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The Info List - Thembuland


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Thembuland, Afrikaans: Temboeland, is a natural region in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Its territory is the traditional region of the Thembu people, one of the sub-groups of the Xhosa nation. It was formerly also known as "Tamboekieland" or "Tambookieland". The area of Thembuland
Thembuland
proper includes present-day Mthatha, Mqanduli, Ngcobo, Mjanyana, Dutywa
Dutywa
and Willowvale as well as their surroundings.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Incorporation into the Cape Colony 2.3 Early political restrictions 2.4 The Union of South Africa
South Africa
and Apartheid
Apartheid
history 2.5 Secession dispute

3 References

Geography[edit] Thembuland
Thembuland
was historically defined as the area between Umtata
Umtata
and the upper Kei River. As such it formed an area of 50 by 120 miles, although its boundary was considered disputable with Pondoland
Pondoland
on the coast, and with Fingoland
Fingoland
just to the south. The definition of the area has also changed over time. Before colonial conquest, it was divided into Tembuland Proper, Emigrant Tembuland and Bomvanaland —the Bomvana
Bomvana
were a related people who lived on the east bank of the Bashee River, in what was later the district of Elliotdale. In colonial times it was defined as consisting of the districts of Emjanyana, Engcobo, Mqanduli, Umtata, St Marks, Southeyville and Xalanga. History[edit] Early history[edit] The hunter-gatherer San and Khoikhoi
Khoikhoi
people inhabited the region in scattered nomadic groups from c. 30,000 BCE. In the 16th century, iron-working Nguni farmers entered the area from the north-east. A sub-group of the Nguni peoples became the Thembu people. Although originally classed[by whom?] as a separate Nguni nation, the Thembu subsequently assimilated to a large degree with the neighbouring Xhosa people. Thembuland
Thembuland
became an independent kingdom, ruled by the Hala royal clan. British interference and incursions began in the 19th century. From 1871 the Thembu became engaged in a protracted war against an alliance of neighbouring Xhosa-speaking peoples, including the Pondo, the Bomvana
Bomvana
and the Gcaleka. The Thembu Paramount-Chief, Ngangelizwe, had sought to unite the various Thembu clans but had come under increasing military pressure from Sarhili, Paramount-Chief of the Gcaleka. The conflict had a personal side, as Ngangelizwe's Chief Wife Novili was the daughter of Sarhili, and rumours had been spread[by whom?] that Ngangelizwe had ill-treated her.[1] Facing severe military pressure from the combined armies of his enemies, Chief Ngangelizwe and his Ministers approached the nominally-independent Cape Colony
Cape Colony
to negotiate alliance and possible incorporation. Incorporation into the Cape Colony[edit] The Cape Colony, having recently achieved a degree of independence from Britain under the system of Responsible Government, operated under a relatively inclusive system of multi-racial franchise - whereby qualifications for suffrage applied equally to all male residents, regardless of race. Its laws also forbade any white settlement in traditional "Native territory". The Cape was therefore viewed by Ngangelizwe and his ministers as a satisfactory entity to merge with.[2][3] Ngangelizwe however, was a highly controversial leader in the Xhosa-speaking community. He was hated by many in the neighbouring Pondo and Gcaleka
Gcaleka
states, and accused of a range of crimes. The Cape Government demanded his resignation, as a precondition for any annexation.[4] According to Cape Parliamentary records, the Thembu leaders demanded, among other things, 4 magistracies with equal access to the Cape's current system of nonracial franchise, and military protection from both the British and their Gcaleka
Gcaleka
enemies. If these conditions were incorporated into law, together with respect for the traditional authority of the chiefs, then they would request incorporation.[5] The Cape government agreed to these terms and signed them into law with the Tembuland Annexation Act (1876), creating the magisterial districts of Xalanga, St. Marks, Elliot and Engcobo. Additional stipulations of the 1876 act were that the Thembu traditional government system was to get full government recognition; Thembu King, Chiefs and Subchiefs were to earn government salaries; normal taxation would only begin in 1878; the boundaries of Thembuland
Thembuland
were final and were not to be altered in any way; and that the sale of alcohol be prohibited to Thembu subjects.[6] [7] The resignation of the controversial Thembu King Ngangelizwe, in favour of his successor, had initially been demanded by the Cape government as a precondition for annexation, but this condition was waived as being impractical. Otherwise, the terms of the incorporation were implemented as stated. Traditional land ownership was fully recognised and, with the exception of a few missionaries and white traders, Thembuland
Thembuland
was preserved for Thembu occupation, as part of the "Transkeian territories". However, the British overthrow of the elected Cape government in 1878 and assumption of direct rule over the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
caused the Confederation Wars, and the later disruption of the treaty's peaceful implementation. The annexation was only finally completed in 1885. Thembuland
Thembuland
was defined at the time as being the territory between Umtata
Umtata
and the Tsomo River, and home to 60,000 people. Thembuland
Thembuland
also submitted troops to the Frontier Armed forces of the Cape Colony, who, in this capacity, fought several victorious campaigns against their Gcaleka and Mpondo enemies. Early political restrictions[edit] Main article: Cape Qualified Franchise § Erosion and abolition According to the original laws of the Cape Colony, as well as the terms of the Annexation Act, Europeans were prohibited from owning land in the Thembu territories. This was initially intended to prevent the dispossession of the Thembu by aggressive settlers, however in the ensuing political upheavals, the law was badly enforced. From the 1880s, the pro-imperialist governments of Prime Ministers John Gordon Sprigg
John Gordon Sprigg
and Cecil Rhodes
Cecil Rhodes
turned a blind eye to white incursions. Already by 1882, white settlers had illegally moved north of the Great Kei River
Kei River
and, in the same year, Chief Ngangelizwe himself sold territory within Umtata
Umtata
district to white land owners. In 1894, the Glen Gray Act constituted the Thembu chiefs as leaders of "District Councils", thereby establishing a system of proxy rulers. The Government of Cecil Rhodes
Cecil Rhodes
passed legislation, such as the Parliamentary Registration Act, that severely curtailed the voting rights of the Thembu and all Black African citizens of the Cape. However it was the Union of South Africa, in the Twentieth Century, that was to oversee the greatest growth in oppression against the people of Thembuland. The Union of South Africa
South Africa
and Apartheid
Apartheid
history[edit] Later, in the lead up to the Union of South Africa
South Africa
and the beginning of Apartheid, the franchise and property rights of the Thembu were gradually revoked, and what rights remained were applied only in their original homeland. Later still, under apartheid, the Transkei
Transkei
was turned into a bantustan. In the ethnic theory underpinning apartheid, the Transkei was regarded as the "homeland" of the Xhosa people. As a result, the Thembu people are often misidentified as being Xhosa.[8][not in citation given] Secession dispute[edit] The current Thembu king is King Buyelekhaya Dalindyebo, son of Sabata Jonguhlanga Dalindyebo, and his praise name is Zwelibanzi. The King caused controversy in 2009, by calling for secession from South Africa, as a response to a criminal case against him. In December 2009 King Buyelekhaya was convicted of offences including culpable homicide, kidnapping, arson and assault. In response he proposed secession from South Africa[9][10] and later demanded that the South African government pay the king R900m and the tribe a further R80bn in compensation for the humiliation caused by the criminal trial.[11] Dalindyebo was imprisoned in December 2015, has since been customarily dethroned, and is expected to be administratively dethroned in the near future.[12] References[edit]

