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Agapophytinae Phycinae Therevinae Xestomyzinae

The Therevidae
Therevidae
are a family of flies of the superfamily Asiloidea commonly known as stiletto flies. The family contains about 1,600 described species worldwide, most diverse in arid and semiarid regions with sandy soils. The larvae are predators of insect larvae in soil.[1]

Plate from Johann Wilhelm Meigen
Johann Wilhelm Meigen
EuropäischenZweiflügeligen.Showing the gross features mentioned in the text (figures 5-9)

Contents

1 Description 2 Biology 3 Systematics and phylogeny 4 Habitat and distribution 5 Species lists 6 Identification 7 References 8 External links

Description[edit] Adult Therevidae
Therevidae
are small- to medium-sized with a body length of 2.4 to 18 mm and a hairy integument. The coloration ranges from shades of yellow to black, but commonly the background colour is masked by the tomentum. The compound eyes are generally larger in males, which in many species are actually holoptic. Females have well-developed compound eyes, but are clearly dichoptic. There are three ocelli. The antennae are relatively short. The scape is elongated, the pedicel very short, and the first flagellomere is conical and elongated, the apex bearing a compound stylus with one to three segments. The scape and pedicel are pubescent; In contrast to the related and confusingly similar family Asilidae, the labium in the Therevidae
Therevidae
is not a piercing, predatory organ, but ends in two fleshy labella adapted to the sucking of liquid foods. Another difference is that, though Therevidae
Therevidae
commonly have fluffy setae above the mouthparts, the setae are not stiff bristles like the protective chaetae comprising the mystax of most species of Asilidae. Furthermore, in the Asilidae
Asilidae
the depression on the vertex between the eyes, tends to be more obvious than in the Therevidae. The thorax is broad and moderately convex, with long bristles (macrotrichae). The legs are long and slender, with femora and tibiae bearing bristles; the tibiae are without apical spurs and the tarsi are provided with empodia or without the median pretarsal. The wings are well developed, hyaline or opaque, often with pigmentation of the veins located at the termination of the transverse and longitudinal veins. The abdomen is tapered and elongated, typically 3 to 4 times as long as its broadest width when not extended for activities such as oviposition. Eight abdominal segments (uriti) are externally visible.

Diagram of wing veins. Longitudinal veins: C: costa; Sc: subcosta; R: radius; M: media; Cu: cubitus; A: anal. Crossveins: h: humeral; r-m: radio-medial; m-m: medial; m-cu: medio-cubital.Cells: d: discal; br: 1st basal; bm: 2nd basal; r1: marginal; r3: 1st submarginal; r4: 2nd submarginal; r5: 1st posterior; m1: 2nd posterior; m2: 3rd posterior; m3: 4th posterior; cup: cell cup

The wing venation is relatively complex but without a particular conformation to distinguish the Therevidae
Therevidae
from other families of Asiloidea. The radius is divided into four branches, with R 2 +3 undivided. The branch R 4 is long and winding and reaches the costal margin, the branch R 5 terminates on the posterior border, so the second submarginal cell is open at the apex of the wing. The media is divided into four branches, all independent but with M 3 and M 4 convergent. The transverse medial vein closes the discal cell. This has an elongated shape and terminates at the apex with three angles from which the first three branches of media spring. The fourth branch, M 4 (or CuA 1 according to a different interpretation), originates from the apex of the posterior basal discal cell. The cubit and anal converge on a short common branch before reaching the apex. The larva is apodous and eucephalic, cylindrical, very long and thin, and with tapered ends. The integument is smooth, white, or pink. The head capsule is well developed, but narrower than the other regions. Biology[edit]

