, is the location of the city's acropolis, its Byzantine fort, the Heptapyrgion, a large portion of the city's remaining walls, and with many of its additional Ottoman and Byzantine structures still standing. The area provides access to the Seich Sou Forest National Park[161] and features panoramic views of the whole city and the Thermaic Gulf. On clear days Mount Olympus, at about 100 km (62 mi) away across the gulf, can also be seen towering the horizon. Southeastern Thessaloniki[edit]

View of Kalamaria
Kalamaria
and southeastern Thessaloniki.

Marina of Aretsou

Villa Bianca, one of the many historic old-era mansions along Vasilissis Olgas avenue (Dépôt area).

Southeastern Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
up until the 1920s was home to the city's most affluent residents and formed the outermost suburbs of the city at the time, with the area close to the Thermaic Gulf
Thermaic Gulf
coast called Exoches, from the 19th century holiday villas which defined the area. Today southeastern Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
has in some way become a natural extension of the city center, with the avenues of Megalou Alexandrou, Georgiou Papandreou (Antheon), Vasilissis Olgas, Delfon, Konstantinou Karamanli (Nea Egnatia) and Papanastasiou passing through it, enclosing an area traditionally called Dépôt (Ντεπώ), from the name of the old tram station, owned by a French company. The area extends to Kalamaria
Kalamaria
and Pylaia, about 9 km (5.59 mi) from the White Tower in the city center. Some of the most notable mansions and villas of the old-era of the city remain along Vasilissis Olgas Avenue. Built for the most wealthy residents and designed by well known architects they are used today as museums, art galleries or remain as private properties. Some of them include Villa Allatini, Villa Bianca, Villa Mehmet Kapanci, Villa Modiano, Villa Mordoch, Villa Ahmet Kapanci, Hatzilazarou Mansion, Villa Morpurgo/Zardinidi, Château Mon Bonheur (often called red tower) and others. Most of southeastern Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is characterized by its modern architecture and apartment buildings, home to the middle-class and more than half of the municipality of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
population. Today this area of the city is also home to 3 of the city's main football stadiums, the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Concert Hall, the Posidonio aquatic and athletic complex, the Naval Command post of Northern Greece
Greece
and the old royal palace (called Palataki), located on the most westerly point of Karabournaki
Karabournaki
cape. The municipality of Kalamaria
Kalamaria
is also located in southeastern Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
and was firstly inhabited by Minor Asia Greek refugees in 1922. Northwestern Thessaloniki[edit] Northwestern Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
had always been associated with industry and the working class because as the city grew during the 1920s, many workers had moved there, because of its proximity near factories and industrial activities. Today many factories and industries have been moved further out west and the area is experiencing rapid growth as does the southeast. Many factories in this area have been converted to cultural centres, while past military grounds that are being surrounded by densely built neighborhoods are awaiting transformation into parklands. Northwest Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
forms the main entry point into the city of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
with the avenues of Monastiriou, Lagkada and 26is Octovriou passing through it, as well as the extension of the A1 motorway, feeding into Thessaloniki's city center. The area is home to the Macedonia InterCity Bus
Bus
Terminal (KTEL), the Zeitenlik
Zeitenlik
Allied memorial military cemetery and to large entertainment venues of the city, such as Milos, Fix, Vilka (which are housed in converted old factories). Northwestern Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is also home to Moni Lazariston, located in Stavroupoli, which today forms one of the most important cultural centers for the city.[162]

Panorama of the city from Ano Poli.

Paleochristian and Byzantine monuments (UNESCO)[edit] Main article: Paleochristian and Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki See also: Byzantine architecture

The church of Saint Demetrius, patron saint of the city, built in the 4th century, is said to be the largest basilica in Greece
Greece
and is one of the city's most prominent Paleochristian monuments.

Panagia Chalkeon
Panagia Chalkeon
church in Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
(1028 AD); one of 15 UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites in the city.

Agias Sofias Square

Because of Thessaloniki's importance during the early Christian and Byzantine periods, the city is host to several paleochristian monuments that have significantly contributed to the development of Byzantine art
Byzantine art
and architecture throughout the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
as well as Serbia.[133] The evolution of Imperial Byzantine architecture
Byzantine architecture
and the prosperity of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
go hand in hand, especially during the first years of the Empire,[133] when the city continued to flourish. It was at that time that the Complex of Roman emperor
Roman emperor
Galerius
Galerius
was built, as well as the first church of Hagios Demetrios.[133] By the 8th century, the city had become an important administrative center of the Byzantine Empire, and handled much of the Empire's Balkan affairs.[163] During that time, the city saw the creation of more notable Christian churches that are now UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites, such as Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
of Thessaloniki, the Church of the Acheiropoietos, the Church of Panagia Chalkeon.[133] When the Ottoman Empire took control of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
in 1430, most of the city's churches were converted into mosques,[133] but have survived to this day. Travelers such as Paul Lucas and Abdulmejid I[133] document the city's wealth in Christian monuments during the years of the Ottoman control of the city. The church of Hagios Demetrios
Hagios Demetrios
was burnt down during the Great Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Fire of 1917, as did many other of the city's monuments, but it was rebuilt. During World War II, the city was extensively bombed and as such many of Thessaloniki's paleochristian and Byzantine monuments were heavily damaged.[163] Some of the sites were not restored until the 1980s. Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
has more UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites listed than any other city in Greece, a total of 15 monuments.[133] They have been listed since 1988.[133] Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
2012 Program[edit] With the 100th anniversary of the 1912 incorporation of Thessaloniki into Greece, the government announced a large-scale redevelopment program for the city of Thessaloniki, which aims in addressing the current environmental and spatial problems[164] that the city faces. More specifically, the program will drastically change the physiognomy of the city[164] by relocating the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
International Exhibition Center and grounds of the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
International Trade Fair outside the city centre and turning the current location into a large metropolitan park,[165] redeveloping the coastal front of the city,[165] relocating the city's numerous military camps and using the grounds and facilities to create large parklands and cultural centers;[165] and the complete redevelopment of the harbor and the Lachanokipoi and Dendropotamos districts (behind and near the Port of Thessaloniki) into a commercial business district,[165] with possible highrise developments.[166]

Part of the newest section of the promenade, opened to the public in January 2014.

The plan also envisions the creation of new wide avenues in the outskirts of the city[165] and the creation of pedestrian-only zones in the city centre.[165] Furthermore, the program includes plans to expand the jurisdiction of Seich Sou Forest National Park[164] and the improvement of accessibility to and from the Old Town.[164] The ministry has said that the project will take an estimated 15 years to be completed, in 2025.[165] Part of the plan has been implemented with extensive pedestrianization's within the city center by the municipality of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
and the revitalization the eastern urban waterfront/promenade, Nea Paralia (Greek: Νέα Παραλία, literally new beach), with a modern and vibrant design. Its first section opened in 2008, having been awarded as the best public project in Greece
Greece
of the last five years by the Hellenic Institute of Architecture.[167] The municipality of Thessaloniki's budget for the reconstruction of important areas of the city and the completion of the waterfront, opened in January 2014, was estimated at around €28.2 million (US$39.9 million) for the year 2011 alone.[168] Economy[edit] See also: Category:Companies based in Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
and Economy of Greece

Economy of Thessaloniki

GDP of the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
regional unit 2000–2011

Statistics

GDP €19.851 billion (PPP, 2011)[3]

GDP rank 2nd in Greece

GDP growth

-7.8% (2011)[3]

GDP per capita

€17,200 (PPP, 2011)[3]

Labour force

534,800 (2010)[169]

Unemployment 30.2% (2014)[170]

Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
rose to economic prominence as a major economic hub in the Balkans
Balkans
during the years of the Roman Empire. The Pax Romana
Pax Romana
and the city's strategic position allowed for the facilitation of trade between Rome
Rome
and Byzantium
Byzantium
(later Constantinople
Constantinople
and now Istanbul) through Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
by means of the Via Egnatia.[171] The Via Egnatia also functioned as an important line of communication between the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and the nations of Asia,[171] particularly in relation to the Silk Road. With the partition of the Roman Emp. into East (Byzantine) and West, Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
became the second-largest city of the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
after New Rome
Rome
(Constantinople) in terms of economic might.[41][171] Under the Empire, Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was the largest port in the Balkans.[172] As the city passed from Byzantium
Byzantium
to the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
in 1423, it was subsequently conquered by the Ottoman Empire. Under Ottoman rule the city retained its position as the most important trading hub in the Balkans.[83] Manufacturing, shipping and trade were the most important components of the city's economy during the Ottoman period,[83] and the majority of the city's trade at the time was controlled by ethnic Greeks.[83] Plus, the Jewish community was also an important factor in the trade sector. Historically important industries for the economy of Thessaloniki included tobacco (in 1946 35% of all tobacco companies in Greece
Greece
were headquartered in the city, and 44% in 1979)[173] and banking (in Ottoman years Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was a major center for investment from western Europe, with the Bank
Bank
of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
(French: Banque de Salonique) having a capital of 20 million French francs in 1909).[83] Services[edit] See also: Port of Thessaloniki

View of the port

The service sector accounts for nearly two thirds of the total labour force of Thessaloniki.[174] Of those working in services, 20% were employed in trade, 13% in education and healthcare, 7.1% in real estate, 6.3% in transport, communications & storing, 6.1% in the finance industry & service-providing organizations, 5.7% in public administration & insurance services and 5.4% in hotels & restaurants.[174] The city's port, the Port of Thessaloniki, is one of the largest ports in the Aegean and as a free port, it functions as a major gateway to the Balkan hinterland.[8][175] In 2010, more than 15.8 million tons of products went through the city's port,[176] making it the second-largest port in Greece
Greece
after Aghioi Theodoroi, surpassing Piraeus. At 273,282 TEUs, it is also Greece's second-largest container port after Piraeus.[177] As a result, the city is a major transportation hub for the whole of south-eastern Europe,[178] carrying, among other things, trade to and from the neighbouring countries. In recent years Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
has begun to turn into a major port for cruising in the eastern Mediterranean.[175] The Greek ministry of tourism considers Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
to be Greece's second most important commercial port,[179] and companies such as Royal Caribbean International have expressed interest in adding the Port of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
to their destinations.[179] A total of 30 cruise ships are expected to arrive at Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
in 2011.[179]

The GDP of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
in comparison to that of Attica
Attica
( Athens
Athens
and Piraeus) and the rest of the country.

