The Info List - Theology

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THEOLOGY is the critical study of the nature of the divine . It is taught as an academic discipline, typically in universities, seminaries and schools of divinity.

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General conceptions

* Agnosticism * Apatheism * Atheism * Deism * Henotheism * Ignosticism * Monotheism * Monism * Dualism * Monolatrism * Kathenotheism * Omnism * Panpsychism * Panentheism * Pantheism * Polytheism * Theism * Transtheism

Specific conceptions

* Creator * Demiurge * Deus * Father * Great Architect * Monad * Mother * Supreme Being * Sustainer * The All * The Lord * Trinity * Tawhid * Ditheism * Monism * Personal * Unitarianism

In particular religions


* Judaism * Christianity * Islam * Bahá\'í * Mormonism


* Hinduism * Buddhism * Jainism * Sikhism * Zoroastrianism


* Tian * Shangdi * Hongjun Laozu


* Eternalness * Existence * Gender * Names ("God" ) * Omnibenevolence * Omnipotence * Omnipresence * Omniscience

* Experiences * Practices

* Belief * Esotericism * Faith * Fideism * Gnosis * Hermeticism * Metaphysics * Mysticism * Prayer * Revelation * Worship

Related topics

* Euthyphro dilemma * God complex * God gene * Theology * Ontology * Problem of evil (theodicy )

* Religion

* philosophy * texts

* Portrayals of God in popular media

* v * t * e


* 1 Definition

* 2 In various religions

* 2.1 Hinduism * 2.2 Judaism * 2.3 Christianity * 2.4 Islam * 2.5 Buddhism

* 3 Topics in theology

* 4 Theology as an academic discipline

* 4.1 Theology and ministerial training * 4.2 Theology as an academic discipline in its own right * 4.3 Theology and religious studies

* 5 Criticism

* 5.1 Criticism by philosophers * 5.2 Critics of theology as an academic discipline * 5.3 General criticism

* 6 Etymology * 7 References * 8 External links


Augustine of Hippo defined the Latin equivalent, _theologia_, as "reasoning or discussion concerning the Deity"; Richard Hooker defined "theology" in English as "the science of things divine ". The term can, however, be used for a variety of different disciplines or fields of study.

Theology begins with the assumption that the divine exists in some form, such as in physical , supernatural , mental , or social realities , and that evidence for and about it may be found via personal spiritual experiences and/or historical records of such experiences as documented by others. The study of these assumptions is not part of theology proper but is found in the philosophy of religion , and increasingly though the psychology of religion and neurotheology . As a science, theology aims to structure and understand these experiences and concepts, and to use them to derive normative prescriptions for how to live our lives .

Theologians use various forms of analysis and argument (experiential , philosophical , ethnographic , historical , and others) to help understand , explain , test, critique , defend or promote any of myriad religious topics . As in philosophy of ethics and case law , arguments often assume the existence of previously resolved questions, and develop by making analogies from them to draw new inferences in new situations.

The study of theology may help a theologian more deeply understand their own religious tradition , another religious tradition, or it may enable them to explore the nature of divinity without reference to any specific tradition. Theology may be used to propagate , reform, or justify a religious tradition or it may be used to compare , challenge (e.g. biblical criticism ), or oppose (e.g. irreligion ) a religious tradition or world-view . Theology might also help a theologian to address some present situation or need through a religious tradition, or to explore possible ways of interpreting the world.


Thomas Aquinas was the greatest Christian theologian of the Middle Ages.

The term Theology has been deemed by some as only appropriate to the study of religions that worship a supposed deity (a _theos_), i.e. more widely than monotheism ; and presuppose a belief in the ability to speak and reason about this deity (in _logia_). They suggest the term is less appropriate in religious contexts that are organized differently (religions without a single deity, or that deny that such subjects can be studied logically). (" Hierology " has been proposed as an alternative, more generic term. )


Within Hindu philosophy , there is a solid and ancient tradition of philosophical speculation on the nature of the universe, of God (termed " Brahman ", Paramatma and Bhagavan in some schools of Hindu thought) and of the Atman (soul). The Sanskrit word for the various schools of Hindu philosophy is Darshana (meaning "view" or "viewpoint"). Vaishnava theology has been a subject of study for many devotees, philosophers and scholars in India for centuries. A large part of its study lies in classifying and organizing the manifestations of thousands of gods and their aspects. In recent decades also has been taken on by a number of academic institutions in Europe, such as the Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies and Bhaktivedanta College . _See also: Krishnology _


In Jewish theology , the historical absence of political authority has meant that most theological reflection has happened within the context of the Jewish community and synagogue , rather than within specialized academic institutions, including though Rabbinical discussion of Jewish law and Jewish Biblical commentaries . Historically it has been very active, and highly significant for Christian and Islamic theology and well as for Judaism.


