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Theodore Harold "Ted" Maiman (July 11, 1927 – May 5, 2007) was an American engineer and physicist who was widely, but not universally, credited with the invention of the laser (Others attribute the invention to Gordon Gould).[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] Maiman's laser led to the subsequent development of many other types of lasers.[8][9] The laser was successfully fired on May 16, 1960. In a July 7, 1960 press conference in Manhattan,[10] Maiman and his employer, Hughes Aircraft Company, announced the laser to the world.[11] Maiman was granted a patent for his invention,[12] and he received many awards and honors for his work. Maiman's experiences in developing the first laser and subsequent related events are described in his book, The Laser Odyssey.[13]

Contents

1 Life and career 2 Awards and recognition 3 Death 4 References 5 External links

Life and career[edit] Maiman was born in Los Angeles, California
Los Angeles, California
to Abraham "Abe" Maiman, an electrical engineer[10] and inventor, and Rose Abramson. At a young age his family moved to Denver, Colorado, where he helped his father with experimentation in a home electronics laboratory. In his teens Maiman earned money by repairing electrical appliances and radios,[14] and after leaving high school was employed as a junior engineer with the National Union Radio Company at age 17.[15] Following a year's service in the U.S. Navy at the end of World War II,[16] he earned a B.S. in Engineering Physics
Physics
from the University of Colorado Boulder. Maiman then went on to graduate studies at Stanford University where he earned an M.S. in Electrical Engineering
Electrical Engineering
in 1951 and a PhD in Physics
Physics
in 1955. His doctoral thesis in experimental physics, under the direction of physicist Willis Lamb,[10] involved detailed microwave-optical measurements of fine structural splittings in excited helium atoms. He also devised laboratory instrumentation for Lamb's experiments. Maiman published two articles jointly with Lamb in Physical Review, the second of which was based on his own thesis research.[17][18] His thesis experiment was instrumental in his development of the laser.[13]:34 In 1956 Maiman started work with the Atomic Physics
Physics
Department of the Hughes Aircraft Company
Hughes Aircraft Company
(later Hughes Research Laboratories
Hughes Research Laboratories
or HRL Laboratories) in California where he led the ruby maser redesign project for the U.S. Army Signal Corps, reducing it from a 2.5-ton cryogenic device to 4 pounds while improving its performance.[5]:88[19] As a result of this success Maiman persuaded Hughes management to use company funds to support his laser project beginning in mid-1959. On a total budget of $50,000, Maiman turned to the development of a laser based on his own design with a synthetic ruby crystal, which other scientists seeking to make a laser felt would not work.[20][21][22] On May 16, 1960, at Hughes' Malibu, California, labs, Maiman's solid-state pink ruby laser emitted mankind's first coherent light—with rays[14] all the same wavelength and fully in phase. Maiman documented his invention in Nature[10][15][23] and published other scholarly articles describing the science and technology underlying his laser.[24][25][26][27][28] Maiman had begun conceptualizing a solid-state laser design even before he undertook the maser project at Hughes.[5]:45[13]:45 Moving the microwave frequency of masers up the electromagnetic spectrum 50,000-fold to the frequency of light would require finding a feasible lasing medium and excitation source and designing the system.[5]:34–37[29] Other major research groups at IBM, Bell Labs, MIT, Westinghouse, RCA
RCA
and Columbia University, among others, were also pursuing projects to develop a laser.[5]:7[13]:45 Their work was stimulated by a 1958 paper by Arthur L. Schawlow and Charles H. Townes
Charles H. Townes
offering theoretical analysis and a proposal for a gaseous system using potassium vapor excited by a potassium lamp.[3]:216[5]:92[30] However, Maiman identified multiple flaws in the Schawlow-Townes proposal and pursued his own solid-state design.[5]:111[13]:151–156[31] His successful design utilized synthetic pink ruby crystal as the lasing medium and a helical xenon flash lamp as the excitation source.[3]:226–234[5]:170–182[32] As Townes later wrote, "Maiman's laser had several aspects not considered in our theoretical paper, nor discussed by others before the ruby demonstration."[4]:108 Following his invention of the laser, in 1961 Maiman and seven colleagues departed Hughes to join the newly formed Quantatron company, which grew in-house ruby crystals for lasers. In 1962 Maiman founded and became the president of the Korad Corporation, which manufactured high-power ruby lasers.[10][16] After Korad was fully acquired by Union Carbide
Union Carbide
in 1968,[14] Maiman left to found Maiman Associates, a venture capital firm. In 1971 Maiman founded the Laser Video Corporation, and from 1976 to 1983 he worked as vice president for advanced technology at TRW Electronics (now Northrop Grumman).[3]:232 He later served as consultant to Laser
Laser
Centers of America, Inc. (now LCA-Vision Inc.) and director of Control Laser Corporation. Maiman continued his involvement in laser developments and applications. In addition to his patent for the first working laser, Maiman authored a number of patents on masers, lasers, laser displays, optical scanning, and modulation.[33] Awards and recognition[edit] Maiman received numerous prizes, awards, and accolades over the years for his development of the first laser. He was given membership in both the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering.[19] He was made a Fellow of the American Physical Society, the Optical Society
Optical Society
of America (OSA), and the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).[15] In 1962 Maiman was awarded the Franklin Institute's Stuart Ballantine Medal for physics.[34] In 1966 Maiman received the American Physical Society's Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize and the Fannie and John Hertz Foundation Award for distinguished contribution in the field of science,[34] presented in a White House ceremony by President Lyndon B. Johnson.[35] In 1976 Maiman was awarded the Optical Society
Optical Society
of America's R.W. Wood Prize for "Pioneer Development of the First Laser". He was the recipient of the 1983/84 Wolf Prize in Physics[14] and was also inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame
National Inventors Hall of Fame
that year.[10][36] In 1987 Maiman was awarded the Japan Prize[14] in Electro-Optics for "realization of the world's first laser."[37] In 1994 he was inducted as an honorary fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, the only non-physician, non-royal member. Time magazine cited Maiman's invention of the laser as among the twenty most important technological developments of the 20th century.[38] Many universities granted Maiman honorary degrees, with the last from Simon Fraser University
Simon Fraser University
in 2002.[39] Recognition for Maiman and his laser invention continued posthumously. In a 2007 obituary testimonial, maser co-inventor Charles H. Townes described Maiman's 1960 Nature article on his laser as "probably more important per word than any of the papers published by Nature over the past century."[40] The annual Theodore Maiman
Theodore Maiman
Student Paper Competition was established in 2008, endowed by major laser groups, and is administered by the OSA Foundation.[41] In 2010 numerous events were staged worldwide by major scientific and industry photonics organizations to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Maiman's first laser and subsequent lasers under the umbrella of LaserFest.[42] Related to these events, the U.S. Congress passed a resolution celebrating the invention of the laser and citing Maiman.[43] Also in 2010 Maiman's laser achievement was recognized as an IEEE Milestone,[39] and the American Physical Society
American Physical Society
presented Hughes Research Laboratories with a plaque to commemorate the historic site of the world's first laser.[44] In 2011 Maiman was recognized by Stanford
Stanford
University as a "Stanford Engineering Hero," citing his "rare blend of advanced training in physics and engineering combined with significant laboratory experience."[45] In 2014 the National Academy of Sciences
National Academy of Sciences
published a biographical memoir of Maiman including a tribute by Nick Holonyak, Jr.[46] Death[edit] Maiman died from systemic mastocytosis on May 5, 2007 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, where he lived with his wife, Kathleen.[10][47] References[edit]

