1 Semantic field 2 Types of therapies
2.1 By chronology, priority, or intensity
2.1.1 Levels of care 2.1.2 Lines of therapy
2.2 By intent 2.3 By therapy composition
2.3.1 By matter 2.3.2 By energy 2.3.3 By human interaction 2.3.4 By animal interaction 2.3.5 By meditation 2.3.6 By reading 2.3.7 By creativity 2.3.8 By sleeping and waking
3 See also 4 References 5 External links
The words care, therapy, treatment, and intervention overlap in a
semantic field, and thus they can be synonymous depending on context.
Moving rightward through that order, the connotative level of holism
decreases and the level of specificity (to concrete instances)
increases. Thus, in health care contexts (where its senses are always
noncount), the word care tends to imply a broad idea of everything
done to protect or improve someone's health (for example, as in the
terms preventive care and primary care, which connote ongoing action),
although it sometimes implies a narrower idea (for example, in the
simplest cases of wound care or postanesthesia care, a few particular
steps are sufficient, and the patient's interaction with that provider
is soon finished). In contrast, the word intervention tends to be
specific and concrete, and thus the word is often countable; for
example, one instance of cardiac catheterization is one intervention
performed, and coronary care (noncount) can require a series of
interventions (count). At the extreme, the piling on of such countable
interventions amounts to interventionism, a flawed model of care
lacking holistic circumspection—merely treating discrete problems
(in billable increments) rather than maintaining health.
Emergency care handles medical emergencies and is a first point of
contact or intake for less serious problems, which can be referred to
other levels of care as appropriate.
Intensive care, also called critical care, is care for extremely ill
or injured patients. It thus requires high resource intensity,
knowledge, and skill, as well as quick decision making.
Palliative care is supportive care, most especially (but not
necessarily) near the end of life.
Lines of therapy Treatment decisions often follow formal or informal algorithmic guidelines. Treatment options can often be ranked or prioritized into lines of therapy: first-line therapy, second-line therapy, third-line therapy, and so on. First-line therapy (sometimes called induction therapy, primary therapy, or front-line therapy) is the first therapy that will be tried. Its priority over other options is usually either: (1) formally recommended on the basis of clinical trial evidence for its best-available combination of efficacy, safety, and tolerability or (2) chosen based on the clinical experience of the physician. If a first-line therapy either fails to resolve the issue or produces intolerable side effects, additional (second-line) therapies may be substituted or added to the treatment regimen, followed by third-line therapies, and so on. An example of a context in which the formalization of treatment algorithms and the ranking of lines of therapy is very extensive is chemotherapy regimens. Because of the great difficulty in successfully treating some forms of cancer, one line after another may be tried. In oncology the count of therapy lines may reach 10 or even 20. Often multiple therapies may be tried simultaneously (combination therapy or polytherapy). Thus combination chemotherapy is also called polychemotherapy, whereas chemotherapy with one agent at a time is called single-agent therapy or monotherapy. Adjuvant therapy is therapy given in addition to the primary, main, or initial treatment, but simultaneously (as opposed to second-line therapy). Neoadjuvant therapy is therapy that is begun before the main therapy. Thus one can consider surgical excision of a tumor as the first-line therapy for a certain type and stage of cancer even though radiotherapy is used before it; the radiotherapy is neoadjuvant (chronologically first but not primary in the sense of the main event). Premedication is conceptually not far from this, but the words are not interchangeable; cytotoxic drugs to put a tumor "on the ropes" before surgery delivers the "knockout punch" are called neoadjuvant chemotherapy, not premedication, whereas things like anesthetics or prophylactic antibiotics before dental surgery are called premedication. Step therapy or stepladder therapy is a specific type of prioritization by lines of therapy. It is controversial in American health care because unlike conventional decision-making about what constitutes first-line, second-line, and third-line therapy, which in the U.S. reflects safety and efficacy first and cost only according to the patient's wishes, step therapy attempts to mix cost containment by someone other than the patient (third-party payers) into the algorithm. Therapy freedom and the negotiation between individual and group rights are involved. By intent
abortive therapy A therapy that is intended to stop a medical condition from progressing any further. A medication taken at the earliest signs of a disease, such as an analgesic taken at the very first symptoms of a migraine headache to prevent it from getting worse, is an abortive therapy. Compare abortifacients, which abort a pregnancy.
bridge therapy A therapy that figuratively provides a bridge to another step or phase, crossing over some immediate chasm (challenge), in contrast with destination therapy, which is the final therapy in cases where clinically appropriate.
consolidation therapy A therapy given to consolidate the gains from induction therapy. In cancer, this means chasing after any malignant cells that may be left.
curative therapy A therapy with curative intent, that is, one that seeks to cure the root cause of a disorder.
definitive therapy A therapy that may be final, superior to others, curative, or all of those.