Play media

Oviposition of Thereva cincta

Knowledge of the biology of the Therevidae
Therevidae
is limited and fragmented. The lifecycle is usually carried out in a single generation per year, although some European Therevidae
Therevidae
have a cycle of two or more years. The overwintering stage is represented by the mature larva. The postembryonic development in known forms, five instars and pupation takes place in the spring. The larvae, like those of other Asiloidea, have an entomophagous diet and they live as predators. They are generally found on dry, sandy soils and dry litter. Larvae also are located in other substrates such as decomposing organic matter and under the bark of trees. Among the prey are the larvae and pupae of Diptera, Coleoptera, and Lepidoptera. The observation of the behaviour of known forms highlights voracious feeding and agile movements. When exposed to light, the larvae of the Therevidae
Therevidae
dig back into the substrate with rapid movements. Adults feed mainly on nectar, honeydew, and pollen, but they occasionally feed on liquid secretions of animal or vegetable origin. They are found in various environments and can be found in streams, meadows, open woodlands, or, like many other Asiloidea, in dry and sandy places or on beaches. At rest, they choose various substrates according to the species: some species rest on the ground, others on rocks, vegetation,or intertidal debris. They are generally diurnal and move in short, quick flights. Although inhabiting semiarid regions, or possibly for that very reason, since that is where prey for their larvae are likely to be plentiful, adults are particularly attracted to water, generally remaining near pools or other sources of moisture. Systematics and phylogeny[edit] The family Therevidae
Therevidae
is little known and it resembles other many other Brachycera, both in morphology and ethology. The taxonomic history of the Therevidae
Therevidae
accordingly has undergone repeated revisions; in the past, many therevids were assigned to other families, and many other Brachycera
Brachycera
were assigned to the Therevidae. Since the 1970s however, there has been a great deal of rationalisation of the taxonomy, particularly by Lyneborg and Irwin. Revision of the higher taxa, based on the phylogenetic cladistic relationships between various groups of Asiloidea
Asiloidea
has led to a better understanding of their ranks and interrelationships. Originally the Therevidae
Therevidae
sensu lato, were polyphyletic. It required the reassignment of some subfamilies to other families, together with adjustments to closely related families in the Asiloidea, to establish consistent phylogenetic relationships. The Therevidae
Therevidae
now constitute a monophyletic clade that English-speaking dipterologists call the therevoid clade (clade of "Terevoidi"). This group has not been assigned a ranking at any taxonomic level above the rank of family, but for the present is recognised as a group of families within the superfamily Asiloidea.[2] Therevoid clade

 Therevoid clade 

Apsilocephalidae

Evocoidae

Scenopinidae

Therevidae

Asiloidea  

 N.N. 

 ? Scenopinidae
Scenopinidae
and Therevidae

 ? Mydidae
Mydidae
und Apioceridae

 ? Asilidae

 Bombyliidae

Clade showing relationship of Asiloidea At present, over 1, 600 species are known. After taxonomic revisions by Lyneborg (1976) and Winterston et al. (2001), the family is divided into four subfamilies, among which the most representative in size and diffusion is the Therevinae:

Agapophytinae: 12 genera Phycinae: 13 genera Therevinae: 84 genera Xestomyzinae: 12 genera

To the 121 living genera are added extinct genera, dating back to the Cenozoic, Dasystethos , Glaesorthactia , Kroeberiella, and Palaeopherocera, in doubt is Helicorhaphe Habitat and distribution[edit] The habitat of the Therevidae
Therevidae
is more varied than that of other Asiloidea, but as in Asiloidea, preferred ecosystems better suit the larvae, so these insects are more common in thickets of xerophilous plants (garrigue and maquis, in deserts and on sandy beaches. The Therevidae
Therevidae
are represented in all zoogeographical regions of the Earth. The Therevinae
Therevinae
are present in all continents,[citation needed] with a lower frequency in the eastern region . The Phycinae have spread to the Afrotropical and the Holarctic. The Xestomyzinae are mainly Afrotropical. The Agapophytinae are endemic to the Australasia ecozone. In Europe, only the subfamilies are represented:- Phycinae , with two genera, and Therevinae
Therevinae
, with 15 genera. A total of 98 species are reported, two-thirds of which belong to the genus Thereva. Species lists[edit]

Palaearctic Nearctic Australasian/Oceanian Japan World list List of soldierflies and allies of Great Britain

Identification[edit] Cole, F.R., 1923. A revision of the North American two-winged flies of the family Therevidae. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum, 62(4), 1-140. Cole, F.R., 1960 Stiletto-flies of the genus Furcifera Kröber (Diptera: Therevidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 53, 160-169. Gaimari, S.D., & M.E. Irwin , 2000. Phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of the cycloteline Therevinae
Therevinae
(Insecta: Diptera: Therevidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 129, 129-240. Irwin, M.E., & L. Lyneborg, 1981. The genera of Nearctic Therevidae. Illinois Natural History Bulletin, (1980) 32, 193-277. Irwin, M.E., & D.W. Webb, 1992. Brasilian Therevidae
Therevidae
(Diptera): a checklist and descriptions (sic) of species. Acta Amazonica, (1991) 21, 85-121. Kröber, O. , 1911. Die Thereviden Süd- und Mittelamerikas. Annales Musei Nationalis Hungarici, 9, 475-529. Keys genera, species. Kröber, O. , 1912. Die Thereviden der indo-australischen Region. Keys genera, species. Kröber, O. , 1913. Therevidae.Genera.Ins. Keys (then) world genera. Keys genera, species. Kröber, O. , 1914. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Thereviden und Omphraliden. Jahrbuch der Hamburgischen Wissenschaftlichen Anstalten, (1913) 31, 29-74. Kröber, O. , 1924_1925. Therevidae. Fiegen palaerakt. Reg. 4 (26):1-60 Kröber, O. , 1928. Neue und wenig bekannte Dipteren aus den Familien Omphralidae, Conopidae, und Therevidae. Konowia Zeitschrift für Systematische Insektenkunde, 7, 113-134. Kröber, O. , 1931. The Therevidae
Therevidae
(Diptera) of South Africa. Ann. Transv. Mus.. 14:103-134. (see also Lyneborg). Lyneborg, L. 1972. A revision of the Xestomyza-group of Therevidae. (Diptera). Annals of the Natal Museum 21: 297–376. Keys African genera, species. Lyneborg, L. 1976. A revision of the Therevine stiletto-flies (Diptera: Therevidae) of the Ethiopian Region. Bull. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.). Entomology 33 (3): 191-346. Keys subfamilies and genera of Thervinae. Malloch, J. R. 1932. Rhagionidae, Therevidae. British Museum (Natural History). Dept. of Entomology [eds] Diptera of Patagonia and South Chile, based mainly on material in the British Museum (Natural History). Part V. Fascicle 3. - Rhagionidae
Rhagionidae
(Leptidae), Therevidae, Scenopenidae, Mydaidae, Asilidae, Lonchopteridae. pp. 199–293. Keys genera, species. Mann, JS.1928-1933 Revisional notes on Australian Therevidae. Part 1. Australian Zoologist, 5, 151–. 194 (1928); Part 2 6:17-49 (1929); Part 3 7:325-344. (1933).

