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THEOBROMA CACAO is the taxonomic classification for the plant also called the CACAO TREE and the COCOA TREE, which is a small (4–8 m (13–26 ft) tall) evergreen tree in the family Malvaceae
Malvaceae
, native to the deep tropical regions of Central and South America. Its seeds, cocoa beans , are used to make cocoa mass , cocoa powder , confectionery , ganache and chocolate . Floral diagram
Floral diagram
showing partial inflorescence

CONTENTS

* 1 Description * 2 Taxonomy and nomenclature * 3 Distribution and domestication

* 4 History of cultivation

* 4.1 Currency system

* 5 Mythology * 6 Modern history * 7 Cultivation * 8 Pests * 9 Conservation * 10 Genome * 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 References * 14 External links

DESCRIPTION

Leaves are alternate, entire, unlobed, 10–40 cm (3.9–15.7 in) long and 5–20 cm (2.0–7.9 in) broad.

The flowers are produced in clusters directly on the trunk and older branches; this is known as cauliflory . The flowers are small, 1–2 cm (0.39–0.79 in) diameter, with pink calyx. The floral formula is ✶ K5 C5 A(5°+5²) G(5). While many of the world's flowers are pollinated by bees ( Hymenoptera
Hymenoptera
) or butterflies /moths (Lepidoptera ), cacao flowers are pollinated by tiny flies, Forcipomyia midges in the subfamily Forcipomyiinae . Having the natural pollinator Forcipomyia midges for Theobroma cacao was shown to have more fruit production than using artificial pollinators. The fruit , called a cacao pod, is ovoid, 15–30 cm (5.9–11.8 in) long and 8–10 cm (3.1–3.9 in) wide, ripening yellow to orange, and weighs about 500 g (1.1 lb) when ripe. The pod contains 20 to 60 seeds , usually called "beans", embedded in a white pulp. The seeds are the main ingredient of chocolate , while the pulp is used in some countries to prepare refreshing juice , smoothies, jelly, and nata. The fermented pulp, until recently discarded in Ecuador
Ecuador
, the Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
, and Peru
Peru
, is now being distilled there into a popular alcoholic beverage sold in the United States
United States
. Each seed contains a significant amount of fat (40–50%) as cocoa butter . Their most noted active constituent is theobromine , a compound similar to caffeine .

Small amounts of cocoa flavanol , a natural nutrient found in cocoa, has been found to increase oxygen flow to the cerebral area, potentially leading to improved cognitive function.

Compounds found in Theobroma cacao have also been found to have other substances that are beneficial for health such as proanthocyanidins and pectin . Proanthocyanidin is an organic compound made by the plant that is not needed directly for growth, but it has been found to promote antiviral, antibacterial, and antioxidant effects. Pectin from Theobroma cacao has antimicrobial effects and has the potential to be used in the pharmaceutical, nutritional, and antibacterial industries (especially as a preservation agent). Most ways to extract pectin involve subjecting the plant to high temperatures and two specific ways to extract pectin from Theobroma cacao are using aqueous nitric acid or boiling water.

TAXONOMY AND NOMENCLATURE

Cacao ( Theobroma cacao) belongs to the genus Theobroma classified under the subfamily Sterculioidea of the mallow family Malvaceae
Malvaceae
. Cacao is one of 22 species of Theobroma.

The generic name is derived from the Greek for "food of the gods"; from θεός (theos), meaning "god", and βρῶμα (broma), meaning "food".

The specific name cacao is derived from the native name of the plant in indigenous Mesoamerican languages . The cacao was known as kakaw in Tzeltal , K\'iche\' and Classic Maya ; kagaw in Sayula Popoluca ; and cacahuatl in Nahuatl
Nahuatl
. Cacao flowers.

Cupuaçu , Theobroma grandiflorum, is a closely related species found in Brazil
Brazil
, Colombia
Colombia
, Peru
Peru
and Bolivia
Bolivia
. Like cacao, it is also the source for a kind of chocolate known as cupulate or cupuaçu chocolate. Cupuaçu is considered as having high potential by the food and cosmetics industries.