destination therapy A therapy that is the final destination rather than a bridge to another therapy. Usually refers to ventricular assist devices to keep the existing heart going, not just until a heart transplant can occur, but for the rest of the patient's life expectancy.
empiric therapy A therapy given on an empiric basis; that is, one given according to a clinician's educated guess despite uncertainty about the illness's causative factors. For example, empiric antibiotic therapy administers a broad-spectrum antibiotic immediately on the basis of a good chance (given the history, physical examination findings, and risk factors present) that the illness is bacterial and will respond to that drug (even though the bacterial species or variant is not yet known).
gold standard therapy A therapy that is definitive, just as a gold standard diagnostic test is a definitive test.
investigational therapy An experimental therapy. Use of experimental therapies must be ethically justified, because by definition they raise the question of standard of care. Physicians have autonomy to provide empirical care (such as off-label care) according to their experience and clinical judgment, but the autonomy has limits that preclude quackery. Thus it may be necessary to design a clinical trial around the new therapy and to use the therapy only per a formal protocol. Sometimes shorthand phrases such as "treated on protocol" imply not just "treated according to a plan" but specifically "treated with investigational therapy".
maintenance therapy A therapy taken during disease remission to prevent relapse.
palliative therapy See supportive therapy for connotative distinctions.
preventive therapy (prophylactic therapy) A therapy that is intended to prevent a medical condition from occurring (also called prophylaxis). For example, many vaccines prevent infectious diseases.
salvage therapy (rescue therapy) A therapy tried after others have failed; it may be a "last-line" therapy.
A therapy that does not treat or improve the underlying condition, but
instead increases the patient's comfort. For example, supportive
care for flu, colds, or gastrointestinal upset can include rest,
fluids, and over the counter pain relievers; those things don't treat
the cause, but they do treat the symptoms and thus provide relief.
Supportive therapy may be palliative therapy (palliative care). The
two terms are sometimes synonymous, but palliative care often connotes
serious illness and end-of-life care, whereas supportive care is
always connotatively neutral (it may be as simple as mere bedrest for
the common cold).
systemic therapy A therapy that is systemic. In the physiological sense, this means affecting the whole body (rather than being local or locoregional), whether via systemic administration, systemic effect, or both. Systemic therapy in the psychotherapeutic sense seeks to address people not only on the individual level but also as people in relationships, dealing with the interactions of groups.
By therapy composition Treatments can be classified according to the method of treatment: By matter
by drugs: pharmacotherapy, chemotherapy (also, medical therapy often means specifically pharmacotherapy) by medical devices: implantation
cardiac resynchronization therapy
by specific molecules: molecular therapy (although most drugs are specific molecules, molecular medicine refers in particular to medicine relying on molecular biology)
by specific biomolecular targets: targeted therapy
molecular chaperone therapy
by chelation: chelation therapy
by specific chemical elements:
by heavy metals:
by gold: chrysotherapy (aurotherapy) by platinum-containing drugs: platin therapy
by lithium: lithium therapy by potassium: potassium supplementation by magnesium: magnesium supplementation by chromium: chromium supplementation; phonemic neurological hypochromium therapy by copper: copper supplementation
by diatomic oxygen: oxygen therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (hyperbaric medicine)
transdermal continuous oxygen therapy
by triatomic oxygen (ozone): ozone therapy by fluoride: fluoride therapy by other gases: medical gas therapy
hydrotherapy aquatic therapy rehydration therapy
oral rehydration therapy
water cure (therapy)
by biological materials (biogenic substances, biomolecules, biotic materials, natural products), including their synthetic equivalents: biotherapy
by whole organisms
by viruses: virotherapy by bacteriophages: phage therapy by animal interaction: see animal interaction section
by constituents or products of organisms
by plant parts or extracts (but many drugs are derived from plants, even when the term phytotherapy is not used)
scientific type: phytotherapy traditional (prescientific) type: herbalism
by animal parts: quackery involving shark fins, tiger parts, and so on, often driving threat or endangerment of species by genes: gene therapy
gene therapy for epilepsy gene therapy for osteoarthritis gene therapy for color blindness gene therapy of the human retina gene therapy in Parkinson's disease
by epigenetics: epigenetic therapy by proteins: protein therapy (but many drugs are proteins despite not being called protein therapy) by enzymes: enzyme replacement therapy by hormones: hormone therapy
hormonal therapy (oncology) hormone replacement therapy
estrogen replacement therapy androgen replacement therapy hormone replacement therapy (menopause) hormone replacement therapy (transgender)