Mating (species from Queensland, Australia)

Play media

Acrosathe annulata on the ground (video, 1m 48s)

References[edit]

^ German: Luchsfliegen ^ "Brian M. Wiegmann; David K. Yeates. (EN) Brachycera. The Tree of Life Web Project, 2007. URL consulted in data 18-07-2009". 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Therevidae.

Therevidae
Therevidae
site with many links Therevidae
Therevidae
of Australia Image Gallery Family Therevidae
Therevidae
at EOL Image Gallery

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Extant Diptera families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Nematocera

Axymyiomorpha

Axymyiidae

Culicomorpha

Culicoidea

Dixidae
Dixidae
(meniscus midges) Corethrellidae
Corethrellidae
(frog-biting midges) Chaoboridae
Chaoboridae
(phantom midges) Culicidae (mosquitoes)

Chironomoidea

Thaumaleidae
Thaumaleidae
(solitary midges) Simuliidae (black flies) Ceratopogonidae
Ceratopogonidae
(biting midges) Chironomidae
Chironomidae
(non-biting midges)

Blephariceromorpha

Blephariceridae
Blephariceridae
(net-winged midges) Deuterophlebiidae (mountain midges) Nymphomyiidae

Bibionomorpha

Bibionoidea

Bibionidae
Bibionidae
(march flies, lovebugs)

Anisopodoidea

Anisopodidae
Anisopodidae
(wood gnats)

Sciaroidea (fungus gnats)

Bolitophilidae Diadocidiidae Ditomyiidae Keroplatidae Mycetophilidae Sciaridae
Sciaridae
(dark-winged fungus gnats) Cecidomyiidae
Cecidomyiidae
(gall midges)

Psychodomorpha

Scatopsoidea

Canthyloscelidae Perissommatidae Scatopsidae
Scatopsidae
(minute black scavenger flies, or dung midges)

Psychodoidea

Psychodidae (moth flies)

Ptychopteromorpha

Ptychopteridae
Ptychopteridae
(phantom crane flies) Tanyderidae (primitive crane flies)

Tipulomorpha

Trichoceroidea

Trichoceridae
Trichoceridae
(winter crane flies)

Tipuloidea

Pediciidae
Pediciidae
(hairy-eyed craneflies) Tipulidae (crane flies)

Suborder Brachycera

Asilomorpha

Asiloidea

Apioceridae
Apioceridae
(flower-loving flies) Apsilocephalidae Apystomyiidae Asilidae
Asilidae
(robber flies) Bombyliidae
Bombyliidae
(bee flies) Evocoidae Hilarimorphidae (hilarimorphid flies) Mydidae
Mydidae
(mydas flies) Mythicomyiidae Scenopinidae
Scenopinidae
(window flies) Therevidae
Therevidae
(stiletto flies)

Empidoidea

Atelestidae Hybotidae
Hybotidae
(dance flies) Dolichopodidae
Dolichopodidae
(long-legged flies) Empididae
Empididae
(dagger flies, balloon flies)

Nemestrinoidea

Acroceridae
Acroceridae
(small-headed flies) Nemestrinidae
Nemestrinidae
(tangle-veined flies)