^ "Custom and the politics of sovereignty in South Africa
South Africa
- page 4 Journal of Social History". Findarticles.com. Retrieved 2012-07-16.  ^ S. Redding: Sorcery And Sovereignty: Taxation, Power, And Rebellion in South Africa, 1880-1963. Ohio University Press, 2006. p.150. ^ J.A. Tropp: Natures of Colonial Change: Environmental Relations in the Making of the Transkei. Ohio University Press, 2009. p.33. ^ M. Lipschutz: Dictionary of African Historical Biography. University of California Press, 1989. p.171. "Ngangelizwe (Qeya), c.1840-84". ^ C.C. Henkel: History, resources and productions of the country between Cape Colony
Cape Colony
and Natal, or "Kaffraria proper", now called the Native or Transkeian Territories. Hamburg Richter. 1903. p.10. "Tembuland". ^ MS18534. N.C. Tisani, E.G. Sihele: Who are the AbaThembu and where do the come from? Council of the Thembu King of Roda. pp.115-116. ^ http://www.ohioswallow.com/extras/0821416987_chapter_01.pdf ^ SAhistory -Transkei ^ Janet Smith, Bonile Bam (6 December 2009). "Troubled monarch sentenced to 15 years". Independent Online (South Africa). Retrieved 16 July 2012.  ^ Ben Maclennan (23 December 2009). "Convicted king plans independent state". iol.co.za. Retrieved 16 July 2012.  ^ "Tribe suspends secession plans". news24.com. 6 January 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2012.  ^ "Intrigue in the royal household as King Buyelekhaya Dalindyebo sits in jail". Times Live. 1 January 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2016. 