^ Lengyel, Bela A. (1962). Lasers: Generation of Light by Simulated Emission. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 22–28.  ^ Bromberg, Joan Lisa (1991). The Laser
Laser
in America, 1950–1970. MIT Press. pp. 86–92.  ^ a b c d Bertolotti, Mario (2005). The History of the Laser. Institute of Physics
Physics
Publishing. pp. 226–234.  ^ a b Townes, Charles H. (2003). Laura Garwin and Tim Lincoln, ed. "The First Laser". A Century of Nature: Twenty-One Discoveries that Changed Science and the World. University of Chicago Press. pp. 107–12.  ^ a b c d e f g h Hecht, Jeff (2005). Beam: The Race to Make the Laser. Oxford University Press. pp. 106–15, 169–82.  ^ Johnson, John Jr. (May 11, 2008). "Theodore H. Maiman, at age 32; scientist created the first LASER". Los Angeles Times.  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ "Maiman Builds First Working Laser". Physics
Physics
History: May 16, 1960. APS News 19. May 2010.  ^ "The First Ruby Laser". LaserFest. Retrieved December 31, 2013.  ^ "Voila. That was it! The Laser
Laser
was born! Celebrating 50 Years of Laser
Laser
Technology, 1960–2010". HRL Laboratories LLC. Retrieved December 31, 2013.  ^ a b c d e f g Martin, Douglas (11 May 2007). "Theodore Maiman, 79, Dies; Demonstrated First Laser". The New York Times.  ^ "Speech by Dr. Theodore H. Maiman, Hughes Aircraft Company, at a Press Conference at the Hotel Delmonico" (PDF). New York. July 7, 1960. Retrieved December 31, 2013.  ^ U.S. Patent 3,353,115 ^ a b c d e Maiman, Theodore H. (2000). The Laser
Laser
Odyssey: Creator of the World's First Laser. Laser
Laser
Press. ISBN 0-9702927-0-8. Retrieved December 2, 2015.  ^ a b c d e "Theodore Maiman". The Telegraph. May 11, 2007.  ^ a b c " Laser
Laser
Inventor, Biography of Theodore Maiman
Theodore Maiman
from laserinventor.com". Retrieved December 31, 2013.  ^ a b Waters, Rod (2013). Maiman's Invention of the Laser: How Science Fiction Became Reality. CreateSpace Independent Publishing. Retrieved December 31, 2013.  ^ Maiman, T.H.; Lamb, Jr., W.E. (May 1955). "Triplet Fine Structure of Helium". Physical Review. 98 (4): 1194. Bibcode:1955PhRv...98.1144.. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.98.1144.  ^ Lamb, Jr., W.E.; Maiman, T.H. (January 15, 1957). "Measurement of the Fine Structure Separation 333P1 – 33P2 for the Helium Atom". Physical Review. 105 (2): 573–79. Bibcode:1957PhRv..105..573L. doi:10.1103/physrev.105.573.  ^ a b Bromberg, Joan (February 5, 1985). "Oral History Transcript– Dr. Irnee D'Haenens - Interview". American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library & Archives. Retrieved December 31, 2013.  ^ Smith, George F. (June 1984). excerpted as "Maiman's Work" HRL Laboratories. "The Early Laser
Laser
Years at Hughes Aircraft Company" (PDF). IEEE
IEEE
Journal of Quantum Electronics QE-20. 6: 577–84. Retrieved December 2, 2015.  ^ Theodore H. Maiman (1985). "The First Laser". Laser
Laser
Pioneer Interviews. High Tech Publications. pp. 85–99.  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ Oakes, Elizabeth H. (2009). "Theodore Maiman". A to Z of STS Scientists. p. 189. ISBN 978-1-4381-0925-1. Retrieved December 2, 2015.  ^ Maiman, Theodore (August 6, 1960). "Stimulated Optical Radiation in Ruby". Nature. 187 (4736): 493–94. Bibcode:1960Natur.187..493M. doi:10.1038/187493a0.  ^ Maiman, T.H. (June 1, 1960). "Optical and Microwave-Optical Experiments in Ruby". Physical Review Letters. 4 (11): 564–66. Bibcode:1960PhRvL...4..564M. doi:10.1103/physrevlett.4.564.  ^ Maiman, T.H. (September 1960). "Optical Maser