DISTRIBUTION AND DOMESTICATION

T. cacao is widely distributed from southeastern Mexico
Mexico
to the Amazon basin . There were originally two hypotheses about its domestication; one said that there were two foci for domestication, one in the Lacandon Jungle area of Mexico
Mexico
and another in lowland South America
South America
. More recent studies of patterns of DNA diversity, however, suggest that this is not the case. Motomayor et al. sampled 1241 trees and classified them into 10 distinct genetic clusters. This study also identified areas, for example around Iquitos
Iquitos
in modern Peru
Peru
, where representatives of several genetic clusters originated. This result suggests that this is where T. cacao was originally domesticated, probably for the pulp that surrounds the beans, which is eaten as a snack and fermented into a mildly alcoholic beverage. Using the DNA sequences obtained by Motomayor et al. and comparing them with data derived from climate models and the known conditions suitable for cacao, Thomas et al. have further refined the view of domestication, linking the area of greatest cacao genetic diversity to a bean-shaped area that encompasses the border between Brazil
Brazil
and Peru
Peru
and the southern part of the Colombian-Brazilian border. Climate models indicate that at the peak of the last ice age 21,000 years ago, when habitat suitable for cacao was at its most reduced, this area was still suitable, and so provided a refugium for the species. Thomas et al. speculate that from there people took cacao to Mexico, where selection for the beans took place.

Cacao trees grow well as understory plants in humid forest ecosystems. This is equally true of abandoned cultivated trees, making it difficult to distinguish truly wild trees from those whose parents may originally have been cultivated.

HISTORY OF CULTIVATION

Toasted cacao beans grown at the La Chonita Hacienda in Tabasco , Mexico
Mexico

Cultivation, use, and cultural elaboration of cacao were early and extensive in Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
. Ceramic vessels with residues from the preparation of cacao beverages have been found at archaeological sites dating back to the Early Formative (1900–900 BC) period. For example, one such vessel found at an Olmec
Olmec
archaeological site on the Gulf Coast of Veracruz
Veracruz
, Mexico
Mexico
dates cacao's preparation by pre-Olmec peoples as early as 1750 BC. On the Pacific coast of Chiapas
Chiapas
, Mexico, a Mokaya archaeological site provides evidence of cacao beverages dating even earlier, to 1900 BC. The initial domestication was probably related to the making of a fermented, thus alcoholic beverage.

Several mixtures of cacao are described in ancient texts, for ceremonial or medicinal, as well as culinary, purposes. Some mixtures included maize , chili , vanilla ( Vanilla planifolia), and honey. Archaeological
Archaeological
evidence for use of cacao, while relatively sparse, has come from the recovery of whole cacao beans at Uaxactun , Guatemala
Guatemala
and from the preservation of wood fragments of the cacao tree at Belize
Belize
sites including Cuello and Pulltrouser Swamp . In addition, analysis of residues from ceramic vessels has found traces of theobromine and caffeine in early formative vessels from Puerto Escondido, Honduras (1100–900 BC) and in middle formative vessels from Colha, Belize
Belize
(600–400 BC) using similar techniques to those used to extract chocolate residues from four classic period (around 400 AD) vessels from a tomb at the Maya archaeological site of Rio Azul . As cacao is the only known commodity from Mesoamerica containing both of these alkaloid compounds, it seems likely these vessels were used as containers for cacao drinks. In addition, cacao is named in a hieroglyphic text on one of the Rio Azul vessels. Cacao was also believed to be ground by the Aztecs and mixed with tobacco for smoking purposes.

CURRENCY SYSTEM

Cacao beans constituted both a ritual beverage and a major currency system in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican civilizations. At one point, the Aztec
Aztec
empire received a yearly tribute of 980 loads (xiquipil in Nahuatl) of cacao, in addition to other goods. Each load represented exactly 8,000 beans. The buying power of quality beans was such that 80–100 beans could buy a new cloth mantle. The use of cacao beans as currency is also known to have spawned counterfeiters during the Aztec empire.

MYTHOLOGY

Kakaw (cacao) written in the Maya script : The word was also written in several other ways in old Maya texts.