Companies[edit] After the WWII, heavy industrialization of the city's suburbs began in the late 1950s. In recent years a spate of factory shut downs has occurred as companies take advantage of cheaper labour markets and more lax regulations in other areas. Among the largest companies to shut down factories are Goodyear,[180] AVEZ (the first industrial factory in northern Greece, built in 1926),[181] Philkeram Johnson
Philkeram Johnson
and VIAMIL (ΒΙΑΜΥΛ). Nevertheless, Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
still remains a major business hub in the Balkans, with a number of important Greek companies headquartered in the city, such as the Hellenic Vehicle Industry (ELVO), Namco (automobiles), Astra Airlines, Pyramis
Pyramis
and MLS Multimedia, which introduced the first Greek-built smartphone in 2012.[182]

Industry

In the middle 60s, with the collaboration of Standard Oil
Standard Oil
and ESSO-Pappas, a large industrial zone was created, containing refineries, oil refinery and steel production. The zone attracted also a series of different factories during the next decades. Today the oil refinery is owned by the Hellenic Petroleum. Titan Cement
Titan Cement
has also facilities outside the city, road to Serres.

Foodstuff

Foodstuff companies headquartered in the city include the Macedonian Milk Industry, Allatini, while the Goody's chain started from the city. The American Farm School also has an important contribution in food production. Macroeconomic indicators[edit] In 2011, the regional unit of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
had a Gross Domestic Product of €18.293 billion (ranked 2nd amongst the country's regional units),[3] comparable to Bahrain
Bahrain
or Cyprus, and a per capita of €15,900 (ranked 16th).[3] In Purchasing Power Parity, the same indicators are €19,851 billion (2nd)[3] and €17,200 (15th) respectively.[3] In terms of comparison with the European Union average, Thessaloniki's GDP per capita indicator stands at 63% the EU average[3] and 69% in PPP[3] – this is comparable to the German state of Brandenburg.[3] Overall, Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
accounts for 8.9% of the total economy of Greece.[3] Between 1995 and 2008 Thessaloniki's GDP saw an average growth rate of 4.1% per annum (ranging from +14.5% in 1996 to −11.1% in 2005) while in 2011 the economy contracted by −7.8%.[3] Demographics[edit] Historical ethnic statistics[edit]

Ethnic composition of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
between 1500 and 1950.

The tables below show the ethnic statistics of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
during the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.

Year Total Population Jewish Turkish (Muslim) Greek Bulgarians Roma Other

1890[183] 118,000 55,000 26,000 16,000 10,000 2,500 8,500

around 1913[184] 157,889 61,439 45,889 39,956 6,263 2,721 1,621

Population growth[edit]

Population

Year Pop.

1348 150,000

1453 40,000

1679 36,000

1842 70,000

1870 90,000

1882 85,000

1890 118,000

1902 126,000

1913 157,000

1917 230,000

1951 297,164

1961 377,026

1981 406,413

1991 383,967

2001 786,212

2011 788,952

From 2001 on, data on the city's urban area. References:[47][96][152][185][186][187]

The municipality of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is the most populated municipality of all the municipalities that are part of the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Urban Area and make up the "City of Thessaloniki". Although the population of the municipality of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
has declined in the latest census, the metropolitan area's population is still growing. The city forms the base of the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Metropolitan Area, with latest census in 2011 giving it a population of 1,104,460.[152]

Population of the Urban and Metropolitan areas of Thessaloniki

Year Municipality Urban area Metropolitan area rank

2001 363,987[187] 786,212[187] 954,027[187] 2nd

2004 386,627[188] – 995,766[188] 2nd

2011 325,182 788,952[152] 1,104,460[152] 2nd

Jews
Jews
of Thessaloniki[edit] Main article: History of the Jews
Jews
of Thessaloniki

Paths of Jewish immigration to the city

The Jewish population in Greece
Greece
is the oldest in mainland Europe
Europe
(see Romaniotes). When Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle
came in Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
he taught in the area of what today is called Upper City. Later, during the Ottoman period, with the coming of Sephardic Jews
Sephardic Jews
from Spain, the community of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
became mostly Sephardic. Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
became the largest center in Europe
Europe
of the Sephardic
Sephardic
Jews, who nicknamed the city la madre de Israel
Israel
(Israel's mother)[124] and "Jerusalem of the Balkans".[189] It also included the historically significant and ancient Greek-speaking Romaniote community. During the Ottoman era, Thessaloniki's Sephardic
Sephardic
community comprised more than half the city's population; Jewish merchants were prominent in commerce until the ethnic Greek population increased after independence in 1912. By the 1680s, about 300 families of Sephardic
Sephardic
Jews, followers of Sabbatai Zevi, had converted to Islam, becoming a sect known as the Dönmeh (convert), and migrated to Salonika, whose population was majority Jewish. They established an active community that thrived for about 250 years. Many of their descendants later became prominent in trade.[190] Many Jewish inhabitants of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
spoke Ladino, the Romance language of the Sephardic
Sephardic
Jews.[191]

Jewish family of Salonika in 1917.

From the second half of the 19th century with the Ottoman reforms, the Jewish community had a new revival. Many French and especially Italian Jews
Jews
(from Livorno
Livorno
and other cities), influential in introducing new methods of education and developing new schools and intellectual environment for the Jewish population, were established in Thessaloniki. Such modernists introduced also new techniques and ideas from the industrialized Western Europe
Europe
and from the 1880s the city began to industrialize. The Italian Jews
Italian Jews
Allatini brothers led Jewish entrepreneurship, establishing milling and other food industries, brickmaking and processing plants for tobacco. Several traders supported the introduction of a large textile-production industry, superseding the weaving of cloth in a system of artisanal production. Other notable names of the era include the Italian Jewish Modiano family and the Italians Poselli. With industrialization, many people of all faiths became factory workers, part of a new proletariat, which later led to the establishment of the Socialist Workers' Federation.

" Jews
Jews
not welcomed" sign during the Axis occupation.

After the Balkan Wars, Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was incorporated into the Greek Kingdom in 1913. At first the community feared that the annexation would lead to difficulties and during the first years its political stance was, in general, anti-Venizelist and pro-royalist/conservative. The Great Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Fire of 1917 during World War I
World War I
burned much of the center of the city and left 50,000 Jews
Jews
homeless of the total of 72,000 residents who were burned out.[119] Having lost homes and their businesses, many Jews
Jews
emigrated: to the United States, Palestine, and Paris. They could not wait for the government to create a new urban plan for rebuilding, which was eventually done.[192] After the Greco-Turkish War in 1922 and the expulsion of Greeks
Greeks
from Turkey, many refugees came to Greece. Nearly 100,000 ethnic Greeks resettled in Thessaloniki, reducing the proportion of Jews
Jews
in the total community. After this, Jews
Jews
made up about 20% of the city's population. During the interwar period, Greece
Greece
granted Jewish citizens the same civil rights as other Greek citizens.[119] In March 1926, Greece
Greece
re-emphasized that all citizens of Greece
Greece
enjoyed equal rights, and a considerable proportion of the city's Jews
Jews
decided to stay. During the Metaxas regime
Metaxas regime
the stance towards Jews
Jews
became even better.

Monastir Synagogue

World War II
World War II
brought a disaster for the Jewish Greeks, since in 1941 the Germans occupied Greece
Greece
and began actions against the Jewish population. Greeks
Greeks
of the Resistance helped save some of the Jewish residents.[124] By the 1940s, the great majority of the Jewish Greek community firmly identified as both Greek and Jewish. According to Misha Glenny, such Greek Jews
Jews
had largely not encountered "anti-Semitism as in its North European form."[193] In 1943 the Nazis
Nazis
began brutal, inhumane actions against the historic Jewish population in Thessaloniki, forcing them into a ghetto near the railroad lines and beginning deportation to concentration and labor camps where they dehumanized their captives. They deported and exterminated approximately 96% of Thessaloniki's Jews
Jews
of all ages during the Holocaust.[194] The Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Holocaust
Holocaust
memorial in Eleftherias ("Freedom") Square was built in 1997 in memory of all the Jewish people from Thessaloniki, who died in the Holocaust. The site was chosen because it was the place where Jewish residents were rounded up before embarking to trains for concentration camps.[195][196] Today, a community of around 1200 remains in the city.[124] Communities of descendants of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Jews – both Sephardic
Sephardic
and Romaniote – live in other areas, mainly the United States
United States
and Israel.[194] Israeli singer Yehuda Poliker
Yehuda Poliker
recorded a song about the Jewish people of Thessaloniki, called "Wait for me, Thessaloniki". Not only did the Jewish-Greek population of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
perish during the Holocaust, but a unique civilization filled with rich culture and beauty was lost.