Christian theology is the study of Christian belief and practice. Such study concentrates primarily upon the texts of the Old Testament and the New Testament as well as on Christian tradition. Christian theologians use biblical exegesis, rational analysis and argument. Theology might be undertaken to help the theologian better understand Christian tenets, to make comparisons between Christianity and other traditions, to defend Christianity against objections and criticism, to facilitate reforms in the Christian church, to assist in the propagation of Christianity, to draw on the resources of the Christian tradition to address some present situation or need, or for a variety of other reasons.


Allamah Sayyid Abul A\'la Maududi was the most influential Islamic theologian of the 20th century.

Islamic theological discussion that parallels Christian theological discussion is named " Kalam "; the Islamic analogue of Christian theological discussion would more properly be the investigation and elaboration of Sharia or Fiqh . " Kalam ... does not hold the leading place in Muslim thought that theology does in Christianity. To find an equivalent for 'theology' in the Christian sense it is necessary to have recourse to several disciplines, and to the usul al-fiqh as much as to kalam." (L. Gardet)


Some academic inquiries within Buddhism , dedicated to the investigation of a Buddhist understanding of the world, prefer the designation Buddhist philosophy to the term Buddhist theology, since Buddhism lacks the same conception of a _theos_. Jose Ignacio Cabezon, who argues that the use of "theology" _is_ appropriate, can only do so, he says, because "I take theology not to be restricted to discourse on God ... I take 'theology' not to be restricted to its etymological meaning. In that latter sense, Buddhism is of course _a_theological, rejecting as it does the notion of God."


See Outline of theology


The history of the study of theology in institutions of higher education is as old as the history of such institutions themselves. For instance, Taxila was an early centre of Vedic learning, possible from the 6th century BC or earlier; the Platonic Academy founded in Athens in the 4th century BC seems to have included theological themes in its subject matter; the Chinese Taixue delivered Confucian teaching from the 2nd century BC; the School of Nisibis was a centre of Christian learning from the 4th century AD; Nalanda in India was a site of Buddhist higher learning from at least the 5th or 6th century AD; and the Moroccan University of Al-Karaouine was a centre of Islamic learning from the 10th century, as was Al-Azhar University in Cairo.

The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as _studia generalia _ and perhaps from cathedral schools. It is possible, however, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception. Later they were also founded by Kings (University of Naples Federico II , Charles University in Prague , Jagiellonian University in Kraków ) or municipal administrations (University of Cologne , University of Erfurt ). In the early medieval period , most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools, usually when these schools were deemed to have become primarily sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by monasteries. Christian theological learning was therefore a component in these institutions, as was the study of Church or Canon law : universities played an important role in training people for ecclesiastical offices, in helping the church pursue the clarification and defence of its teaching, and in supporting the legal rights of the church over against secular rulers. At such universities, theological study was initially closely tied to the life of faith and of the church: it fed, and was fed by, practices of preaching , prayer and celebration of the Mass .

During the High Middle Ages, theology was therefore the ultimate subject at universities, being named "The Queen of the Sciences" and serving as the capstone to the Trivium and Quadrivium that young men were expected to study. This meant that the other subjects (including Philosophy ) existed primarily to help with theological thought.

Christian theology’s preeminent place in the university began to be challenged during the European Enlightenment , especially in Germany. Other subjects gained in independence and prestige, and questions were raised about the place in institutions that were increasingly understood to be devoted to independent reason of a discipline that seemed to involve commitment to the authority of particular religious traditions.

