Baron Theophil Edvard von Hansen (German: [ˈteːofiːl fɔn
ˈhanzn̩]; original Danish name: Theophilus Hansen
pronounced [teoˈfiːlus ˈhanˀsn̩]; 13 July 1813, in
Copenhagen – 17 February 1891, in Vienna) was a Danish architect who
later became an Austrian citizen. He became particularly well known
for his buildings and structures in
Athens and Vienna, and is
considered an outstanding representative of neoclassicism.
6 External links
After training with
Karl Friedrich Schinkel
Karl Friedrich Schinkel and some years studying in
Vienna, he moved to
Athens in 1837, where he studied architecture and
design, with a concentration and interest in Byzantine architecture.
During his stay in Athens, Hansen designed his first building, the
National Observatory of
Athens and two of the three contiguous
buildings forming the so-called "classical trilogy", namely the
Athens and the National Library of Greece, the third
building of the trilogy being the National and Capodistrian University
of Athens, which was designed by his brother Christian Hansen. The
Georgios Sinas (who donated the observatory) called
Hansen 1846 to Vienna, where Hansen took up an apprenticeship with
noted Austrian architect Ludwig Förster.
In his early works, such as the museum at The Arsenal in Vienna,
Hansen was still rather aligned to a more romantic style. In later
years, he became the most outstanding representative of
Renaissance-inspired historicism (Neo-Renaissance), which also came to
be known as Viennese-style. This style extended into the smallest
details of the interior design and partially accepted the courses of a
synthesis of the arts.
Along with Förster and many others, Hansen was one of the most
important and influential architects of the Viennese Ringstraße. His
most famous work is the Austrian Parliament building, which was
created in the style of an ancient, neo-classic temple, and serves to
refer to the Greek beginnings of democracy. Hansen was originally a
staunch critic of the Classical style that was taught to him at the
Copenhagen Academy. Over the years, however, he came to incorporate
Classical elements into his forms. Bauleiter on this project was Hans
Auer, who would go on to win the competition for the Swiss Bundeshaus.
Vienna is one of the most notable
concert halls in the world; a concert hall whose design and acoustics
are often admired and copied in present-day music houses.
Hansen worked together with Viktor Pilz and Carl Rahl, as well as with
Otto Wagner. In 1884 Emperor Franz Joseph honoured Hansen with a
barony in the Austrian nobility and he was since styled "
The modern Academy of Athens, next to the University of
Athens and the
National Library (not shown) forming 'the Trilogy'. The Academy and
the University buildings were designed by Schinkel's Danish pupil
Theophil Hansen, 1885, in Greek Ionic, academically correct even to
the polychrome sculpture. The statues and columns were worked by
National Observatory of Athens, 1842
Academy of Sciences, Athens, starting from 1856
Museum of Military History in the Arsenal, Vienna, 1856
Old Municipal Hospital in Patras, Greece, 1857
Cemetery chapel Christuskirche at the Matzleinsdorf Protestant
Cemetery, Vienna, 1858
Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church, Vienna, 1858–1861
Palais Todesco, Ringstrasse, Vienna, 1861-1864
Palace of Archduke Wilhelm, Vienna, 1864–1868
Musikverein, Vienna, 1867–1870
Academy of Fine Arts Vienna, 1871–1876
Philharmonic Concert Hall, Brno, 1871–1873
Vienna Stock Exchange, 1874–1877
Austrian Parliament Building, Vienna, 1874–1883
Zappeion, Athens, 1874-1888
New Lutheran church, Kežmarok, 1879-1892
Castle Nadelburg, Lichtenwörth, Lower Austria 1880-1882
National Library of Greece, Athens, starting from 1888
"Academy of Athens", part of the 'Trilogy' of Hansen in downtown
Musikverein building in Vienna
Goldener Saal in the Musikvereinsgebäude in Vienna
Zappeion Megaron in Athens
Castle Nadelburg in Lichtenwörth, Lower Austria
Reichsrat in Vienna, today the Austrian Parliament Building
Palais Hansen in Vienna
National Library of Greece
New Lutheran church in Kežmarok
George Niemann (Hrsg.), Ferdinand von Feldegg: Theophilus Hansen und
seine Werke. A. Schroll & Co., Wien 1893.
Renate Wagner-Rieger und Mara Reissberger: Theophil von Hansen. (= Die
Ringstraße VIII; Band 4). Steiner, Wiesbaden 1980
Manfred Leithe-Jasper: Hansen, Theophilos Edvard
Freiherr von. In:
Neue Deutsche Biographie
Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB). Band 7, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin
1966, ISBN 3-428-00188-5, S. 634 f.
Julius Leisching: Hansen, Theophilos Edvard
Freiherr von. In:
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Band 49, Duncker & Humblot,
Leipzig 1904, S. 762–766.
Hansen Theophil Edvard Frh. von. In: Österreichisches Biographisches
Lexikon 1815–1950 (ÖBL). Band 2, Verlag der Österreichischen
Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien 1959, S. 181 f.
Alice Strobl: Das k. k. Waffenmuseum im Arsenal. Der Bau und seine
künstlerische Ausschmückung, in: Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen
Museums in Wien, herausgegeben von der Direktion. Graz / Köln, 1961
Robert Bachtrögl: Die Nadelburg - Geschichte ab 1747. 2010 (Theophil
Hansen ab S.77)
Adolf Stiller (Hrsg).:
Theophil Hansen - Klassische Eleganz im Alltag.
Müry Salzmann, Salzburg / Wien 2013, ISBN 978-3-990140-76-5.
Andreas Pittler, Hermann Schnell: Der Baumeister des Parliaments -
Theophil Hansen (1813-1891). Edition Winkler-Hermaden, Wien 2013,
Regarding personal names:
Freiherr is a former title (translated as
Baron). In Germany since 1919, it forms part of family names. The
feminine forms are Freifrau and Freiin.
Media related to
Theophil Hansen at Wikimedia Commons
ISNI: 0000 0000 6678 0557
BNF: cb11955777m (data)