The Maya believed the kakaw (cacao) was discovered by the gods in a mountain that also contained other delectable foods to be used by them. According to Maya mythology , the Plumed Serpent gave cacao to the Maya after humans were created from maize by divine grandmother goddess Xmucane . The Maya celebrated an annual festival in April to honor their cacao god, Ek Chuah , an event that included the sacrifice of a dog with cacao-colored markings, additional animal sacrifices, offerings of cacao, feathers and incense, and an exchange of gifts. In a similar creation story, the Mexica ( Aztec
Aztec
) god Quetzalcoatl discovered cacao (cacahuatl: "bitter water"), in a mountain filled with other plant foods. Cacao was offered regularly to a pantheon of Mexica deities and the Madrid Codex depicts priests lancing their ear lobes (autosacrifice) and covering the cacao with blood as a suitable sacrifice to the gods. The cacao beverage as ritual was used only by men, as it was believed to be toxic for women and children.

MODERN HISTORY

Immigrant workers from India relaxing on a cacao estate in Trinidad
Trinidad
, 1903.

The first Europeans to encounter cacao were Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
and his crew in 1502 , when they captured a canoe at Guanaja
Guanaja
that contained a quantity of mysterious-looking "almonds". The first real European knowledge about chocolate came in the form of a beverage which was first introduced to the Spanish at their meeting with Moctezuma in the Aztec
Aztec
capital of Tenochtitlan
Tenochtitlan
in 1519. Cortés and others noted the vast quantities of this beverage the Aztec
Aztec
emperor consumed, and how it was carefully whipped by his attendants beforehand. Examples of cacao beans, along with other agricultural products, were brought back to Spain at that time, but it seems the beverage made from cacao was introduced to the Spanish court in 1544 by Kekchi Maya nobles brought from the New World to Spain by Dominican friars to meet Prince Philip . Within a century, the culinary and medical uses of chocolate had spread to France, England and elsewhere in Western Europe
Western Europe
. Demand for this beverage led the French to establish cacao plantations in the Caribbean
Caribbean
, while Spain subsequently developed their cacao plantations in their Venezuelan and Philippine colonies (Bloom 1998, Coe 1996). A painting by Dutch Golden Age artist Albert Eckhout
Albert Eckhout
shows a wild cacao tree in mid-seventeenth century Dutch Brazil. The Nahuatl-derived Spanish word cacao entered scientific nomenclature in 1753 after the Swedish naturalist Linnaeus
Linnaeus
published his taxonomic binomial system and coined the genus and species Theobroma cacao.

Traditional pre-Hispanic beverages made with cacao are still consumed in Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
. These include the Oaxacan beverage known as tejate .

CULTIVATION

See also: Cocoa bean Cacao seed in the fruit or pocha Young cacao plantation Macrophotography of Theobroma cacao flower (closed) ( University of Vienna
University of Vienna
) Macrophotography of T. cacao flower (open) ( University of Vienna
University of Vienna
) T. cacao fruit T. cacao, leaves, fruits and seed. A. Bernecker, 1864.

Cacao is cultivated on roughly 17,000,000 acres (27,000 sq mi; 69,000 km2) worldwide. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the top 20 cacao-producing countries in 2005 were as follows:

RANK, COUNTRY Value (Int'l $1,000*) Production (Metric tons)

1 Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
1,024,339 1,330,000

2 Ghana
Ghana
566,852 736,000

3 Indonesia
Indonesia
469,810 610,000

4 Nigeria
Nigeria
281,886 366,000

5 Brazil
Brazil
164,644 213,774

6 Cameroon
Cameroon
138,632 180,000

7 Ecuador
Ecuador
105,652 137,178

8 Colombia
Colombia
42,589 55,298

9 Argentina
Argentina
37,281 48,405

10 Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
32,733 42,500

11 Malaysia
Malaysia
25,742 33,423

12 Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
24,646 32,000

13 Peru
Peru
21,950 28,500

14 Venezuela
Venezuela
13,093 17,000

15 Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
8,472 11,000

16 Togo
Togo
6,547 8,500

17 Mexico
Mexico
6,161 8,000

18 Philippines
Philippines
4,352 5,650

19 Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
4,336 5,630

20 Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
3,851 5,000

*Based on 1999–2001 international prices

Cacao production has increased from 1.5 million tons in 1983–1984 to 3.5 million tons in 2003–2004, almost entirely due to the expansion of the production area rather than to yield increases. Cacao is grown both by large agroindustrial plantations and small producers, the bulk of production coming from millions of farmers who have a few trees each.