Since the early nineteenth century, various different approaches have emerged in the West to theology as an academic discipline. Much of the debate concerning theology's place in the university or within a general higher education curriculum centres on whether theology's methods are appropriately theoretical and (broadly speaking) scientific or, on the other hand, whether theology requires a pre-commitment of faith by its practitioners, and whether such a commitment conflicts with academic freedom.


In some contexts, theology has been held to belong in institutions of higher education primarily as a form of professional training for Christian ministry. This was the basis on which Friedrich Schleiermacher , a liberal theologian, argued for the inclusion of theology in the new University of Berlin in 1810.

For instance, in Germany , theological faculties at state universities are typically tied to particular denominations, Protestant or Roman Catholic, and those faculties will offer denominationally-bound _(konfessionsgebunden)_ degrees, and have denominationally bound public posts amongst their faculty; as well as contributing ‘to the development and growth of Christian knowledge’ they ‘provide the academic training for the future clergy and teachers of religious instruction at German schools.’

In the United States, several prominent colleges and universities were started in order to train Christian ministers. Harvard , Georgetown , Boston University , Yale , and Princeton all had the theological training of clergy as a primary purpose at their foundation.

Seminaries and bible colleges have continued this alliance between the academic study of theology and training for Christian ministry. There are, for instance, numerous prominent US examples, including Catholic Theological Union in Chicago, The Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, Criswell College in Dallas, The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Deerfield, Illinois, Dallas Theological Seminary , North Texas Collegiate Institute in Farmers Branch, Texas and The Assemblies of God Theological Seminary in Springfield, Missouri.


In some contexts, scholars pursue theology as an academic discipline without formal affiliation to any particular church (though members of staff may well have affiliations to churches), and without focussing on ministerial training. This applies, for instance, to many university departments in the United Kingdom , including the Faculties of Divinity at the University of Cambridge and University of Oxford , the Department of Theology and Religion at the University of Exeter , and the Department of Theology and Religious Studies at the University of Leeds . Traditional academic prizes, such as the University of Aberdeen 's Lumsden and Sachs Fellowship , tend to acknowledge performance in theology (or divinity as it is known at Aberdeen) and in religious studies.


In some contemporary contexts, a distinction is made between theology, which is seen as involving some level of commitment to the claims of the religious tradition being studied, and religious studies , which by contrast is normally seen as requiring that the question of the truth or falsehood of the religious traditions studied be kept outside its field. Religious studies involves the study of historical or contemporary practices or of those traditions' ideas using intellectual tools and frameworks that are not themselves specifically tied to any religious tradition and that are normally understood to be neutral or secular. In contexts where 'religious studies' in this sense is the focus, the primary forms of study are likely to include:

* Anthropology of religion * Comparative religion * History of religions * Philosophy of religion * Psychology of religion * Sociology of religion

Sometimes, theology and religious studies are seen as being in tension, and at other times, they are held to coexist without serious tension. Occasionally it is denied that there is as clear a boundary between them.


See also: Criticism of religion

There is an ancient tradition of skepticism about theology, followed by a more modern rise in secularist and atheist criticism.


Whether or not reasoned discussion about the divine is possible has long been a point of contention.

Protagoras , as early as the fifth century BC, who is reputed to have been exiled from Athens because of his agnosticism about the existence of the gods, said that "Concerning the gods I cannot know either that they exist or that they do not exist, or what form they might have, for there is much to prevent one's knowing: the _obscurity of the subject_ and the shortness of man's life."

Lord Bolingbroke , an English politician and political philosopher wrote in his political works his views on theology, " Theology is in fault not religion. Theology is a science that may justly be compared to the Box of Pandora . Many good things lie uppermost in it; but many evil lie under them, and scatter plagues and desolation throughout the world."

Thomas Paine the American revolutionary, wrote in his two part work _The Age of Reason _, "The study of theology, as it stands in Christian churches, is the study of nothing; it is founded on nothing; it rests on no principles; it proceeds by no authorities; it has no data; it can demonstrate nothing; and it admits of no conclusion. Not anything can be studied as a science, without our being in possession of the principles upon which it is founded; and as this is the case with Christian theology, it is therefore the study of nothing."

Ludwig Feuerbach , the atheist philosopher sought to dissolve theology in his work _Principles of the Philosophy of the Future_: "The task of the modern era was the realization and humanization of God – the transformation and dissolution of theology into anthropology." This mirrored his earlier work _The Essence of Christianity _ (pub. 1841), for which he was banned from teaching in Germany, in which he had said that theology was a "web of contradictions and delusions".