Muscomorpha

Aschiza

Platypezoidea

Phoridae
Phoridae
(scuttle flies, coffin flies, humpbacked flies) Opetiidae
Opetiidae
(flat-footed flies) Ironomyiidae (ironic flies) Lonchopteridae
Lonchopteridae
(spear-winged flies) Platypezidae
Platypezidae
(flat-footed flies)

Syrphoidea

Syrphidae (hoverflies) Pipunculidae
Pipunculidae
(big-headed flies)

Schizophora

Acalyptratae

Conopoidea

Conopidae
Conopidae
(thick-headed flies)

Tephritoidea

Pallopteridae
Pallopteridae
(flutter flies) Piophilidae
Piophilidae
(cheese flies) Platystomatidae
Platystomatidae
(signal flies) Pyrgotidae Richardiidae Tephritidae
Tephritidae
(peacock flies) Ulidiidae
Ulidiidae
(picture-winged flies)

Nerioidea

Cypselosomatidae Micropezidae
Micropezidae
(stilt-legged flies) Neriidae
Neriidae
(cactus flies, banana stalk flies)

Diopsoidea

Diopsidae (stalk-eyed flies) Gobryidae Megamerinidae Nothybidae Psilidae
Psilidae
(rust flies) Somatiidae Strongylophthalmyiidae Syringogastridae Tanypezidae

Sciomyzoidea

Coelopidae
Coelopidae
(kelp flies) Dryomyzidae Helosciomyzidae Ropalomeridae Huttoninidae Heterocheilidae Phaeomyiidae Sepsidae
Sepsidae
(black scavenger flies) Sciomyzidae
Sciomyzidae
(marsh flies)

Sphaeroceroidea

Chyromyidae Heleomyzidae Sphaeroceridae
Sphaeroceridae
(small dung flies) Nannodastiidae

Lauxanioidea

Celyphidae
Celyphidae
(beetle-backed flies) Chamaemyiidae
Chamaemyiidae
(aphid flies) Lauxaniidae

Opomyzoidea

Agromyzidae
Agromyzidae
(leaf miner flies) Anthomyzidae Asteiidae Aulacigastridae (sap flies) Clusiidae
Clusiidae
(lekking, or druid flies) Fergusoninidae Marginidae Neminidae Neurochaetidae (upside-down flies) Odiniidae Opomyzidae Periscelididae Teratomyzidae Xenasteiidae

Ephydroidea

Camillidae Curtonotidae
Curtonotidae
(quasimodo flies) Diastatidae
Diastatidae
(bog flies) Ephydridae
Ephydridae
(shore flies) Drosophilidae
Drosophilidae
(vinegar and fruit flies)

Carnoidea

Acartophthalmidae Australimyzidae Braulidae
Braulidae
(bee lice) Canacidae
Canacidae
(beach flies) Carnidae Chloropidae
Chloropidae
(frit flies) Cryptochaetidae Inbiomyiidae Milichiidae
Milichiidae
(freeloader flies)

Lonchaeoidea

Cryptochetidae Lonchaeidae
Lonchaeidae
(lance flies)

Calyptratae

Muscoidea

Anthomyiidae
Anthomyiidae
(cabbage flies) Fanniidae
Fanniidae
(little house flies) Muscidae
Muscidae
(house flies, stable flies) Scathophagidae
Scathophagidae
(dung flies)

Oestroidea

Calliphoridae
Calliphoridae
(blow-flies: bluebottles, greenbottles) Mystacinobiidae (New Zealand batfly) Oestridae (botflies) Rhinophoridae Sarcophagidae (flesh flies) Tachinidae
Tachinidae
(tachina flies)

Hippoboscoidea

Glossinidae (tsetse flies) Hippoboscidae
Hippoboscidae
(louse flies) Mormotomyiidae
Mormotomyiidae
(frightful hairy fly) Nycteribiidae
Nycteribiidae
(bat flies) Streblidae
Streblidae
(bat flies)

Stratiomyomorpha

Stratiomyoidea

Pantophthalmidae
Pantophthalmidae
(timber flies) Stratiomyidae
Stratiomyidae
(soldier flies) Xylomyidae
Xylomyidae
(wood soldier flies)

Tabanomorpha

Rhagionoidea

Austroleptidae Bolbomyiidae Rhagionidae
Rhagionidae
(snipe flies)

Tabanoidea

Athericidae
Athericidae
(water snipe flies) Oreoleptidae Pelecorhynchidae Tabanidae (horse and deer flies)

Vermileonomorpha

Vermileonoidea

Vermileonidae

Xylophagomorpha

Xylophagoidea

Xylophagidae
Xylophagidae
(awl flies)

List of families of Diptera

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q1432709 BugGuide: 7015 EoL: 9027 EPPO: 1THEVF Fauna Europaea: 10968 Fossilworks: 138916 GBIF: 3517 iNaturalist: 202796 ITIS: 131751 NCBI: 5

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