Thessaloniki's Catholic Church, designed by Vitaliano Poselli

Year Total population Jewish population Jewish percentage Source[119]

1842 70,000 36,000 51% Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer

1870 90,000 50,000 56% Greek schoolbook (G.K. Moraitopoulos, 1882)

1882/84 85,000 48,000 56% Ottoman government census

1902 126,000 62,000 49% Ottoman government census

1913 157,889 61,439 39% Greek government census

1917 271,157 52,000 19% [197]

1943

50,000

2000 363,987[187] 1,000 0.27%

Others[edit] Since the late 19th century, many merchants from Western Europe (mainly from France
France
and Italy) were established in the city. They had an important role in the social and economical life of the city and in many cases introduced new industrial techniques. Their main district was what is known today as the "Frankish district" (near Ladadika), where locates also the Catholic church designed by Vitaliano Poselli. Some of them left after the incorporation of the city into the Greek Kingdom, others, who were of Jewish faith, were exterminated by the Nazis, while others stayed and their descendants still live in the city. Another group is the Armenian community which dates back to the Ottoman period. During the 20th century, after the Armenian Genocide and the defeat of the Greek army in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22), many fled to Greece
Greece
and a large part of them was established in Thessaloniki. There is also an Armenian church at the center of the city. Culture[edit] Leisure and entertainment[edit]

Theatro Dasous ("Forest Theater")

Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is not only regarded as the cultural and entertainment capital of northern Greece[163][198] but also the cultural capital of the country.[9] The city's main theaters, run by the National Theatre of Northern Greece
Greece
(Greek: Κρατικό Θέατρο Βορείου Ελλάδος) which was established in 1961,[199] include the Theater of the Society of Macedonian Studies, where the National Theater is based, the Royal Theater (Vasiliko Theatro) -the first base of the National Theater-, Moni Lazariston, and the Earth Theater and Forest Theater, both amphitheatrical open-air theatres overlooking the city.[199]

Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Concert Hall

The title of the European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
in 1997 saw the birth of the city's first opera[200] and today forms an independent section of the National Theatre of Northern Greece.[201] The opera is based at the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Concert Hall, one of the largest concert halls in Greece. Recently a second building was also constructed and designed by Japanese architect Arata Isozaki. Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is also the seat of two symphony orchestras, the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
State Symphony Orchestra and the Symphony Orchestra of the Municipality of Thessaloniki. Olympion Theater, the site of the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
International Film Festival and the Plateia Assos Odeon multiplex are the two major cinemas in downtown Thessaloniki. The city also has a number of multiplex cinemas in major shopping malls in the suburbs, most notably in Mediterranean Cosmos, the largest retail and entertainment development in the Balkans. Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is renowned for its major shopping streets and lively laneways. Tsimiski Street
Tsimiski Street
and Proxenou Koromila avenue are the city's most famous shopping streets and are among Greece's most expensive and exclusive high streets. The city is also home to one of Greece's most famous and prestigious hotels, Makedonia Palace
Makedonia Palace
hotel, the Hyatt Regency Casino
Casino
and hotel (the biggest casino in Greece
Greece
and one of the biggest in Europe) and Waterland, the largest water park in southeastern Europe. The city has long been known in Greece
Greece
for its vibrant city culture, including having the most cafes and bars per capita of any city in Europe; and as having some of the best nightlife and entertainment in the country, thanks to its large young population and multicultural feel. Lonely Planet
Lonely Planet
listed Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
among the world's "ultimate party cities".[202] Parks and recreation[edit]

A fountain at the city's centre

View of the garden park at Nea Paralia

A statue of Pavlos Melas
Pavlos Melas
near the White tower; work by Natalia Mela

Part of the coastline of the southeastern suburb of Peraia in Thermaikos, with views towards Thessaloniki.

Although Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is not renowned for its parks and greenery throughout its urban area, where green spaces are few, it has several large open spaces around its waterfront, namely the central city gardens of Palios Zoologikos Kipos (which is recently being redeveloped to also include rock climbing facilities, a new skatepark and paintball range),[203] the park of Pedio tou Areos, which also holds the city's annual floral expo; and the parks of the Nea Paralia (waterfront) that span for 3 km (2 mi) along the coast, from the White Tower to the concert hall. The Nea Paralia parks are used throughout the year for a variety of events, while they open up to the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
waterfront, which is lined up with several cafés and bars; and during summer is full of Thessalonians enjoying their long evening walks (referred to as "the volta" and is embedded into the culture of the city). Having undergone an extensive revitalization, the city's waterfront today features a total of 12 thematic gardens/parks.[204] Thessaloniki's proximity to places such as the national parks of Pieria and beaches of Chalkidiki
Chalkidiki
often allow its residents to easily have access to some of the best outdoor recreation in Europe; however, the city is also right next to the Seich Sou forest national park, just 3.5 km (2 mi) away from Thessaloniki's city center; and offers residents and visitors alike, quiet viewpoints towards the city, mountain bike trails and landscaped hiking paths.[205] The city's zoo, which is operated by the municipality of Thessaloniki, is also located nearby the national park.[206] Other recreation spaces throughout the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Metropolitan Area include the Fragma Thermis, a landscaped parkland near Thermi
Thermi
and the Delta wetlands west of the city center; while urban beaches that have continuously been awarded the blue flags,[207] are located along the 10 km (6 mi) coastline of Thessaloniki's southeastern suburbs of Thermaikos, about 20 km (12 mi) away from the city center. Museums and galleries[edit] Main article: List of museums in Greece

View of the Museum of Byzantine Culture.

View of the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Science Center and Technology Museum (also known as NOESIS)

Because of the city's rich and diverse history, Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
houses many museums dealing with many different eras in history. Two of the city's most famous museums include the Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
and the Museum of Byzantine Culture. The Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
was established in 1962 and houses some of the most important ancient Macedonian artifacts,[208] including an extensive collection of golden artwork from the royal palaces of Aigai and Pella.[209] It also houses exhibits from Macedon's prehistoric past, dating from the Neolithic to the Bronze age.[210] The Prehistoric Antiquities Museum of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
has exhibits from those periods as well. The Museum of Byzantine Culture
Museum of Byzantine Culture
is one of the city's most famous museums, showcasing the city's glorious Byzantine past.[211] The museum was also awarded Council of Europe's museum prize in 2005.[212] The museum of the White Tower of Thessaloniki
White Tower of Thessaloniki
houses a series of galleries relating to the city's past, from the creation of the White Tower until recent years.[213] One of the most modern museums in the city is the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Science Center and Technology Museum and is one of the most high-tech museums in Greece
Greece
and southeastern Europe.[214] It features the largest planetarium in Greece, a cosmotheater with the largest flat screen in Greece, an amphitheater, a motion simulator with 3D projection and 6-axis movement and exhibition spaces.[214] Other industrial and technological museums in the city include the Railway Museum of Thessaloniki, which houses an original Orient Express
Orient Express
train, the War Museum of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
and others. The city also has a number of educational and sports museums, including the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Olympic Museum. The Atatürk Museum in Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is the historic house where Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of modern-day Turkey, was born. The house is now part of the Turkish consulate complex, but admission to the museum is free.[215] The museum contains historic information about Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
and his life, especially while he was in Thessaloniki.[215] Other ethnological museums of the sort include the Historical Museum of the Balkan Wars, the Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
and the Museum of the Macedonian Struggle, containing information about the freedom fighters in Macedonia and their struggle to liberate the region from the Ottoman yoke.[216] The city also has a number of important art galleries. Such include the Macedonian Museum of Contemporary Art, housing exhibitions from a number of well-known Greek and foreign artists.[217] The Teloglion Foundation of Art is part of Aristotle University
Aristotle University
of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
and includes an extensive collection of works by important artists of the 19th and 20th centuries, including works by prominent Greeks
Greeks
and native Thessalonians.[218] The Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Museum of Photography also houses a number of important exhibitions, and is located within the old port of Thessaloniki.[219] Archaeological sites[edit]

Ruins of the Roman Forum (Ancient Agora)

Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is home to a number of prominent archaeological sites. Apart from its recognized UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites, Thessaloniki features a large two-terraced Roman forum[220] featuring two-storey stoas,[221] dug up by accident in the 1960s.[220] The forum complex also boasts two Roman baths,[222] one of which has been excavated while the other is buried underneath the city.[222] The forum also features a small theater,[220][222] which was also used for gladiatorial games.[221] Although the initial complex was not built in Roman times, it was largely refurbished in the 2nd century.[222] It is believed that the forum and the theater continued to be used until at least the 6th century.[223] Another important archaeological site is the imperial palace complex which Roman emperor
Roman emperor
Galerius, located at Navarinou Square, commissioned when he made Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
the capital of his portion of the Roman Empire.[37][38] The large octagonal portion of the complex, most of which survives to this day, is believed to have been an imperial throne room.[221] Various mosaics from the palatial complex have also survived.[224] Some historians believe that the complex must have been in use as an imperial residence until the 11th century.[223] Not far from the palace itself is the Arch of Galerius,[224] known colloquially as the Kamara. The arch was built to commemorate the emperor's campaigns against the Persians.[221][224] The original structure featured three arches;[221] however, only two full arches and part of the third survive to this day. Many of the arches' marble parts survive as well,[221] although it is mostly the brick interior that can be seen today. Other monuments of the city's past, such as the Incantadas, a Caryatid portico from the ancient forum, have been removed or destroyed over the years. The Incantadas in particular are on display at the Louvre.[220][225] Thanks to a private donation of €180,000, it was announced on 6 December 2011 that a replica of the Incantadas would be commissioned and later put on display in Thessaloniki.[225] Festivals[edit] Main article: Festivals of Thessaloniki

Conference with John Malkovich
John Malkovich
and Georges Corraface, current president of the International Film Festival.

View of the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
International Exhibition Center

Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is home of a number of festivals and events.[226] The Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
International Trade Fair is the most important event to be hosted in the city annually, by means of economic development. It was first established in 1926[227] and takes place every year at the 180,000 m2 (1,937,503.88 sq ft) Thessaloniki International Exhibition Center. The event attracts major political attention and it is customary for the Prime Minister of Greece
Greece
to outline his administration's policies for the next year, during event. Over 250,000 visitors attended the exposition in 2010.[228] The new Art Thessaloniki, is starting first time 29.10. – 1 November 2015 as an international contemporary art fair. The Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
International Film Festival is established as one of the most important film festivals in Southern Europe,[229] with a number of notable film makers such as Francis Ford Coppola, Faye Dunaway, Catherine Deneuve, Irene Papas
Irene Papas
and Fatih Akın
Fatih Akın
taking part, and was established in 1960.[230] The Documentary Festival, founded in 1999, has focused on documentaries that explore global social and cultural developments, with many of the films presented being candidates for FIPRESCI and Audience Awards.[231] The Dimitria festival, founded in 1966 and named after the city's patron saint of St. Demetrius, has focused on a wide range of events including music, theatre, dance, local happenings, and exhibitions.[232] The "DMC DJ Championship" has been hosted at the International Trade Fair of Thessaloniki, has become a worldwide event for aspiring DJs and turntablists. The "International Festival of Photography" has taken place every February to mid-April.[233] Exhibitions for the event are sited in museums, heritage landmarks, galleries, bookshops and cafés. Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
also holds an annual International Book Fair.[234] Between 1962–1997 and 2005–2008 the city also hosted the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Song Festival,[235] Greece's most important music festival, at Alexandreio Melathron.[236] In 2012, the city hosted its first gay parade, namely the Thessaloniki Pride which took place between 22 and 23 June.[237] In 2013, the second Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Pride was hosted between 14 and 15 June.[238] However, in 2013, Transgender people in Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
became victims of police violence. The issue was soon settled by the government.[239] The third Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Pride took place in 2014, between 20 and 21 June, concentrating more people than any past year.[240] Sports[edit]