hormone replacement therapy (male-to-female) hormone replacement therapy (female-to-male)
androgen deprivation therapy
by whole cells: cell therapy (cytotherapy)
by stem cells: stem cell therapy by immune cells: see immune system products below
by immune system products: immunotherapy, host modulatory therapy
by immune cells:
T-cell vaccination cell transfer therapy autologous immune enhancement therapy TK cell therapy
by humoral immune factors: antibody therapy
by whole serum: serotherapy, including antiserum therapy by immunoglobulins: immunoglobulin therapy
by monoclonal antibodies: monoclonal antibody therapy
by urine: urine therapy (some scientific forms; many prescientific or pseudoscientific forms) by food and dietary choices:
medical nutrition therapy grape therapy (quackery)
by salts (but many drugs are the salts of organic acids, even when drug therapy is not called by names reflecting that)
by salts in the air
by natural dry salt air: "taking the cure" in desert locales (especially common in prescientific medicine; for example, one 19th-century way to treat tuberculosis) by artificial dry salt air:
low-humidity forms of speleotherapy negative air ionization therapy
by moist salt air:
by natural moist salt air: seaside cure (especially common in prescientific medicine) by artificial moist salt air: water vapor forms of speleotherapy
by salts in the water
by mineral water: spa cure ("taking the waters") (especially common in prescientific medicine) by seawater: seaside cure (especially common in prescientific medicine)
by aroma: aromatherapy by other materials with mechanism of action unknown
by occlusion with duct tape: duct tape occlusion therapy
by electric energy as electric current: electrotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy by magnetic energy:
magnet therapy pulsed electromagnetic field therapy magnetic resonance therapy
by electromagnetic radiation (EMR):
by light: light therapy (phototherapy)
ultraviolet light therapy
photothermal therapy cytoluminescent therapy
blood irradiation therapy by darkness: dark therapy by lasers: laser therapy
low level laser therapy
by gamma rays: radiosurgery
Gamma Knife radiosurgery stereotactic radiation therapy cobalt therapy
by radiation generally: radiation therapy (radiotherapy)
intraoperative radiation therapy by EMR particles:
proton therapy electron therapy
intraoperative electron radiation therapy Auger therapy
fast neutron therapy neutron capture therapy of cancer
by radioisotopes emitting EMR:
by nuclear medicine by brachytherapy
quackery type: electromagnetic therapy (alternative medicine)
by mechanical: manual therapy as massotherapy and therapy by exercise as in physiotherapy and exercise therapy
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy extracorporeal shockwave therapy
sonodynamic therapy (largely pseudoscientific)
by music: music therapy
neurologic music therapy
by heat: heat therapy (thermotherapy)
by moderately elevated ambient temperatures: hyperthermia therapy
by dry warm surroundings: Waon therapy by dry or humid warm surroundings: sauna, including infrared sauna, for sweat therapy
by extreme cold to specific tissue volumes: cryotherapy by ice and compression: cold compression therapy by ambient cold: hypothermia therapy for neonatal encephalopathy
by hot and cold alternation: contrast bath therapy
By human interaction
by counseling, such as psychotherapy (see also: list of psychotherapies)
systemic therapy by group psychotherapy
by cognitive behavioral therapy
by cognitive therapy by behaviour therapy
by dialectical behavior therapy
by cognitive emotional behavioral therapy
by cognitive rehabilitation therapy by family therapy by education
by psychoeducation by information therapy
by physical therapy/occupational therapy, massage therapy, chiropractic or acupuncture by lifestyle modifications, such as avoiding unhealthy food or maintaining a predictable sleep schedule by coaching
By animal interaction
by pets, assistance animals, or working animals: animal-assisted therapy
by horses: equine therapy, hippotherapy by dogs: pet therapy with therapy dogs, including grief therapy dogs by cats: pet therapy with therapy cats
by fish: ichthyotherapy (wading with fish), aquarium therapy (watching fish) by maggots: maggot therapy by worms:
by internal worms: helminthic therapy by leechs: leech therapy
by immersion: animal bath
by mindfulness: mindfulness-based cognitive therapy
by expression: expressive therapy
by writing: writing therapy
by play: play therapy by art: art therapy
sensory art therapy comic book therapy
by gardening: horticultural therapy by dance: dance therapy by drama: drama therapy by recreation: recreational therapy by music: music therapy
By sleeping and waking
by deep sleep: deep sleep therapy by waking: wake therapy
Biophilia hypothesis Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals Cure Interventionism (medicine) Inverse benefit law List of therapies Greyhound therapy Mature minor doctrine Medicine Medication Nutraceutical Prevention Psychotherapy Therapeutic inertia Therapeutic nihilism, the idea that treatment is useless
^ Online Etymology Dictionary, Therapy ^ National Cancer Institute > Dictionary of Cancer Terms > first-line therapy Retrieved July 2010 ^ "CFIDS". CFIDS. Retrieved 2012-01-09. ^ http://health.usnews.com/health-care/for-better/articles/2017-07-14/5-reasons-to-consider-group-therapy
The dictionary definition of therapy at Wiktionary
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