A tree begins to bear when it is four or five years old. A mature tree may have 6,000 flowers in a year, yet only about 20 pods. About 1,200 seeds (40 pods) are required to produce 1 kg (2.2 lb) of cocoa paste .

Historically, chocolate makers have recognized three main cultivar groups of cacao beans used to make cocoa and chocolate. The most prized, rare, and expensive is the Criollo group, the cocoa bean used by the Maya . Only 10% of chocolate is made from Criollo, which is arguably less bitter and more aromatic than any other bean. Actually the criollo cacao beans from Chuao in Aragua , Venezuela
Venezuela
, are widely regarded as some of the finest in the world. In November 2000, the cacao beans coming from said region were awarded an appellation of origin under the title "Cacao de Chuao" (from Spanish-cacao of Chuao) effectively making this one of the most expensive and sought-after types of cacao. The cacao bean in 80% of chocolate is made using beans of the Forastero group, the main and most ubiquitous variety being the Amenolado variety, while the arriba variety (such as the Nacional variety that was recently discovered) are less commonly found in Forastero produce. Forastero trees are significantly hardier and more disease-resistant than Criollo trees, resulting in cheaper cacao beans. Trinitario, a hybrid of Criollo and Forastero, is used in about 10% of chocolate.

A new, genetically based classification of 10 groups may well help breeders to create new varieties that are both pest- and disease-resistant and contain valued flavours.

Major cocoa bean processors include Hershey\'s , Nestlé
Nestlé
and Mars , all of which purchase cocoa beans via various sources.

In June 2009, Mars Botanicals, a division of Mars, launched Cirku, a cocoa extract product that provides cocoa flavanols made with a patented process that contains a high level of phytonutrients.

Chocolate
Chocolate
can be made from T. cacao through a process of steps that involve harvesting, fermenting of T. cacao pulp, drying, harvesting, and then extraction. Roasting T. cacao by using superheated steam was found to be better than conventional roasting (use of ovens) because it resulted in same quality of cocoa beans in a shorter amount of time.

PESTS

See also: List of cacao diseases

Various plant pests and diseases can cause serious problems for cacao production.

* Insects

* Cocoa mirids or capsids worldwide (but especially Sahlbergella singularis and Distantiella theobroma in West Africa
West Africa
and Helopeltis spp. in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
) * Conopomorpha cramerella (cocoa pod borer – in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
)

* Fungi

* Moniliophthora roreri (frosty pod rot) * Moniliophthora perniciosa (witches' broom) * Ceratocystis cacaofunesta (mal de machete) or (Ceratocystis wilt) * Verticillium dahliae * Oncobasidium theobromae (vascular streak dieback)

* Oomycetes

* Phytophthora spp. (black pod) especially Phytophthora megakarya in West Africa

* Viruses

* CSSV

* Mistletoe
Mistletoe
* Rats and other vertebrate pests (squirrels , woodpeckers , etc.)

CONSERVATION

The pests and diseases to which cacao is subject, along with climate change, mean that new varieties will be needed to respond to these challenges. Breeders rely on the genetic diversity conserved in field genebanks to create new varieties, because cacao has recalcitrant seeds that cannot be stored in a conventional genebank. In an effort to improve the diversity available to breeders, and ensure the future of the field genebanks, experts have drawn up A Global Strategy for the Conservation and Use of Cacao Genetic Resources, as the Foundation for a Sustainable Cocoa Economy. The strategy has been adopted by the cacao producers and their clients, and seeks to improve the characterization of cacao diversity, the sustainability and diversity of the cacao collections, the usefulness of the collections, and to ease access to better information about the conserved material. Some natural areas of cacao diversity are protected by various forms of conservation, for example national parks. However, a recent study of genetic diversity and predicted climates suggests that many of those protected areas will no longer be suitable for cacao by 2050. It also identifies an area around Iquitos
Iquitos
in Peru
Peru
that will remain suitable for cacao and that is home to considerable genetic diversity, and recommends that this area be considered for protection.