Kaftanzoglio National Stadium

Toumba Stadium

The main stadium of the city is the Kaftanzoglio Stadium
Kaftanzoglio Stadium
(also home ground of Iraklis FC), while other main stadiums of the city include the football Kleanthis Vikelidis Stadium
Kleanthis Vikelidis Stadium
and Toumba Stadium
Toumba Stadium
home grounds of Aris F.C. and PAOK
PAOK
F.C., respectively, all of whom are founding members of the Greek league. Being the largest "multi-sport" stadium in the city, Kaftanzoglio Stadium regularly plays host to athletics events; such as the European Athletics Association event "Olympic Meeting Thessaloniki" every year; it has hosted the Greek national championships in 2009 and has been used for athletics at the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Games and for the European Cup in athletics. In 2004 the stadium served as an official Athens
Athens
2004 venue,[241] while in 2009 the city and the stadium hosted the 2009 IAAF World Athletics Final. Thessaloniki's major indoor arenas include the state-owned Alexandreio Melathron, PAOK Sports Arena
PAOK Sports Arena
and the YMCA
YMCA
indoor hall. Other sporting clubs in the city include Apollon FC based in Kalamaria, Agrotikos Asteras F.C. based in Evosmos
Evosmos
and YMCA. Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
has a rich sporting history with its teams winning the first ever panhellenic football,[242] basketball,[243] and water polo[244] tournaments. The city played a major role in the development of basketball in Greece. The local YMCA
YMCA
was the first to introduce the sport to the country, while Iraklis BC
Iraklis BC
won the first ever Greek championship.[243] From 1982 to 1993 Aris BC
Aris BC
dominated the league, regularly finishing in first place. In that period Aris won a total of 9 championships, 7 cups and one European Cup Winners' Cup. The city also hosted the 2003 FIBA Under-19 World Championship in which Greece
Greece
came third. In volleyball, Iraklis has emerged since 2000 as one of the most successful teams in Greece[245] and Europe
Europe
– see 2005–06 CEV Champions League.[246] In October 2007, Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
also played host to the first Southeastern European Games.[247] The city is also the finish point of the annual Alexander The Great Marathon, which starts at Pella, in recognition of its Ancient Macedonian heritage.[248]

Main sports clubs in Thessaloniki

Club Founded Venue Capacity Notes

Iraklis 1908 (originally as Macedonikos Gymnasticos Syllogos) Kaftanzoglio National Stadium 27,770

Ivanofeio Indoor Hall

Panhellenic titles in football, basketball, rugby, volleyball. Volleyball Champions League finalists (3 times)

Maccabi Thessaloniki 1908

Historically representative of the Jewish community. Today members of any religious faith

Aris 1914 Kleanthis Vikelidis Stadium 22,800

Alexandreio Melathron
Alexandreio Melathron
(Palais des Sports) 5,500 Panhellenic titles in football, basketball, volleyball, waterpolo. Three European Cups in basketball

YMCA
YMCA
Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
(ΧΑΝΘ) 1921

Presence in A1 basketball. Major role in introduction of basketball in Greece

Megas Alexandros 1923

Presence in First Division of Football Panhellenic Championship

PAOK 1926 Toumba Stadium 28,703

PAOK
PAOK
Sports Arena 10,000 Panhellenic titles in football, basketball, volleyball, handball. Two European Cups in basketball. Most time winners in women's football

Apollon 1926 Kalamaria
Kalamaria
Stadium 6,500

MENT 1926

Presence in A1 basketball

VAO 1926

Presence in A1 basketball. Panhellenic titles in handball

Makedonikos 1928 Makedonikos Stadium 8,100

Agrotikos Asteras 1932 Evosmos
Evosmos
Stadium

Media[edit]

OTE Tower

Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is home to the ERT3
ERT3
TV-channel and Radio Macedonia, both services of Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation
Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation
(ERT) operating in the city and are broadcast all over Greece.[249] The municipality of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
also operates three radio stations, namely FM100, FM101 and FM100.6;[250] and TV100, a television network which was also the first non-state-owned TV station in Greece
Greece
and opened in 1988.[250] Several private TV-networks also broadcast out from Thessaloniki, with Makedonia TV
Makedonia TV
being the most popular. The city's main newspapers and some of the most circulated in Greece, include Makedonia, which was also the first newspaper published in Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
in 1911 and Aggelioforos. A large number of radio stations also broadcast from Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
as the city is known for its music contributions. TV broadcasting[edit]

ERT3
ERT3
(Panhellenic broadcasting) Makedonia TV
Makedonia TV
(Panhellenic) 4E TV (Panhellenic) TV 100 (Regional)

Press[edit]

Makedonia (national publication) Aggelioforos (national) Metrosport (sports, national) Aris Eisai (sports, weekly, national ) Forza (sports, weekly, national) Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
(weekly, national) Karfitsa (weekly) Ikonomiki (financial)

Notable Thessalonians[edit] Main article: List of Thessalonians Throughout its history, Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
has been home to a number of well-known figures. It is also the birthplace of various Saints and other religious figures, such as Cyril and Methodius
Cyril and Methodius
(creators of the first Slavic alphabet), Saint Mitre, Gregory Palamas, Eustathius of Thessalonica, Patriarch Philotheus I of Constantinople
Constantinople
and Archbishop Demetrios of America. Other Byzantine-era notables include Constantine Armenopoulos, Theodorus Gaza
Theodorus Gaza
and Matthaios Kamariotis. Many of Greece's modern celebrated musicians and movie personalities were born in Thessaloniki, such as Zoe Laskari, Costas Hajihristos, Giannis Dalianidis, Harry Klynn, Alberto Eskenazy, Antonis Remos, Paschalis Terzis, Nikos Papazoglou, Nikolas Asimos, Giorgos Hatzinasios, Natassa Theodoridou, Katia Zygouli, Kostas Voutsas, Takis Kanellopoulos, Titos Vandis, Manolis Chiotis, Dionysis Savvopoulos, Marinella
Marinella
and the classical composer Emilios Riadis. Additionally, there have been a number of political leaders born in the city Evangelos Venizelos, the former Minister of Finance of Greece, Haris Kastanidis, Christos Sartzetakis, fourth President of Greece, Kostas Zouraris, Stelios Papathemelis
Stelios Papathemelis
and Ioannis Passalidis. Sports personalities from the city include Giannis Ioannidis, Faidon Matthaiou, Alketas Panagoulias, Panagiotis Fasoulas, Eleni Daniilidou, Dimitris Salpingidis, Traianos Dellas, Giorgos Koudas, Kleanthis Vikelidis, Nikos Zisis
Nikos Zisis
and Lazaros Christodoulopoulos. Benefactor Ioannis Papafis, poet Manolis Anagnostakis, such as the anarchist Elias Petropoulos were also born in Thessaloniki. The city is also the birthplace of a number of important international personalities, which include Bulgarians
Bulgarians
(Atanas Dalchev), Jews
Jews
(Moshe Levy, Daniel Zion, Samuel ben Joseph Uziel, Shlomo Halevi Alkabetz, Salamo Arouch), Slav Macedonians
Slav Macedonians
(Dimo Todorovski) and Turks (Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Nâzım Hikmet, Afet İnan, Cahit Arf, Mehmet Cavit Bey, Salih Omurtak, Sabiha Sertel, Halil Rifat Pasha). Cuisine[edit] See also: Macedonian cuisine (Greek)

Frappé coffee

Bougatsa, typical Thessalonian treat.

Because Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
remained under Ottoman rule for about 100 years more than southern Greece, it has retained a lot of its Eastern character, including its culinary tastes.[251] Spices in particular play an important role in the cuisine of Thessaloniki,[251] something which is not true to the same degree about Greece's southern regions.[251] Thessaloniki's Ladadika
Ladadika
borough is a particularly busy area in regards to Thessalonian cuisine, with most tavernas serving traditional meze and other such culinary delights.[251] Bougatsa, a breakfast pastry, which can be either sweet or savory, is very popular throughout the city and has spread around other parts of Greece
Greece
and the Balkans
Balkans
as well. Another popular snack is koulouri. Notable sweets of the city are Trigona, Roxakia and Armenovil. A stereotypical Thessalonian coffee drink is Frappé coffee. Frappé was invented in the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
International Trade Fair in 1957 and has since spread throughout Greece
Greece
and Cyprus
Cyprus
to become a hallmark of the Greek coffee culture. Music[edit] The city is viewed as a romantic one in Greece, and as such Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is commonly featured in Greek songs.[252] There are a number of famous songs that go by the name 'Thessaloniki' (rebetiko, laïko etc.) or include the name in their title.[253] During the 1930s and 40s the city became a center of the Rebetiko music, partly because of the Metaxas censorship, which was stricter in Athens. Vassilis Tsitsanis wrote some of his best songs in Thessaloniki. The city is the birthplace of significant composers in the Greek music scene, such as Manolis Chiotis, Stavros Kouyioumtzis and Dionysis Savvopoulos. It is also notable for its rock music scene and its many rock groups; some became famous such as Xylina Spathia, Trypes
Trypes
or the pop rock Onirama. Between 1962–1997 and 2005–2008 the city also hosted the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Song Festival. In the Eurovision Song Contest 2013
Eurovision Song Contest 2013
Greece was represented by Koza Mostra
Koza Mostra
and Agathonas Iakovidis, both from Thessaloniki. In popular culture[edit]

On May 1936, a massive strike by tobacco workers led to general anarchy in the city and Ioannis Metaxas
Ioannis Metaxas
(future dictator, then PM) ordered its repression. The events and the deaths of the protesters inspired Yiannis Ritsos
Yiannis Ritsos
to write the Epitafios. On 22 May 1963, Grigoris Lambrakis, pacifist and MP, was assassinated by two far-right extremists driving a three-wheeled vehicle. The event led to political crisis. Costa Gavras
Costa Gavras
directed Z (1969 film) based on it, two years after the military junta had ceized power in Greece. Notable films set in Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
among others include Mademoiselle Docteur (1937) by Georg Wilhelm Pabst, The Barefooted Battalion (1954) by Greg Tallas (Gregory Thalassinos), O Atsidas (1961) by Giannis Dalianidis, Parenthesis (1968) by Takis Kanellopoulos and Triumph of the Spirit (1989) by Robert M. Young.