Maser
Action in Ruby". British Communications & Electronics: 674–76.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Maiman, T.H. (November 1960). "TC1 Stimulated Optical Emission in Ruby". Journal of the Optical Society
Optical Society
of America. 50 (11): 1134.  ^ Maiman, T.H. (August 15, 1961). "Stimulated Optical Emission in Fluorescent Solids I: Theoretical Considerations". Physical Review. 123 (4): 1145–50. Bibcode:1961PhRv..123.1145M. doi:10.1103/physrev.123.1145.  ^ T.H. Maiman; R.H. Hoskins; I.J. D'Haenens; C.K. Asawa & V. Evtuhov (August 15, 1961). "Stimulated Optical Emission in Fluorescent Solids II: Spectroscopy and Stimulated Emission in Ruby". Physical Review. 123 (4): 1151–57. Bibcode:1961PhRv..123.1151M. doi:10.1103/physrev.123.1151.  ^ Lengyel, Bela A. (1971). Lasers (2nd ed.). Wiley-Interscience. pp. 41–42. ISBN 0-471-52620-7.  ^ Schawlow, A.L.; Townes, C.H. (December 1958). "Infrared and Optical Masers". Physical Review. 112 (6): 1940–1949. Bibcode:1958PhRv..112.1940S. doi:10.1103/physrev.112.1940.  ^ D'Haenens, I.J. (October 2007). "Obituary: Theodore Harold Maiman". Physics
Physics
Today. 60 (10): 72. Bibcode:2007PhT....60j..72D. doi:10.1063/1.2800106. Retrieved December 2, 2015.  ^ Lengyel, Bela A. (1966). Introduction to Laser
Laser
Physics. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 90–101.  ^ " Laser
Laser
Pioneer Ted Maiman Dies at 79". LaserFocusWorld. May 15, 2007. Retrieved December 31, 2013.  ^ a b Day, Lance; McNeil, Ian (1996). Lance Day, Ian McNeil, eds. Biographical Dictionary of the History of Technology. p. 796. ISBN 978-1-134-65020-0. Retrieved December 2, 2015. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(April 27, 1966). Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley. "Remarks on Presenting the Fannie and John Hertz Foundation Award to Dr. All Javan and Dr. Theodore H. Maiman". The American Presidency Project. Retrieved December 31, 2013.  ^ "Inventor Profile: Theodore Harold Maiman". National Inventors Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on January 7, 2014. Retrieved December 31, 2013.  ^ "Laureates". The Japan Prize
Japan Prize
Foundation. Retrieved December 31, 2013.  ^ "20th Century Technology". Time. Retrieved February 2, 2015.  ^ a b "List of IEEE
IEEE
Milestones". IEEE
IEEE
Global History Network. IEEE. Retrieved August 3, 2011.  ^ Townes, Charles H. (June 7, 2007). "Obituary: Theodore H. Maiman (1927–2007), Maker of the First Laser". Nature. 447 (7145): 654. Bibcode:2007Natur.447..654G. doi:10.1038/447654a.  ^ "Maiman Student Paper Competition". OSA. Retrieved December 31, 2013.  ^ "LaserFest: Celebrating 50 Years of Laser
Laser
Innovation". Retrieved December 2, 2015.  ^ "Recognizing the 50th Anniversary of the Laser". House Resolution 1310, 111th Congress. Retrieved December 31, 2013.  ^ "Theodore Maiman: Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, California". APS Historic Sites. Retrieved December 31, 2013.  ^ "2011 Stanford
Stanford
Engineering Heroes". Stanford
Stanford
University. Archived from the original on January 7, 2014. Retrieved December 31, 2013.  ^ Andrew H. Rawicz (2014). Theodore H. Maiman (1927–2007) (PDF). National Academy of Sciences. pp. 23–31. Retrieved February 2, 2015.  ^ Kilbane, Doris (December 7, 2009). "Theodore Maiman: Professional Focus, Personal Warmth". Electronic Design. Retrieved December 31, 2013. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Theodore Maiman.