A.J. Ayer the former logical-positivist, sought to show in his essay " Critique of Ethics and Theology" that all statements about the divine are nonsensical and any divine-attribute is unprovable. He wrote: "It is now generally admitted, at any rate by philosophers, that the existence of a being having the attributes which define the god of any non-animistic religion cannot be demonstratively proved... ll utterances about the nature of God are nonsensical."

Walter Kaufmann the philosopher, in his essay "Against Theology", sought to differentiate theology from religion in general. "Theology, of course, is not religion; and a great deal of religion is emphatically anti-theological... An attack on theology, therefore, should not be taken as necessarily involving an attack on religion. Religion can be, and often has been, untheological or even anti-theological." However, Kaufmann found that " Christianity is inescapably a theological religion".


Critics dating back to the 18th century have questioned the suitability of theology as an academic discipline and in the 21st century criticism continues.


Charles Bradlaugh believed theology prevented human beings achieving liberty. Bradlaugh noted theologians of his time stated that modern scientific research contradicted sacred scriptures therefore the scriptures must be wrong.

Robert G. Ingersoll stated that when theologians had power the majority of people lived in hovels while a privileged few had palaces and cathedrals. In Ingersoll's opinion science rather than theology improved people's lives. Ingersoll maintained further that trained theologians reason no better than a person who assumes the devil must exist because pictures resemble the devil so exactly.

Mark Twain stated that several mutually incompatible religions claimed to be the true religion and that people cut the throats of others for following a different theology.


Main article: History of theology

_Theology_ translates into English from the Greek _theologia_ (θεολογία) which derived from _Τheos_ (Θεός), meaning " God ," and _-logia_ (-λογία), meaning "utterances, sayings, or oracles " (a word related to _logos_ , meaning "word, discourse , account, or reasoning ") which had passed into Latin as _theologia_ and into French as _théologie_. The English equivalent "theology" (Theologie, Teologye) had evolved by 1362. The sense the word has in English depends in large part on the sense the Latin and Greek equivalents had acquired in patristic and medieval Christian usage, although the English term has now spread beyond Christian contexts.

Greek _theologia_ (θεολογία) was used with the meaning "discourse on god" in the fourth century BC by Plato in _The Republic _, Book ii, Ch. 18. Aristotle divided theoretical philosophy into _mathematike_, _physike_ and _theologike_, with the latter corresponding roughly to metaphysics , which, for Aristotle, included discourse on the nature of the divine.

Drawing on Greek Stoic sources, the Latin writer Varro distinguished three forms of such discourse: mythical (concerning the myths of the Greek gods), rational (philosophical analysis of the gods and of cosmology) and civil (concerning the rites and duties of public religious observance).

_Theologos_, closely related to theologia, appears once in some biblical manuscripts , in the heading to the Book of Revelation : _apokalypsis ioannoy toy theologoy_, "the revelation of John the _theologos_." There, however, the word refers not to John the "theologian" in the modern English sense of the word but—using a slightly different sense of the root _logos_, meaning not "rational discourse" but "word" or "message"—one who speaks the words of God, _logoi toy theoy_.

Some Latin Christian authors, such as Tertullian and Augustine , followed Varro's threefold usage, though Augustine also used the term more simply to mean 'reasoning or discussion concerning the deity'

In patristic Greek Christian sources, _theologia_ could refer narrowly to devout and inspired knowledge of, and teaching about, the essential nature of God.

The Latin author Boethius , writing in the early 6th century, used _theologia_ to denote a subdivision of philosophy as a subject of academic study, dealing with the motionless, incorporeal reality (as opposed to _physica_, which deals with corporeal , moving realities). Boethius' definition influenced medieval Latin usage.

In scholastic Latin sources, the term came to denote the rational study of the doctrines of the Christian religion , or (more precisely) the academic discipline which investigated the coherence and implications of the language and claims of the Bible and of the theological tradition (the latter often as represented in Peter Lombard 's _ Sentences _, a book of extracts from the Church Fathers).