Education[edit] See also: Aristotle University
Aristotle University
and University of Macedonia Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is a major center of education for Greece. Three of the country's largest universities are located in central Thessaloniki: Aristotle University
Aristotle University
of Thessaloniki, the University of Macedonia
University of Macedonia
and the International Hellenic University. Aristotle University
Aristotle University
was founded in 1926 and is currently the largest university in Greece[12] by number of students, which number at more than 80,000 in 2010,[12] and is a member of the Utrecht Network. For the academic year 2009–2010, Aristotle University
Aristotle University
was ranked as one of the 150 best universities in the world for arts and humanities and among the 250 best universities in the world overall by the Times QS World University Rankings,[254] making it one of the top 2% of best universities worldwide.[255] Leiden ranks Aristotle University
Aristotle University
as one of the top 100 European universities and the best university in Greece, at number 97.[256] Since 2010, Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is also home to the Open University of Thessaloniki,[257] which is funded by Aristotle University, the University of Macedonia
University of Macedonia
and the municipality of Thessaloniki. Additionally, a TEI (Technological Educational Institute), namely the Alexander Technological Educational Institute
Technological Educational Institute
of Thessaloniki, is located in the western suburb of Sindos; home also to the industrial zone of the city. Numerous public and private vocational institutes (Greek: IEK) provide professional training to young students, while a large number of private colleges offer American and UK academic curriculum, via cooperation with foreign universities. In addition to Greek students, the city hence attracts many foreign students either via the Erasmus
Erasmus
programme for public universities, or for a complete degree in public universities or in the city's private colleges. As of 2006[update] the city's total student population was estimated around 200,000.[258]

A panorama from the campus of Aristotle University.

Transport[edit] Bus
Bus
transport[edit] Main article: Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Urban Transport Organization

An OASTH bus.

Public transport in Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is served by buses. The bus company operating in the city is the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Urban Transport Organization (OASTH) and is the only public means of transport in Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
at the moment. It operates a fleet of 604 vehicles on 75 routes throughout the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Metropolitan Area.[259] International and regional bus links are provided by KTEL at its Macedonia InterCity Bus Terminal, located to the west of the city centre.[260] Metro[edit] Main article: Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Metro

Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Metro map.

The construction of the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Metropolitan Railway began in 2006 and is scheduled for completion in 2020, where it is set to become the city's most vital public transport service.[261] The line of Phase 1 is set to extend over 9.6 kilometres (6.0 mi), include 13 stations[262] and it is expected to eventually serve 250,000 passengers daily.[263] Some stations of the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Metro will house a number of archaeological finds.[264] Discussions are already underway for future expansions, in order for the metro network to also serve major transport hubs of the city, notably the Macedonia InterCity Bus
Bus
Terminal (KTEL) and Macedonia International Airport. For the expansion towards the airport, the Attiko Metro company is considering the construction of an overground network or a monorail. The expansion to Kalamaria, a southeast borough of Thessaloniki, has already become part of the initial construction phase, while future expansions are considered and planned for Efkarpia to the north and Evosmos
Evosmos
to the west. The strategic plan for the construction of the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Metro envisions that the city will have a system of 3 lines by 2018 or 2020 at the latest.[265] Commuter/suburban rail (Proastiakos)[edit] Main article: Proastiakos

Suburban Railway services.

Commuter rail services have recently been established between Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
and the city of Larissa
Larissa
(the service is known in Greek as the "Proastiakos", meaning "Suburban Railway"). The service is operated using Siemens Desiro
Desiro
EMU trains on a modernised electrified double track and stops at 11 refurbished stations, covering the journey in 1 hour and 33 minutes.[266] Furthermore, an additional line has also been established, although with the use of regional trains, between Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
and the city of Edessa. Macedonia International Airport[edit] Main article: Macedonia International Airport

Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
International Airport "Macedonia".

Air traffic
Air traffic
to and from the city is served by Macedonia International Airport for international and domestic flights. The short length of the airport's two runways means that it does not currently support intercontinental flights, although a major extension – lengthening one of its runways into the Thermaic Gulf
Thermaic Gulf
– is under construction,[267] despite considerable opposition from local environmental groups. Following the completion of the runway works, the airport will be able to serve intercontinental flights and cater for larger aircraft in the future. A master-plan, with designs for a new terminal building and apron has also been released, and is seeking for funding.[268] Railways and ferry connections[edit] See also: New railway station (Thessaloniki)
New railway station (Thessaloniki)
and Port of Thessaloniki Because of the Greek economic crisis, all international train links from the city were suspended in February 2011.[269] Until then, the city was a major railway hub for the Balkans, with direct connections to Sofia, Skopje, Belgrade, Moscow, Vienna, Budapest, Bucharest
Bucharest
and Istanbul, alongside Athens
Athens
and other destinations in Greece. Daily through trains to Sofia
Sofia
and Belgrade
Belgrade
were restarted in May 2014. Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
remains one of Greece's most important railway hubs and has the biggest marshalling yard in the country. Regional train services within Greece
Greece
(operated by TrainOSE, the Hellenic Railways Organization's train operating company), link the city with other parts of the country, from its central railway passenger station, called the "New railway station" located at the western end of Thessaloniki's city center. The Port of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
connects the city with seasonal ferries to the Sporades
Sporades
and other north Aegean islands, with its passenger terminal, being one of the largest in the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
basin; having handled around 162,731 passengers in 2007.[270] Meanwhile, ongoing actions have been going on for more connections and the port is recently being upgraded, as Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is also slowly turning into a major tourist port for cruising in the eastern Mediterranean. Motorways[edit] Further information: Highways in Greece

Road map of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
and its suburbs from OpenStreetMap.

Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
lies on the crossroads of the A1/E75, A2/E90 and A25 motorways; which connect the city with other parts of the country, as well as the Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and Turkey. The city itself is bypassed by the C-shaped Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Inner Ring Road (Esoteriki Peripheriaki Odos, Greek: Εσωτερική Περιφεριακή Οδός), which all of the above motorways connect onto it. The western end of the route begins at the junction with the A1/A2 motorways in Lachanagora District. Clockwise it heads northeast around the city, passing through the northwestern suburbs, the forest of Seich Sou and through to the southeast suburb/borough of Kalamaria. The ring road ends at a large junction with the A25 motorway, which then continues south to Chalkidiki, passing through Thessaloniki's outer southeast suburbs. The speed limit on this motorway is 90 kilometres per hour (56 mph), it currently has three traffic lanes for each direction and forms the city's most vital road link; handling more than 120,000 vehicles daily,[271] instead of 30,000 as it was meant to handle when designed in 1975.[272] An outer ring road known as Eksoteriki Peripheriaki Odos (Greek: Εξωτερική Περιφεριακή Οδός, outer ring road) carries all traffic that completely bypasses the city. It is Part of Motorway
Motorway
2[273] Future plans[edit] Despite the large effort that was made in 2004 to improve the motorway features of the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
ring road, the motorway is still insufficient to tackle Thessaloniki's increasing traffic and metropolitan population. To tackle this problem, the government has introduced large scale redevelopment plans throughout 2011[274] with tenders expected to be announced within early 2012;[274] that include the total restructuring of the A16 in the western side of the city, with new junctions and new emergency lanes throughout the whole length of the motorway.[274] In the eastern side an even larger scale project has been announced, for the construction of a new elevated motorway section above the existing, which would allow faster travel for drivers heading through to the airport and Chalkidiki
Chalkidiki
that do not wish to exit into the city, and will decongest the existing motorway for city commuters.[275] The plans also include adding one more lane in each direction on the existing A16 ring road and on the A25 passing through Thessaloniki's southeast suburbs, from its junction with the A16 in Kalamaria, up to the airport exit (ΕΟ67); which will make it an 8 lane highway.[274] Additional long term plans further include the extension of the planned outer ring road known as Eksoteriki Peripheriaki Odos (Greek: Εξωτερική Περιφεριακή Οδός, outer ring road) to circle around the entire Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Metropolitan Area, crossing over the Thermaic Gulf
Thermaic Gulf
from the east, to join with the A1/E75 motorway. Preliminary plans have been announced which include a 4.5 km (3 mi) bridge over the gulf, as part of the southern bypass of the city; to cater for the large number of commuters from Macedonia and the rest of Greece
Greece
heading to the airport, and to the increasingly popular tourist region of Chalkidiki.[276]

Motorways:

A1/E75 W (Republic of Macedonia, Larissa, Athens) A2/E90 W (Kozani, Ioannina, Igoumenitsa) N (Kavala, Xanthi, Alexandroupolis, Turkey) A25 (ΕΟ12)/Ε79 Ν (Serres, Bulgaria) A25 (ΕΟ67) S (Airport, Nea Moudania)

National Roads:

ΕΟ2/Ε86 W (Edessa, Giannitsa) ΕΟ12/Ε79 Ν (Serres, Drama) ΕΟ16, SW (Polygyros, Ouranopolis) ΕΟ65, Ν (Kilkis, Doirani)

International relations[edit]

Commemorative stele in Melbourne

Twin towns – sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Greece Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
is twinned with:[277]

Twinning

Hartford, United States
United States
since 5 May 1962[277][278] Plovdiv, Bulgaria, since 27 February 1984[277] Melbourne, Australia
Australia
since 19 March 1984[277][279] Leipzig, Germany, since 17 October 1984[277] Bologna, Italy, since 20 October 1984[277] Limassol, Cyprus, since 30 June 1984[277][280][281] Bratislava, Slovakia, since 23 April 1986[277][282] Cologne, Germany, since 13 September 1988[277] Constanţa, Romania, since 5 September 1988[277] San Francisco, United States
United States
since 7 August 1990[277][283] Marseille, France, since 14 February 1991[277] Nice, France, since 20 March 1992[277][280][284] Alexandria, Egypt, since 12 July 1993[277] Tel Aviv, Israel, since 24 November 1994[277] Tianjin, China
China
since 4 March 2002[277] Kolkata, India
India
since 21 January 2005[277][285] Korçë, Albania
Albania
since 14 October 2005[277] Busan, South Korea
South Korea
since 8 March 2010[277] Durrës, Albania
Albania
since 4 April 2012[277]