Theodore H. Maiman via IEEE
IEEE
Global History Network Bright Idea: The First Lasers (history) Time Photos, "20th Century Technology: Laser" SPIE, "Lasers and Sources, Video: Theodore Maiman
Theodore Maiman
on the First Laser" SPIE, "Lasers and Sources, Video: Maiman's First Laser
Laser
Light Shines Again" SPIE, "Video: Celebrating 50 Years of the Laser" on YouTube CLEO, "Video: The World's First Laser, Made by Ted Maiman on May 16, 1960" on YouTube MIT
MIT
Tech TV, "Video: The Laser
Laser
at 50, symposium, October 8, 2010"

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Laureates of the Wolf Prize in Physics

1970s

Chien-Shiung Wu
Chien-Shiung Wu
(1978) George Uhlenbeck / Giuseppe Occhialini
Giuseppe Occhialini
(1979)

1980s

Michael Fisher / Leo Kadanoff
Leo Kadanoff
/ Kenneth G. Wilson (1980) Freeman Dyson
Freeman Dyson
/ Gerardus 't Hooft / Victor Weisskopf (1981) Leon M. Lederman
Leon M. Lederman
/ Martin Lewis Perl (1982) Erwin Hahn / Peter Hirsch / Theodore Maiman
Theodore Maiman
(1983–84) Conyers Herring / Philippe Nozières (1984–85) Mitchell Feigenbaum
Mitchell Feigenbaum
/ Albert J. Libchaber (1986) Herbert Friedman / Bruno Rossi
Bruno Rossi
/ Riccardo Giacconi
Riccardo Giacconi
(1987) Roger Penrose
Roger Penrose
/ Stephen Hawking
Stephen Hawking
(1988)

1990s

Pierre-Gilles de Gennes / David J. Thouless
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(1990) Maurice Goldhaber
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/ Valentine Telegdi (1991) Joseph H. Taylor Jr. (1992) Benoît Mandelbrot (1993) Vitaly Ginzburg
Vitaly Ginzburg
/ Yoichiro Nambu
Yoichiro Nambu
(1994–95) John Wheeler (1996–97) Yakir Aharonov
Yakir Aharonov
/ Michael Berry (1998) Dan Shechtman
Dan Shechtman
(1999)

2000s

Raymond Davis Jr.
Raymond Davis Jr.
/ Masatoshi Koshiba
Masatoshi Koshiba
(2000) Bertrand Halperin
Bertrand Halperin
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Robert Brout
/ François Englert
François Englert
/ Peter Higgs
Peter Higgs
(2004) Daniel Kleppner (2005) Albert Fert
Albert Fert
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Peter Grünberg
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2010s

John F. Clauser / Alain Aspect
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Yoseph Imry
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Michel Mayor
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Didier Queloz
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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 84844903 LCCN: nr2001025911 ISNI: 0000 0000 5751 4468 GND: 1080703802 NKC: nlk20030129

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