Phytopathogens (parasitic organisms) cause much damage to Theobroma cacao plantations around the world. Many of those phytopathogens, which include many of the pests named above, were analyzed using mass spectrometry and allow for guiding on the correct approaches to get rid of the specific phytopathogens. This method was found to be quick, reproducible, and accurate showing promising results in the future to prevent damage to Theobroma cacao by various phytopathogens.

A specific type of bacteria Streptomyces camerooniansis was found to be beneficial for T. cacao by helping plant growth by accelerating seed germination of T. cacao, inhibiting growth of various types of microorganisms (such as different oomycetes, fungi, and bacteria), and preventing rotting by Phytophthora megakarya.

GENOME

The genome of T. cacao is diploid, its size is 430 Mbp , and it comprises 10 chromosome pairs (2n=2x=20). In September 2010, a team of scientists announced a draft sequence of the cacao genome (Matina1-6 genotype). In a second, unrelated project, the International Cocoa Genome Sequencing Consortium-ICGS, co-ordinated by CIRAD, first published in December 2010 (online, paper publication in January 2011), the sequence of the cacao genome, of the Criollo cacao (of a landrace from Belize, B97-61/B2). In their publication, they reported a detailed analysis of the genomic and genetic data.

The sequence of the cacao genome identified 28,798 protein-coding genes, compared to the roughly 23,000 protein-coding genes of the human genome . About 20% of the cacao genome consists of transposable elements , a low proportion compared to other plant species. Many genes were identified as coding for flavonoids , aromatic terpenes , theobromine and many other metabolites involved in cocoa flavor and quality traits, among which a relatively high proportion code for polyphenols , which constitute up to 8% of cacao pods dry weight. The cacao genome appears close to the hypothetical hexaploid ancestor of all dicotyledonous plants, and it is proposed as an evolutionary mechanism by which the 21 chromosomes of the dicots' hypothetical hexaploid ancestor underwent major fusions leading to cacao's 10 chromosome pairs.

Genomic information Map showing genetic clusters of Theobroma cacao

NCBI GENOME ID 572

PLOIDY diploid

GENOME SIZE 345.99 Mb

NUMBER OF CHROMOSOMES 10 pairs

YEAR OF COMPLETION 2010

The genome sequence will help accelerate research on cacao molecular biology and breeding for elite varieties through marker-assisted selection, in particular for genetic resistance to fungal , oomycete and viral diseases responsible for huge yield losses each year.