Collaborations

Toronto, Canada
Canada
since 5 September 1986[277] Budapest, Hungary
Hungary
since 5 April 1993[277] Brooklyn Center, United States
United States
since 5 July 1993[277] Boston, United States
United States
since 21 May 1996[277] Shenyang, China
China
since 22 May 2000[277] Gyumri, Armenia
Armenia
since 23 November 2000[277] Philadelphia, United States
United States
since 6 April 2002[277] Saint Petersburg, Russia, since 30 October 2002[277] Dnipro, Ukraine
Ukraine
since 18 April 2003[277] Venice, Italy
Italy
since 17 July 2003[277] Dongguan, China
China
since 24 October 2008[277]

Gallery[edit]

A 4th-century BC Macedonian tomb

View of the Roman Odeon in Ancient Agora

Palace ruins of Roman emperor
Roman emperor
Galerius, in Navarinou Square

Arch of Galerius
Galerius
and Rotunda

Relief of the Arch of Galerius

Fountain Square

Street of Ladadika

Panoramic view of Aristotelous Square

Buildings at Aristotelous Square

The "Red tower" on Vasilisis Olgas avenue

Villa Modiano

Statue of Constantine I of Greece
Greece
(sculpt. Georgios Dimitriades)

The Faculty of Philosophy, the oldest building of Aristotle University (built in 1925)

View of the International Fair Grounds and Alexandreio Melathron sports hall on the left; and the Aristotle University
Aristotle University
campus on the right.

Typical apartments of the city

YMCA
YMCA
building

View of the seafront (Nikis/Victory avenue)

Vergina Sun
Vergina Sun
on a building

Longos mansion

See also[edit]

Battle of Thessalonica (fourteen events at various times) History of Greece Macedonians (Greeks) Rentina Gorge

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ "Thessaloniki". United States
United States
Holocaust
Holocaust
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Gross domestic product
(GDP) at current market prices at NUTS level 3". Eurostat. 2010. Retrieved 2 December 2011.  ^ "Πρόγραμμα Καλλικράτης" [Kallikratis Programme] (PDF). 2011. p. 22. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 July 2010. Retrieved 6 August 2011. Έδρα της περιφέρειας Κεντρικής Μακεδονίας είναι η Θεσσαλονίκη. (The capital of the region of Central Macedonia is Thessaloniki.)  ^ "Πρόγραμμα Καλλικράτης" [Kallikratis Programme] (PDF). 2011. p. 25. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 July 2010. Retrieved 6 August 2011. Αποκεντρωμένη Διοίκηση Μακεδονίας – Θράκης, η οποία εκτείνεται στα όρια της περιφέρειας Ανατολικής Μακεδονίας – Θράκης και Κεντρικής Μακεδονίας, με έδρα την Θεσσαλονίκη. ([The creation of the] Decentralized Administration of Macedonia-Thrace, which includes the modern regions of East Macedonia-Thrace and Central Macedonia, with Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
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Thessaloniki
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Thessaloniki
Street Photography ^ Inscriptiones Graecae, X 2. 1 Thessalonica et vicinia, p. 19 ^ Πολυβίου Ιστοριών τα σωζόμενα, Editore Ambrosio Firmin Didot, Parisiis, MDCCCXXXIX σελ. 679 ^ Strabo. "7". Geographica. 7.  ^ Inscriptiones Graecae, Χ 2.1 Thessalonica et vicinia - 19, 24, 150, 162, 165, 167, 177-179, 181, 199, 200, 207, 231-233, 283, 838, 1021, 1026, 1028, 1031, 1034, 1035 ^ Ioannis Touratsoglou, Die Münzstätte von Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
in der römischen Kaiserzeit, Berlin
Berlin
1988 p115-116 ^ Α.Ι. Θαβώρης (Antonios Thavoris), "Θεσσαλονίκη - Σαλονίκη. Η ιστορία του ονόματος της πόλης" (Thessaloniki-Saloniki: The history of the name of the city), "Η Θεσσαλονίκη" (Thessaloniki), Κέντρο Ιστορίας Θεσσαλονίκης (Center for the History of Thessaloniki), Δήμος Θεσσαλονίκης (City of Thessaloniki), 1985, p. 5-21. ^ Mark Mazower, Salonica, City of Ghosts: Christians, Muslims and Jews, 1430–1950, 2004, ISBN 0-375-41298-0, p. 18 ^ Ανδριώτης (Andriotis), Νικόλαος Π. (Nikolaos P.) (1995). Ιστορία της ελληνικής γλώσσας: (τέσσερις μελέτες) (History of the Greek language: four studies) (in Greek). Θεσσαλονίκη (Thessaloniki): Ίδρυμα Τριανταφυλλίδη. ISBN 960-231-058-8.  ^ Vitti, Mario (2001). Storia della letteratura neogreca (in Italian). Roma: Carocci. ISBN 88-430-1680-6.  ^ "Results for θεσ/νικη". Google News. Retrieved 4 July 2012.  ^ Strabo
Strabo
VIII Fr. 21,24 – Paul's early period By Rainer Riesner, Doug Scott, p. 338, ISBN 0-8028-4166-X ^ a b c Richard Wallace; Wynne Williams (1998). The three worlds of Paul of Tarsus. Retrieved 13 August 2011.  ^ Dionysios Politis (2008). E-Learning Methodologies and Computer Applications in Archaeology. Retrieved 18 June 2012.  ^ [1]"Thessalonica" in Ancient History Encyclopedia ^ Earl J. Richard (2007). First and Second Thessalonians. Retrieved 24 June 2012.  ^ a b c White Tower Museum – A Timeline of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Archived 26 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ David W. J. Gill; Conrad Gempf (1994). The Book of Acts in Its Graeco-Roman Setting. Retrieved 13 August 2011.  ^ a b Luc-Normand Tellier (2009). Urban world history: an economic and geographical perspective. Retrieved 13 August 2011.  ^ V. A. Fine, Jr., John (1991). The Early Medieval Balkans. University of Michigan Press. p. 336. ISBN 978-0-472-08149-3.  ^ Amy-Jill Levine; Marc Z. Brettler (2011). The Jewish Annotated New Testament. Retrieved 24 June 2012.  ^ a b Pat Southern (2001). The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from Severus to Constantine. Retrieved 13 August 2011.  ^ a b c Alexandros Ph Lagopoulos; Karin Boklund-Lagopoulou (1992). Meaning and geography: the social conception of the region in northern Greece. Retrieved 13 August 2011.  ^ Fred S. Kleiner (2010). A History of Roman Art, Enhanced Edition. Retrieved 13 August 2011.  ^ Matthew P. Canepa (2009). The two eyes of the Earth: art and ritual of kingship between Rome
Rome
and Sasanian Iran. Retrieved 13 August 2011.  ^ a b c George Finlay (1856). History of the Byzantine empire from DCCXVI to MLVII. Retrieved 14 August 2011.  ^ Robert Browning (1992). The Byzantine Empire. Retrieved 14 August 2011.  ^ Donald MacGillivray Nicol (1993). The last centuries of Byzantium, 1261–1453. Retrieved 14 August 2011.  ^ Treadgold, W.T. (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press. p. 702. ISBN 9780804726306. Retrieved 7 December 2014.  ^ Karl Kaser (2011). The Balkans
Balkans
and the Near East: Introduction to a Shared History. Lit. p. 196. ISBN 9783643501905. Retrieved 7 December 2014.  ^ Michael Jones (1995). The New Cambridge Medieval History: c. 1300 – c. 1415. Retrieved 14 August 2011.  ^ a b Karl Kaser (2011). The Balkans
Balkans
and the Near East: Introduction to a Shared History. Retrieved 5 August 2011.  ^ Richard Britnell; John Hatcher (2002). Progress and Problems in Medieval England: Essays in Honour of Edward Miller. Retrieved 14 August 2011.  ^ Skedros, James C. (1999). Saint Demetrios of Thessaloniki : civic patron and divine protector, 4th–7th centuries CE. Harrisburg, Pa: Trinity Press International. p. 105. ISBN 978-1-56338-281-9.  ^ a b c Paul M. Barford. The early Slavs: culture and society in early medieval Eastern Europe. p. 61. Retrieved 18 February 2012.  ^ T E Gregory, A History of Byzantium. Wiley- Blackwell, 2010. Pg 169. "It is now generally agreed that the people who lived in the Balkans after the Slavic "invasions" were probably for the most part the same as those who had lived there earlier, although the creation of new political groups and arrival of small immigrants caused people to look at themselves as distinct from their neighbors, including the Byzantines". ^ Curta, Florin (2006). Southeastern Europe
Europe
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Documentary Festival – Awards (in Greek) ^ Dimitria Festival official website (in Greek) ^ Article on Culturenow (in Greek) ^ "The Exhibition". The Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Book Fair. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 9 April 2011.  ^ Tasos Kritsiolis (2 November 2006). "ΦΕΣΤΙΒΑΛ ΤΡΑΓΟΥΔΙΟΥ ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΗΣ". www.musiccorner.gr. Retrieved 10 August 2011.  ^ "Αλεξάνδρειο Αθλητικό Μέλαθρον". www.alexandreiomelathron.gr. Archived from the original on 19 December 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011.  ^ " Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Pride 2012 Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Pride". thessalonikipride.gr. Retrieved 7 December 2014. [permanent dead link] ^ "Πρόγραμμα Εκδηλώσεων Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Pride 2013 Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Pride". thessalonikipride.gr. Archived from the original on 14 December 2014. Retrieved 7 December 2014.  ^ "Transgender persons in Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
become victims of police violence". Grreporter.info. Retrieved 19 January 2014.  ^ " Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Pride 2014 Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Pride". thessalonikipride.gr. Archived from the original on 14 December 2014. Retrieved 7 December 2014.  ^ List of Athens
Athens
2004 venues (in Greek) ^ "Galanis Sports Data". Galanissportsdata.com. Archived from the original on 12 December 2008. Retrieved 5 January 2009.  ^ a b "Galanis Sports Data". Galanissportsdata.com. Archived from the original on 14 October 2008. Retrieved 5 January 2009.  ^ "Κόκκινος Ποσειδώνας: Πρωταθλητής Ελλάδας στο πόλο ο Ολυμπιακός για 21η φορά στην ιστορία του! – Pathfinder Sports". Sports.pathfinder.gr. 3 May 2008. Archived from the original on 5 January 2009. Retrieved 5 January 2009.  ^ "Άξιος πρωταθλητής ο Ηρακλής – Παναθηναϊκός, Ηρακλής – Contra.gr". Contra.gr. Retrieved 5 January 2009.  ^ magic moving pixel s.a. (27 March 2005). "F-004 – TOURS VB vs Iraklis THESSALONIKI". Cev.lu. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 5 January 2009.  ^ 1οι Αγώνες των χωρών της Νοτιανατολικής Ευρώπης – SEE games – Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
2007 Archived 26 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Presentation Archived 2 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "PROFILE". EPT TV-Radio. Archived from the original on 13 March 2011. Retrieved 9 April 2011.  ^ a b Media Triposo ^ a b c d Frommer's Greece. Wiley Publishing Inc. 2008. Retrieved 9 February 2012.  ^ "Τραγούδια για τη Θεσσαλονίκη 2". homelessmontresor. 4 June 2007. Retrieved 9 April 2011.  ^ "Τραγούδια για την Θεσσαλονίκη". Musicheaven.gr. 13 February 2010. Retrieved 9 April 2011.  ^ "Times Higher Education-QS World University Rankings". Topuniversities.com. Archived from the original on 22 March 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2012.  ^ The International Journal of Scientometrics, Infometrics and Bibliometrics estimates that there are 17036 universities in the world. ^ "official list". Cwts.nl. Archived from the original on 26 February 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2012.  ^ Open University Archived 21 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. (in Greek). ^ " Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
has no Apple's real representation". Karakatsanis, Dimitris. Retrieved 9 April 2011.  ^ " OASTH – General characteristics". oasth.gr. Retrieved 14 February 2012.  ^ "Location of Macedonia Intercity Bus
Bus
Station". KTEL Makedonia. Retrieved 14 February 2012.  ^ Attiko Metro A.E. (10 March 2011). "Δηλώσεις του Υφυπουργού κ. Γιάννη Μαγκριώτη στο Σταθμό ΕΥΚΛΕΙΔΗΣ του ΜΕΤΡΟ". Archived from the original on 25 March 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2011.  ^ " Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
metro "top priority", Public Works minister says". Athens
Athens
News Agency. www.ana.gr. 12 February 2007. Archived from the original on 9 December 2004. Retrieved 13 August 2007.  ^ "CONCLUSION OF CONTRACT FOR THE THESSALONIKI METRO". Attiko Metro S.A. www.ametro.gr. 7 April 2006. Archived from the original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 13 August 2007.  ^ "CONCLUSION THESSALONIKI METRO & ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATION". Attiko Metro S.A. www.ametro.gr. 12 April 2007. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 13 August 2007.  ^ Attiko Metro A.E. (3 February 2011). "Το 2018 η Θεσσαλονίκη θα έχει Δίκτυο Γραμμών Μετρό". Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2011.  ^ "Επέκταση Προαστιακού στο τμήμα Λιτόχωρο – Λάρισα [Expansion of Proastiakos
Proastiakos
towards Litohoro – Larissa]" (in Greek). Naftemporiki. Retrieved 15 February 2012.  ^ "Αναβαθμίζεται με 286 εκατ. το αεροδρόμιο "Μακεδονία" [The "Macedonia" Airport is being upgraded with 286 million Euros]" (in Greek). Express. 30 August 2011.  ^ Koutsabaris, Fotis (27 September 2009). "ΝΕΟ ΑΕΡΟΔΡΟΜΙΟ Ιδανική θέση 45 χλμ. δυτικά της Θεσσαλονίκης προτείνουν ειδικοί [Specialists suggest an ideal place for the airport 45 km (28 mi) west of Thessaloniki]". Makedonia. Archived from the original on 17 February 2013.  (in Greek) ^ "Αναστέλλονται όλα τα διεθνή δρομολόγια του ΟΣΕ [All international routes of OSE have been suspended]" (in Greek). Ta Nea. 13 February 2011.  ^ Port of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
passenger terminal Archived 3 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Koutsabaris, Fotis (19 June 2010). "Περιφερειακή οδός: Επικίνδυνη εάν δεν γίνουν παρεμβάσεις [Ring Road: Dangerous if measures are not taken]" (in Greek). Makedonia. Archived from the original on 8 September 2012.  ^ "- Καρμανιόλα" η περιφερειακή οδός Θεσσαλονίκης που θεωρείται πλέον πεπερασμένη [The Ring Road is considered dangerous and outdated]" (in Greek). Athens
Athens
News Agency. 25 April 2006. Archived from the original on 6 May 2006.  ^ "Ηχορύπανση από τα αυτοκίνητα στο κέντρο της Θεσσαλονίκης [Noise pollution from cars at the center of Thessaloniki]" (in Greek). Kathimerini. 16 March 2011. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012.  ^ a b c d Tasioulas, Tasos (12 November 2011). "Εργα – "ανάσα" στην περιφερειακή οδό ["Relief" works at the Ring Road]" (in Greek). Aggelioforos. Archived from the original on 17 February 2013.  ^ Kanitsaki, Ntonia (6 November 2011). "Θεσσαλονίκη: Η περιφερειακή οδός... απογειώνεται![" the Ring Road]" (in Greek). Aggelioforos. Archived from the original on 17 February 2013.  ^ "ΤΙ ΠΡΟΤΕΙΝΟΥΝ ΟΙ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΟΝΕΣ "Ματ" στο κυκλοφοριακό με δύο κινήσεις [What scientists are proposing to solve the "traffic problem" ]" (in Greek). Makedonia. 25 October 2009.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae "Αδελφοποιημένες Πόλεις". Municipality of Thessaloniki. Retrieved 18 June 2014.  ^ "Hartford Sister Cities International". Harford Public Library. Archived from the original on 14 April 2005. Retrieved 2 February 2008.  ^ "Sister cities: Thessaloniki, Greece". City of Melbourne. Retrieved 4 May 2013.  ^ a b "Twinnings" (PDF). Central Union of Municipalities & Communities of Greece. Retrieved 25 August 2013.  ^ " Limassol
Limassol
Twinned Cities". Limassol
Limassol
(Lemesos) Municipality. Archived from the original on 1 April 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.  ^ "Partner (Twin) towns of Bratislava". Bratislava-City.sk. Archived from the original on 28 July 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.  (listed as 'Solun) ^ "Fun Facts and Statistics". City and County of San Francisco. Archived from the original on 1 February 2008. Retrieved 2 February 2008.  ^ "Villes jumelées avec la Ville de Nice" (in French). Ville de Nice. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2013.  ^ Mazumdar, Jaideep (17 November 2013). "A tale of two cities: Will Kolkata
Kolkata
learn from her sister?". Times of India. New Delhi. Retrieved 17 November 2013. 