In the Renaissance, especially with Florentine Platonist apologists of Dante 's poetics, the distinction between "poetic theology" (_theologia poetica _) and "revealed" or Biblical theology serves as steppingstone for a revival of philosophy as independent of theological authority.

It is in this last sense, theology as an academic discipline involving rational study of Christian teaching, that the term passed into English in the fourteenth century, although it could also be used in the narrower sense found in Boethius and the Greek patristic authors, to mean rational study of the essential nature of God – a discourse now sometimes called Theology Proper .

From the 17th century onwards, it also became possible to use the term theology to refer to study of religious ideas and teachings that are not specifically Christian (e.g., in the term natural theology which denoted theology based on reasoning from natural facts independent of specifically Christian revelation, ) or that are specific to another religion (see below).

"Theology" can also now be used in a derived sense to mean "a system of theoretical principles; an (impractical or rigid) ideology."


* ^ "theology". Wordnetweb.princeton.edu. Retrieved 2012-11-11. * ^ _A_ _B_ _City of God _ Book VIII. i. "de divinitate rationem sive sermonem" Archived 4 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "\'\'Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity\'\', 3.8.11" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-11-11. * ^ McGrath, Alister . 1998. Historical Theology: An Introduction to the History of Christian Thought. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. pp. 1–8. * ^ See, e.g., Daniel L. Migliore , _ Faith Seeking Understanding: An Introduction to Christian Theology_ 2nd ed.(Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2004) * ^ See, e.g., Michael S. Kogan, 'Toward a Jewish Theology of Christianity' in _The Journal of Ecumenical Studies_ 32.1 (Winter 1995), 89–106; available online at Archived 15 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ See, e.g., Duncan Dormor et al (eds), _Anglicanism, the Answer to Modernity_ (London: Continuum, 2003) * ^ See, e.g., John Shelby Spong, _Why Christianity Must Change or Die_ (New York: Harper Collins, 2001) * ^ See, e.g., David Burrell, _Freedom and Creation in Three Traditions_ (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1994) * ^ See, e.g., Timothy Gorringe, _Crime_, Changing Society and the Churches Series (London:SPCK, 2004) * ^ See e.g., Anne Hunt Overzee's gloss upon the view of Ricœur (1913–2005) as to the role and work of 'theologian': "Paul Ricœur speaks of the theologian as a hermeneut, whose task is to interpret the multivalent, rich metaphors arising from the symbolic bases of tradition so that the symbols may 'speak' once again to our existential situation." Anne Hunt Overzee _The body divine: the symbol of the body in the works of Teilhard de Chardin and Rāmānuja_, Cambridge studies in religious traditions 2 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), ISBN 0-521-38516-4 , ISBN 978-0-521-38516-9 , p.4; Source: (accessed: Monday 5 April 2010) * ^ E.g., by Count E. Goblet d'Alviella in 1908; see Alan H. Jones, _Independence and Exegesis: The Study of Early Christianity in the Work of Alfred Loisy (1857–1940), Charles Guignebert (1857 –1939), and Maurice Goguel (1880–1955)_ (Mohr Siebeck, 1983), p.194. * ^ See Anna S. King, 'For Love of Krishna: Forty Years of Chanting' in Graham Dwyer and Richard J. Cole, _The Hare Krishna Movement: Forty Years of Chant and Change_ (London/New York: I.B. Tauris, 2006), pp. 134–167: p. 163, which describes developments in both institutions, and speaks of Hare Krishna devotees 'studying Vaishnava theology and practice in mainstream universities.' * ^ Randi Rashkover, \'A Call for Jewish Theology\', _Crosscurrents_, Winter 1999, starts by saying, "Frequently the claim is made that, unlike Christianity, Judaism is a tradition of deeds and maintains no strict theological tradition. Judaism's fundamental beliefs are inextricable from their halakhic observance (that set of laws revealed to Jews by God), embedded and presupposed by that way of life as it is lived and learned." * ^ Lerman, Eran (October 1981). "Maududi's Concept of Islam". _Middle Eastern Studies_. JSTOR. 