SEE ALSO

* Cocoa butter * Chocolate
Chocolate

NOTES

* ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl/record/kew-2519807a * ^ " Theobroma cacao". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 9 November 2012. * ^ Pharmacognosy and Health Benefits of Cocoa Seeds, Cocoa Powder (Chocolate) * ^ Ronse De Craene, Louis P. (2010-02-04). Floral Diagrams: An Aid to Understanding Flower
Flower
Morphology and Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-521-49346-8 . * ^ Hernández B., J. (1965). " Insect
Insect
pollination of cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) in Costa Rica". University of Wisconsin. * ^ A B Forbes, Samantha J.; Northfield, Tobin D. (2016-12-26). "Increased pollinator habitat enhances cacao fruit set and predator conservation". Ecological Applications: A Publication of the Ecological Society of America. 27: 887–899. ISSN 1051-0761 . PMID 28019052 . doi :10.1002/eap.1491 . * ^ Figueira, Antonio; Janick, Jules; BeMiller, James N. (1993). "New Products from Theobroma cacao: Seed
Seed
Pulp and Pod Gum". In Janick, J.; Simon, J. E. New Crops. New York: Wiley. pp. 475–478. * ^ Bell, Katie K. "Cacao Cocktails: A New Tequila-Like Spirit Distilled From Cacao Fruit". Retrieved 2015-03-17. * ^ Decroix, Lieselot; Tonoli, Cajsa; Soares, Danusa D.; Tagougui, Semah; Heyman, Elsa; Meeusen, Romain (2016-12-01). "Acute cocoa flavanol improves cerebral oxygenation without enhancing executive function at rest or after exercise". Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. 41 (12): 1225–1232. ISSN 1715-5320 . PMID 27849355 . doi :10.1139/apnm-2016-0245 . * ^ A B Cádiz-Gurrea, María De La Luz; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Joven, Jorge; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio (2017-02-10). "Cocoa and Grape Seed Byproducts as a Source of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Proanthocyanidins" . International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 18 (2): 376. ISSN 1422-0067 . PMC 5343911  . PMID 28208630 . doi :10.3390/ijms18020376 . * ^ A B Adi-Dako, Ofosua; Ofori-Kwakye, Kwabena; Manso, Samuel Frimpong; Boakye-Gyasi, Mariam EL; Sasu, Clement; Pobee, Mike (2016-03-14). "Physicochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Cocoa Pod Husk Pectin
Pectin
Intended as a Versatile Pharmaceutical Excipient and Nutraceutical". Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2016: 1–12. ISSN 2090-9918 . PMC 4808676  . PMID 27066294 . doi :10.1155/2016/7608693 . * ^ Vriesmann, Lúcia Cristina; de Oliveira Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia (2017-03-18). "Cacao pod husks as a source of low-methoxyl, highly acetylated pectins able to gel in acidic media". International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 101: 146–152. ISSN 1879-0003 . PMID 28322947 . doi :10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.03.082 . * ^ "Cupuacu". Retrieved 3 June 2017. * ^ A B Motamayor, Juan C.; Lachenaud, Philippe; da Silva e Mota, Jay Wallace; Loor, Rey; Kuhn, David N.; Brown, J. Steven; Schnell, Raymond J. (2008). "Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate
Chocolate
Tree
Tree
( Theobroma cacao L.)". PLoS ONE
PLoS ONE
. 3 (10): e3311. PMC 2551746  . PMID 18827930 . doi :10.1371/journal.pone.0003311 . * ^ Clement, Charles R.; de Cristo-Araújo, Michelly; d'Eeckenbrugge, Geo Coppens; Alves Pereira, Alessandro; Picanço-Rodrigues, Doriane (6 January 2010). "Origin and Domestication of Native Amazonian Crops". Diversity. 2 (1): 72–106. doi :10.3390/d2010072 . Retrieved 9 November 2012. * ^ A B Thomas, Evert; van Zonneveld, Maarten; Loo, Judy; Hodgkin, Toby; Galluzzi, Gea; van Etten, Jacob; Fuller, Dorian Q. (24 October 2012). "Present Spatial Diversity Patterns of Theobroma cacao L. in the Neotropics Reflect Genetic Differentiation in Pleistocene Refugia Followed by Human-Influenced Dispersal" . PLoS ONE. 7 (10): e47676. PMC 3480400  . PMID 23112832 . doi :10.1371/journal.pone.0047676 . * ^ A B Powis, Terry G.; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; del Carmen Rodríguez, María; Ortíz C., Ponciano; Blake, Michael; Cheetham, David; Coe, Michael D.; Hodgson, John G. (December 2007). "Oldest chocolate in the New World". Antiquity . 81 (314). ISSN 0003-598X . Retrieved 2011-02-15. * ^ Henderson, J. S.; et al. (2007). "Chemical and archaeological evidence for the earliest cacao beverages" . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . 104: 18937–18940. PMC 2141886  . PMID 18024588 . doi :10.1073/pnas.0708815104 . * ^ Kidder (1947). * ^ Hammond and Miksicek (1981); Turner and Miksicek (1984). * ^ J. Bergmann (1969). * ^ S. Coe (1994). * ^ (Bogin 1997, Coe 1996, Montejo 1999, Tedlock 1985) * ^ (Coe 1996, Townsend 1992) * ^ Head 1903 , p. ii:(frontispiece) * ^ (Coe and Coe 1996) * ^ Alexander Walker (1822). Colombia, relación geográfica, topográfica, agrícola, comercial y política de este país: adaptada para todo lector en general y para el comerciante y colono en particular. Tomo II. Londres: Banco de la República, pp. 284. * ^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1134/is_6_112/ai_105371465/pg_3/ CBS Interactive Business Network * ^ FAO.org * ^ "A strategy to safeguard the future of chocolate". Bioversity International. Retrieved 9 November 2012. * ^ "Varieties". All about Chocolate. Retrieved 3 June 2017. * ^ "Branding Matters: The Success of Chuao Cocoa Bean". Retrieved 3 June 2017. * ^ Cocoa-derived Cirku launched for better circulation * ^ A B Zzaman, Wahidu; Bhat, Rajeev; Yang, Tajul Aris; Mat Easa, Azhar (2017-03-02). "Influences of superheated steam roasting on changes in sugar, amino acid and flavor active components of cocoa bean ( Theobroma cacao)". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. ISSN 1097-0010 . PMID 28251656 . doi :10.1002/jsfa.8302 .