Bibliography[edit]

Apostolos Papagiannopoulos,Monuments of Thessaloniki, Rekos Ltd, date unknown. Apostolos P. Vacalopoulos, A History of Thessaloniki, Institute for Balkan Studies,1972. John R. Melville-Jones, ' Venice
Venice
and Thessalonica 1423–1430 Vol I, The Venetian Accounts, Vol. II, the Greek Accounts, Unipress, Padova, 2002 and 2006 (the latter work contains English translations of accounts of the events of this period by St Symeon of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
and John Anagnostes). Thessaloniki: Tourist guide and street map, A. Kessopoulos, MalliareÌ„s-Paideia, 1988. Mark Mazower, Salonica, City of Ghosts: Christians, Muslims and Jews, 1430–1950, 2004, ISBN 0-375-41298-0. Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
City Guide, Axon Publications, 2002. Eugenia Russell, St Demetrius of Thessalonica; Cult and Devotion in the Middle Ages, Peter Lang, Oxford, 2010. ISBN 978-3-0343-0181-7 James C. Skedros, Saint Demetrios of Thessaloniki: Civic Patron and Divine Protector, 4th-7Th Centuries (Harvard Theological Studies), Trinity Press International (1999). Vilma Hastaoglou-Martinidis (ed.), Restructuring the City: International Urban Design Competitions for Thessaloniki, Andreas Papadakis, 1999. Matthieu Ghilardi, Dynamiques spatiales et reconstitutions paléogéographiques de la plaine de Thessalonique (Grèce) à l'Holocène récent, 2007. Thèse de Doctorat de l'Université de Paris
Paris
12 Val-de-Marne, 475 p.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Thessaloniki.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Thessaloniki.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Thessaloniki

Government[edit]

Municipality of Thessaloniki Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Port Authority ΟΑΣΘ – Organisation of Urban Transport of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
(Greek & English)

Tourism[edit]

You in Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
on YouTube: Official promotional video for Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
by the Greek National Tourism Organization Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
The Official website of the Greek National Tourism Organisation

Cultural[edit]

Thessaloniki Concert Hall
Thessaloniki Concert Hall
Organisation Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Film Festival Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Info & Links Thessaloniki360 Virtual City Guide Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Tsimiski.gr street

Events[edit]

Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
2012 (celebrations for the 100 years of the incorporation of the city to Greece) Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
2014 (official website of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
European Youth Capital 2014)

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Macedonia (Greece)

People

Ancient Macedonians List of ancient Macedonians Greek Macedonians

List

Jews
Jews
of Thessaloniki Slavic speakers

Macedonian Bulgarians, Ethnic Macedonians

History

Ancient Macedonia

History Government Kings

Wars of Alexander the Great Wars of the Diadochi Macedonian Wars Roman Macedonia Theme of Thessalonica Theme of Strymon Sack of Thessalonica (904) Byzantine–Bulgarian wars Sack of Thessalonica (1185) Kingdom of Thessalonica Empire of Thessalonica Byzantine civil war of 1321–1328 Byzantine civil war of 1341–1347 Zealots of Thessalonica Byzantine–Ottoman wars Siege of Thessalonica (1422–1430) Ottoman Greece Rumelia Eyalet Greek War of Independence Manastir Vilayet