17 (4): 492–509. JSTOR 4282856 . doi :10.1080/00263208108700487 . it is hard to exaggerate the importance of its current drift toward's Maududi's version of Islam * ^ L. Gardet, 'Ilm al-kalam' in _The Encyclopedia of Islam_, ed. P.J. Bearman et al (Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV, 1999 ). * ^ Jose Ignacio Cabezon, 'Buddhist Theology in the Academy' in Roger Jackson and John J. Makransky's _Buddhist Theology: Critical Reflections by Contemporary Buddhist Scholars_ (London: Routledge, 1999), pp. 25–52. * ^ Timothy Reagan, _Non-Western Educational Traditions: Alternative Approaches to Educational Thought and Practice_, 3rd edition (Lawrence Erlbaum: 2004), p.185 and Sunna Chitnis, 'Higher Education' in Veena Das (ed), _The Oxford India Companion to Sociology and Social Anthropology_ (New Delhi: Oxford University Press , 2003), pp. 1032–1056: p.1036 suggest an early date; a more cautious appraisal is given in Hartmut Scharfe, _Education in Ancient India_ (Leiden: Brill, 2002), pp. 140–142. * ^ John Dillon, _The Heirs of Plato: A Study in the Old Academy, 347–274BC (Oxford: OUP, 2003)_ * ^ Xinzhong Yao, _An Introduction to Confucianism_ (Cambridge: CUP, 2000), p.50. * ^ Adam H. Becker, _The Fear of God and the Beginning of Wisdom: The School of Nisibis and the Development of Scholastic Culture in Late Antique Mesopotamia_ (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006); see also The School of Nisibis at Nestorian.org * ^ Hartmut Scharfe, _Education in Ancient India_ (Leiden: Brill, 2002), p.149. * ^ The Al-Qarawiyyin mosque was founded in 859 AD, but 'While instruction at the mosque must have begun almost from the beginning, it is only ... by the end of the tenth-century that its reputation as a center of learning in both religious and secular sciences ... must have begun to wax.' Y. G-M. Lulat, _A History of African Higher Education from Antiquity to the Present: A Critical Synthesis_ (Greenwood, 2005), p.71 * ^ Andrew Beattie, _Cairo: A Cultural History_ (New York: Oxford University Press , 2005), p.101. * ^ Gordon Leff, _Paris and Oxford Universities in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. An Institutional and Intellectual History_, Wiley, 1968. * ^ Johnson, P. (2000). The Renaissance : a short history. Modern Library chronicles (Modern Library ed.). New York: Modern Library, p. 9. * ^ Walter Rüegg, “Themes” in Walter Rüegg, _A History of the University in Europe_, vol.1, ed. H. de Ridder-Symoens, _Universities in the Middle Ages_ (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 3–34: pp. 15–16. * ^ See Gavin D\'Costa , _ Theology in the Public Square: Church, Academy and Nation_ (Oxford: Blackwell, 2005), ch.1. * ^ Thomas Albert Howard , _Protestant Theology and the Making of the Modern German University_ (Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2006), p.56: 'hilosophy, the _scientia scientarum_ in one sense, was, in another, portrayed as the humble "handmaid of theology".' * ^ See Thomas Albert Howard , _Protestant Theology and the Making of the Modern German University_ (Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2006): * ^ See Thomas Albert Howard ’s work already cited, and his discussion of, for instance, Immanuel Kant’s _Conflict of the Faculties_ (1798), and J.G. Fichte’s _Deduzierter Plan einer zu Berlin errichtenden höheren Lehranstalt_ (1807). * ^ See Thomas Albert Howard , _Protestant Theology and the Making of the Modern German University_ (Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2006); Hans W. Frei, _Types of Christian Theology_, ed. William C. Placher and George Hunsinger (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992); Gavin D'Costa, _ Theology in the Public Square: Church, Academy and Nation_ (Oxford: Blackwell, 2005); James W. McClendon, _Systematic Theology 3: Witness_ (Nashville, TN: Abingdon, 2000), ch.10: 'Theology and the University'. * ^ Friedrich Schleiermacher, _Brief Outline of Theology as a Field of Study_, 2nd edition, tr. Terrence N. Tice (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 1990); Thomas Albert Howard , _Protestant Theology and the Making of the Modern German University_ (Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2006), ch.14. * ^ Reinhard G. Kratz, 'Academic Theology in Germany', _Religion_ 32.2 (2002): pp.113–116. * ^ 'The primary purpose of Harvard College was, accordingly, the training of clergy.’ But ‘the school served a dual purpose, training men for other professions as well.’ George M. Marsden, _The Soul of the American University: From Protestant Establishment to Established Nonbelief_ (New York: Oxford University Press , 1994), p.41. * ^ Georgetown was a Jesuit institution founded in significant part to provide a pool of educated Catholics some of whom who could go on to full seminary training for the priesthood. See Robert Emmett Curran, Leo J. O’Donovan, _The Bicentennial History of Georgetown University: From Academy to University 1789–1889 (Georgetown: Georgetown University Press, 1961), Part One._ * ^ Boston University emerged from the Boston School of Theology, a Methodist seminary. Boston University Information Center, ' History – The Early Years' Archived 31 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Yale’s original 1701 charter speaks of the purpose being 'Sincere Regard & Zeal for upholding & Propagating of the Christian Protestant Religion by a succession of Learned available online at * ^ At Princeton, one of the founders (probably Ebeneezer Pemberton) wrote in c.1750, ‘Though our great Intention was to erect a seminary for educating Ministers of the Gospel, yet we hope it will be useful in other learned professions – Ornaments of the State as Well as the Church. Therefore we propose to make the plan of Education as extensive as our Circumstances will admit.’ Quoted in Alexander Leitch, _A Princeton Companion_ ( Princeton University Press, 1978). * ^ See \'The CTU Story\' at Catholic Theological Union website (Retrieved 16 March 2013): 'lay men and women, religious sisters and brothers, and seminarians have studied alongside one another, preparing to serve God’s people.' * ^ See \'About the GTU\' at The Graduate Theological Union website (Retrieved 29 August 2009): 'dedicated to educating students for teaching, research, ministry, and service.' * ^ See \'About Us\' Archived 26 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine . at the Criswell College website (Retrieved 29 August 2009): ' Criswell College exists to serve the churches of our Lord Jesus Christ by developing God-called men and women in the Word (intellectually and academically) and by the Word (professionally and spiritually) for authentic ministry leadership.' "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 April 2010. Retrieved 2009-08-30. * ^ See the \'Mission Statement\' Archived 29 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine . at the SBTS website (Retrieved 29 August 2009): 'the mission of The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary is ... to be a servant of the churches of the Southern Baptist Convention by training, educating, and preparing ministers of the gospel for more faithful service.' "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 March 2015. Retrieved 2009-08-30. * ^ See \'About Trinity Evangelical Divinity School\' Archived 30 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine . at their website (Retrieved 29 August 2009): ' Trinity Evangelical Divinity School (TEDS) is a learning community dedicated to the development of servant leaders for the global church, leaders who are spiritually, biblically, and theologically prepared to engage contemporary culture for the sake of Christ's kingdom.' "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 August 2011. Retrieved 2009-08-30. * ^ See \'About DTS\' at the Dallas Theological Seminary website (Retrieved 29 August 2009): 'At Dallas, the scholarly study of biblical and related subjects is inseparably fused with the cultivation of the spiritual life. All this is designed to prepare students to communicate the Word of God in the power of the Spirit of God.' * ^ http://ntcollege.org/ * ^ See the \'Why Study Theology?\' Archived 9 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine . page at the University of Exeter (Retrieved 1 September 2009), and the \'About us\' page at the University of Leeds. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 August 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-01. * ^ See, for example, Donald Wiebe, _The Politics of Religious Studies: The Continuing Conflict with Theology in the Academy_ (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2000). * ^ See K.L. Knoll, \'The Ethics of Being a Theologian\', _Chronicle of Higher Education_, 27 July 2009. * ^ See David Ford, ' Theology and Religious Studies for a Multifaith and Secular Society' in D.L. Bird and Simon G. Smith (eds), _ Theology and Religious Studies in Higher Education_ (London: Continuum, 2009). * ^ Timothy Fitzgerald, _The Ideology of Religious Studies_ (Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2000). * ^ Protagoras, fr.4, from _On the Gods_, tr. Michael J. O'Brien in _The Older Sophists_, ed. Rosamund Kent Sprague (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1972), 20, emphasis added. Cf. Carol Poster, " Protagoras (fl. 5th C. BCE)" in _The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy_; accessed: 6 October 2008. * ^ The philosophical works of Lord Bolingbroke Volume 3, p. 396 * ^ Thomas Paine , The Age of Reason , from "The Life and Major Writings of Thomas Paine", ed. Philip S. Foner , (New York, The Citadel Press, 1945) p. 601. * ^ Ludwig Feuerbach , Principles of the Philosophy of the Future , trans. Manfred H. Vogel, (Indianapolis, Hackett Publishing Company, 1986) p5 * ^ Ludwig Feuerbach , _ The Essence of Christianity _, trans. George Eliot , (Amherst, New York, Prometheus Books, 1989) Preface, XVI. * ^ A.J. Ayer , Language, Truth and Logic , (New York, Dover Publications, 1936) pp. 114–115. * ^ Walter Kaufmann , The Faith of a Heretic , (Garden City, New York, Anchor Books, 1963) pp. 114, 127–128, 130. * ^ Gerard Loughlin. " Theology in the university". Cco.cambridge.org. Retrieved 2012-11-11. * ^ " Charles Bradlaugh (1833-1891)". Positiveatheism.org. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 2012-11-11. * ^ "Humanity\'s Gain from Unbelief". Positiveatheism.org. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-11. * ^ "Robert Green Ingersoll". Positiveatheism.org. 1954-08-11. Retrieved 2012-11-11. * ^ "Directory of Mark Twain\'s maxims, quotations, and various opinions". Twainquotes.com. 1902-11-28. Retrieved 2012-11-11. * ^ The accusative plural of the neuter noun λόγιον; cf. Walter Bauer, William F. Arndt, F. Wilbur Gingrich, Frederick W. Danker, _A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament,_ 2nd ed., (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1979), 476. For examples of λόγια in the New Testament, cf. Acts 7:38; Romans 3:2; 1 Peter 4:11. * ^ Langland, Piers Plowman A ix 136 * ^ Liddell and Scott\'s _Greek-English Lexicon\'_'. * ^ Aristotle, _Metaphysics_, Book Epsilon. Archived 16 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ As cited by Augustine, _City of God _, Book 6, ch.5. * ^ This title appears quite late in the manuscript tradition for the Book of Revelation: the two earliest citations provided in David Aune 's _Word Biblical Commentary 52: Revelation 1–5_ (Dallas: Word Books, 1997) are both 11th century – Gregory 325/Hoskier 9 and Gregory 1006/Hoskier 215; the title was however in circulation by the 6th century – see Allen Brent ‘John as theologos: the imperial mysteries and the Apocalypse’, _Journal for the Study of the New Testament_ 75 (1999), 87–102. * ^ See Augustine, _City of God _, Book 6, ch.5. and Tertullian, _Ad Nationes_, Book 2, ch.1. * ^ Gregory of Nazianzus uses the word in this sense in his fourth-century _Theological Orations_; after his death, he was called "the Theologian" at the Council of Chalcedon and thereafter in Eastern Orthodoxy —either because his _Orations_were seen as crucial examples of this kind of theology, or in the sense that he was (like the author of the Book of Revelation) seen as one who was an inspired preacher of the words of God. (It is unlikely to mean, as claimed in the _Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers_ introduction to his _Theological Orations_, that he was a defender of the divinity of Christ the Word.) See John McGukin, _Saint Gregory of Nazianzus : An Intellectual Biography_ (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 2001), p.278. * ^ "Boethius, On the Holy Trinity" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-11-11. * ^ G.R. Evans, _Old Arts and New Theology: The Beginnings of Theology as an Academic Discipline_ (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980), 31–32. * ^ See the title of Peter Abelard 's _Theologia Christiana_, and, perhaps most famously, of Thomas Aquinas ' _ Summa Theologica _ * ^ See the 'note' in the Oxford English Dictionary entry for 'theology'. * ^ See, for example, Charles Hodge, _Systematic Theology_, vol. 1, part 1 (1871). * ^ _Oxford English Dictionary_, sense 1 * ^ _Oxford English Dictionary_, 1989 edition, 'Theology' sense 1(d), and 'Theological' sense A.3; the earliest reference given is from the 1959 _Times Literary Supplement_ 5 June 329/4: "The 'theological' approach to Soviet Marxism ... proves in the long run unsatisfactory."


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