* ^ "Cocoa Crop Protection". Retrieved 9 November 2012. * ^ "Cacao Collections". CacaoNet. Retrieved 9 November 2012. * ^ A Global Strategy for the Conservation and Use of Cacao Genetic Resources, as the Foundation for a Sustainable Cocoa Economy * ^ Dos Santos, Fábio Neves; Tata, Alessandra; Belaz, Kátia Roberta Anacleto; Magalhães, Dilze Maria Argôlo; Luz, Edna Dora Martins Newman; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira (2017-03-01). "Major phytopathogens and strains from cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L.) are differentiated by MALDI-MS lipid and/or peptide/protein profiles". Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 409 (7): 1765–1777. ISSN 1618-2650 . PMID 28028594 . doi :10.1007/s00216-016-0133-5 . * ^ Boudjeko, Thaddée; Tchinda, Romaric Armel Mouafo; Zitouni, Mina; Nana, Joëlle Aimée Vera Tchatchou; Lerat, Sylvain; Beaulieu, Carole (2017-03-04). "Streptomyces cameroonensis sp. nov., a Geldanamycin Producer That Promotes Theobroma cacao Growth" . Microbes and Environments. 32: 24–31. ISSN 1347-4405 . PMC 5371071  . PMID 28260703 . doi :10.1264/jsme2.ME16095 . * ^ The Cacao Genome Database Project. Retrieved September 24, 2010 * ^ The International Cocoa Genome Sequencing Consortium federates efforts from circa 20 different institutions from six countries (France, USA, Côte d'Ivoire, Brazil, Venezuela
Venezuela
and Trinidad
Trinidad
et Tobago). Financing comes from several public and private sources from France, USA and Venezuela, among which the chocolate brands Valrhona (France) and Hershey's (USA). See : http://www.cirad.fr/actualites/toutes-les-actualites/communiques-de-presse/2010/decryptage-du-genome-du-cacaoyer * ^ Argout, Xavier; Salse, Jerome; Aury, Jean-Marc; Guiltinan, Mark J.; Droc, Gaetan; Gouzy, Jerome; Allegre, Mathilde; Chaparro, Cristian; et al. (2011). "The genome of Theobroma cacao". Nature Genetics . 43 (2): 101–108. PMID 21186351 . doi :10.1038/ng.736 . * ^ Jaillon, Olivier; Aury, Jean-Marc; Noel, Benjamin; Policriti, Alberto; Clepet, Christian; Casagrande, Alberto; et al. (2007). "The grapevine genome sequence suggests ancestral hexaploidization in major angiosperm phyla". Nature . 449 (7161): 463–467. PMID 17721507 . doi :10.1038/nature06148 .

REFERENCES

* Coe, Sophie D. (1994). America's First Cuisines. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-71155-7 . * Coe, Sophie D.; Coe, Michael D. (1996). The True History of Chocolate. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-01693-3 . * Dienhart, John M. (1997). "The Mayan Languages – A Comparative Vocabulary" (PDF). Odense University . Retrieved 2007-02-14. * McNeil, Cameron, ed. (2006). Chocolate
Chocolate
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JSTOR
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