Sanjak of Monastir Sanjak of Serfiğe

Salonica Vilayet

Sanjak of Drama Sanjak of Salonica Sanjak of Siroz

Greek Struggle for Macedonia Balkan Wars Macedonian Front

Provisional Government of National Defence

Axis occupation Greek Civil War Macedonia naming dispute

Administration

Ministry of Macedonia and Thrace Western Macedonia Central Macedonia Eastern Macedonia and Thrace

Economy

Agios Dimitrios Power Plant Amyntaio Power Plant Drama coal mine Gerakini mine Olympias mine Piavitsa mine Port of Kavala Port of Thessaloniki Prinos oil field Ptolemaida- Florina
Florina
coal mine Skouries mine Stratoni mine

Major cities

Thessaloniki Veria Serres Kavala Kastoria Katerini Edessa Florina Drama Naousa Kozani Ptolemaida

Nature

Axios
Axios
River Doiran Lake Falakro Galikos River Haliacmon Lake Kerkini Lake Koroneia Lake Orestiada Lake Prespa Lake Vegoritida Lake Volvi Mount Paiko Nestos (river) Pindus
Pindus
( Pindus
Pindus
National Park) Petralona cave Strymon River Vasilitsa Vermio Mountains

Seli

Voras Mountains

Monuments

Agios Athanasios Alexandrion (Litochoro) Amphipolis

Lion of Amphipolis Kasta Tomb

Dion Mount Athos Mieza Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki Pella Philippi Platamon Castle Vergina

Culture

Vergina
Vergina
Sun Flag Music Cuisine

Greek Macedonia
Greek Macedonia
Portal

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Administrative division of the Central Macedonia
Central Macedonia
Region

Area 18,811 km2 (7,263 sq mi) Population 1,882,108 (as of 2011) Municipalities 38 (since 2011) Capital Thessaloniki

Regional unit of Chalkidiki

Aristotelis Kassandra Nea Propontida Polygyros Sithonia

Regional unit of Imathia

Alexandreia Naousa Veroia

Regional unit of Kilkis

Kilkis Paionia

Regional unit of Pella

Almopia Edessa Pella Skydra

Regional unit of Pieria

Dio-Olympos Katerini Pydna-Kolindros

Regional unit of Serres

Amfipoli Emmanouil Pappas Irakleia Nea Zichni Serres Sintiki Visaltia

Regional unit of Thessaloniki

Ampelokipoi-Menemeni Chalkidona Delta Kalamaria Kordelio-Evosmos Langadas Neapoli-Sykies Oraiokastro Pavlos Melas Pylaia-Chortiatis Thermaikos Thermi Thessaloniki Volvi

Regional governor Apostolos Tzitzikostas
Apostolos Tzitzikostas
(since 2013, elected 2014) Decentralized Administration Macedonia and Thrace

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Subdivisions of the municipality of Thessaloniki

Municipal units

Thessaloniki Triandria

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European Capitals of Culture

1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg City
Luxembourg City
and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette

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European Youth Capitals

2009 Rotterdam 2010 Turin 2011 Antwerp 2012 Braga 2013 Maribor 2014 Thessaloniki 2015 Cluj-Napoca 2016 Ganja 2017 Varna 2018 Cascais 2019 Novi Sad 2020 Amiens

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World Heritage Sites in Greece

North

Aigai Mount Athos Paleochristian and Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki

City Walls Rotunda Church of the Acheiropoietos Church of Saint Demetrios Latomou Monastery Church of Hagia Sophia Church of Panagia Chalkeon Church of Saint Panteleimon Church of the Holy Apostles Church of Saint Nicholas Orphanos Church of Saint Catherine Church of the Saviour Vlatades Monastery Church of Prophet Elijah Byzantine Bath

Philippi

Central

Delphi Hosios Loukas Meteora Old Town of Corfu

Attica

Acropolis of Athens Daphni Monastery

South

Epidaurus Mycenae
Mycenae
and Tiryns

Lion Gate Treasury of Atreus

Mystras Olympia Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae

Aegean Islands

Delos Medieval city of Rhodes

Grand Master's Palace Fortifications

Monastery of Saint John the Theologian
Monastery of Saint John the Theologian
and the Cave of the Apocalypse Nea Moni of Chios Pythagoreion
Pythagoreion
and Heraion of Samos

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Landmarks of Thessaloniki

Macedonian period

Agios Athanasios tombs

Roman period

Arch of Galerius
Galerius
and Rotunda Navarinou Square Roman Forum Catacombs of Thessaloniki

Paleochristian and Byzantine

Agias Sofias Square Byzantine Bath Church of the Acheiropoietos Church of the Holy Apostles Church of Hosios David Church of Panagia Chalkeon Church of Saint Catherine Church of Saint Nicholas Orphanos Church of Saint Panteleimon Church of Prophet Elijah Hagios Demetrios Hagia Sophia Rotunda Walls of Thessaloniki

Ottoman period

Alaca Imaret Mosque Upper Town Bey Hamam Fountain Square Karipeion Melathron Konak New Mosque White Tower of Thessaloniki

Modern period

Alexandreio Melathron Aristotelous Square Gregory Palamas
Gregory Palamas
Metropolis Kaftanzoglio Stadium Ladadika Modiano Market National Theatre of Northern Greece OTE Tower Port of Thessaloniki Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Concert Hall

Jewish sites

Monastir Synagogue Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki Allatini Mills Holocaust
Holocaust
Museum, Thessaloniki

Streets

Egnatia Street Nikis Avenue Tsimiski Street Vasilissis Olgas Street

Villas/Mansions

Villa Allatini Villa Bianca Villa M.Kapanci Villa A.Kapanci Villa Modiano Villa Mordoch Gategno-Florentin mansion Longos mansion Palataki

Gardens/Parks

Nea Paralia (Thessaloniki)

Marinas

Marina Aretsou

Museums

Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki Atatürk Museum Balkan Wars
Balkan Wars
Museum Museum of Byzantine Culture Cinema Museum Museum of Ancient Greek, Byzantine and Post-Byzantine Instruments Museum for the Macedonian Struggle NOESIS Museum of Photography Railway Museum Teloglion Foundation of Art War Museum

Events

Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
International Film Festival Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
International Trade Fair Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Song Festival (not active)

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Neighbourhoods of Thessaloniki

Aristotelous Ano Poli Dépôt Eleftherio-Kordelio Evosmos Frangon Harilaou Kalamaria Ladadika Navarinou Neapoli, Thessaloniki Panorama Pylaia Sykies Stavroupoli Toumba (Thessaloniki) Triandria

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Museums in Thessaloniki

Archaeological

Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki Museum of Plaster Casts Museum of Roman Forum

Byzantine and ecclesiastic

Crypt of Saint Demetrius Museum of Byzantine Culture White Tower of Thessaloniki Ecclesiastical Museum of the Holy Metropolis of Thessaloniki

Ethnological/historical

Atatürk Museum Balkan Wars
Balkan Wars
Museum Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki Museum of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
Culture Museum for the Macedonian Struggle Natural History Museum War Museum of Thessaloniki Greek refugees Museum

Folklore

Folk Art and Ethnological Museum of Macedonia and Thrace

Art museums/galleries

Art Gallery of the Society of Macedonian Studies Cinema Museum of Thessaloniki National Bank
Bank
of Greece
Greece
Cultural Center Design Museum of Thessaloniki Macedonian Museum of Contemporary Art Municipal Art Gallery (Thessaloniki) Museum of Photography Thessaloniki State Museum of Contemporary Art Teloglion Foundation of Art

Industry/technology

Broadcasting Museum of Thessaloniki Railway Museum of Thessaloniki Science Center and Technology Museum "Noesis" Water Supply Museum Pharmaceutical Museum

Education/sports

Museum of the Aristotle University
Aristotle University
of Thessaloniki Museum of the National Center of Maps & Cartographic Heritage Plaster Casts Museum of the Aristotle University
Aristotle University
of Thessaloniki Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Olympic Museum Y.M.C.A. Basketball
Basketball
Museum Greek Guiding Museum

List of museums in Greece

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  Prefectural capitals of Greece

Agios Nikolaos Alexandroupoli Amfissa Argostoli Arta Athens Chalcis Chania Chios Corfu Corinth Drama Edessa Ermoupoli Florina Grevena Heraklion Igoumenitsa Ioannina Kalamata Karditsa Karpenisi Kastoria Katerini Kavala Kilkis Komotini Kozani Lamia Larissa Lefkada Livadeia Missolonghi Mytilene Nafplion Pallini Patras Piraeus Polygyros Preveza Pyrgos Rethymno Rhodes Serres Sparta Thessaloniki Trikala Tripoli Vathy Veria Volos Xanthi Zakynthos

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  Capitals of regions of Greece

Athens
Athens
(Attica) Corfu (Ionian Islands) Heraklion
Heraklion
(Crete) Ioannina
Ioannina
(Epirus) Komotini
Komotini
(East Macedonia and Thrace) Kozani
Kozani
(West Macedonia) Lamia (Central Greece) Larissa
Larissa
(Thessaly) Mytilene
Mytilene
(North Aegean) Patras
Patras
(West Greece) Ermoupoli
Ermoupoli
(South Aegean) Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
(Central Macedonia) Tripoli (Peloponnese)

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Second Journey of Paul the Apostle

1. Cilicia 2. Derbe 3. Lystra 4. Phrygia 5. Galatia 6. Mysia
Mysia
( Alexandria
Alexandria
Troas) 7. Samothrace 8. Neapolis 9. Philippi 9. Amphipolis 10. Apollonia 11. Thessalonica 12. Beroea 13. Athens 14. Corinth 15. Cenchreae 16. Ephesus 17. Syria 18. Caesarea 19. Jerusalem 20. Antioch

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 312797568 GND: 405139

.