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountai

.
Thembuland
HOME
The Info List - Thembuland


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Thembuland, Afrikaans: Temboeland, is a natural region in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Its territory is the traditional region of the Thembu people, one of the sub-groups of the Xhosa nation. It was formerly also known as "Tamboekieland" or "Tambookieland". The area of Thembuland
Thembuland
proper includes present-day Mthatha, Mqanduli, Ngcobo, Mjanyana, Dutywa
Dutywa
and Willowvale as well as their surroundings.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Incorporation into the Cape Colony 2.3 Early political restrictions 2.4 The Union of South Africa
South Africa
and Apartheid
Apartheid
history 2.5 Secession dispute

3 References

Geography[edit] Thembuland
Thembuland
was historically defined as the area between Umtata
Umtata
and the upper Kei River. As such it formed an area of 50 by 120 miles, although its boundary was considered disputable with Pondoland
Pondoland
on the coast, and with Fingoland
Fingoland
just to the south. The definition of the area has also changed over time. Before colonial conquest, it was divided into Tembuland Proper, Emigrant Tembuland and Bomvanaland —the Bomvana
Bomvana
were a related people who lived on the east bank of the Bashee River, in what was later the district of Elliotdale. In colonial times it was defined as consisting of the districts of Emjanyana, Engcobo, Mqanduli, Umtata, St Marks, Southeyville and Xalanga. History[edit] Early history[edit] The hunter-gatherer San and Khoikhoi
Khoikhoi
people inhabited the region in scattered nomadic groups from c. 30,000 BCE. In the 16th century, iron-working Nguni farmers entered the area from the north-east. A sub-group of the Nguni peoples became the Thembu people. Although originally classed[by whom?] as a separate Nguni nation, the Thembu subsequently assimilated to a large degree with the neighbouring Xhosa people. Thembuland
Thembuland
became an independent kingdom, ruled by the Hala royal clan. British interference and incursions began in the 19th century. From 1871 the Thembu became engaged in a protracted war against an alliance of neighbouring Xhosa-speaking peoples, including the Pondo, the Bomvana
Bomvana
and the Gcaleka. The Thembu Paramount-Chief, Ngangelizwe, had sought to unite the various Thembu clans but had come under increasing military pressure from Sarhili, Paramount-Chief of the Gcaleka. The conflict had a personal side, as Ngangelizwe's Chief Wife Novili was the daughter of Sarhili, and rumours had been spread[by whom?] that Ngangelizwe had ill-treated her.[1] Facing severe military pressure from the combined armies of his enemies, Chief Ngangelizwe and his Ministers approached the nominally-independent Cape Colony
Cape Colony
to negotiate alliance and possible incorporation. Incorporation into the Cape Colony[edit] The Cape Colony, having recently achieved a degree of independence from Britain under the system of Responsible Government, operated under a relatively inclusive system of multi-racial franchise - whereby qualifications for suffrage applied equally to all male residents, regardless of race. Its laws also forbade any white settlement in traditional "Native territory". The Cape was therefore viewed by Ngangelizwe and his ministers as a satisfactory entity to merge with.[2][3] Ngangelizwe however, was a highly controversial leader in the Xhosa-speaking community. He was hated by many in the neighbouring Pondo and Gcaleka
Gcaleka
states, and accused of a range of crimes. The Cape Government demanded his resignation, as a precondition for any annexation.[4] According to Cape Parliamentary records, the Thembu leaders demanded, among other things, 4 magistracies with equal access to the Cape's current system of nonracial franchise, and military protection from both the British and their Gcaleka
Gcaleka
enemies. If these conditions were incorporated into law, together with respect for the traditional authority of the chiefs, then they would request incorporation.[5] The Cape government agreed to these terms and signed them into law with the Tembuland Annexation Act (1876), creating the magisterial districts of Xalanga, St. Marks, Elliot and Engcobo. Additional stipulations of the 1876 act were that the Thembu traditional government system was to get full government recognition; Thembu King, Chiefs and Subchiefs were to earn government salaries; normal taxation would only begin in 1878; the boundaries of Thembuland
Thembuland
were final and were not to be altered in any way; and that the sale of alcohol be prohibited to Thembu subjects.[6] [7] The resignation of the controversial Thembu King Ngangelizwe, in favour of his successor, had initially been demanded by the Cape government as a precondition for annexation, but this condition was waived as being impractical. Otherwise, the terms of the incorporation were implemented as stated. Traditional land ownership was fully recognised and, with the exception of a few missionaries and white traders, Thembuland
Thembuland
was preserved for Thembu occupation, as part of the "Transkeian territories". However, the British overthrow of the elected Cape government in 1878 and assumption of direct rule over the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
caused the Confederation Wars, and the later disruption of the treaty's peaceful implementation. The annexation was only finally completed in 1885. Thembuland
Thembuland
was defined at the time as being the territory between Umtata
Umtata
and the Tsomo River, and home to 60,000 people. Thembuland
Thembuland
also submitted troops to the Frontier Armed forces of the Cape Colony, who, in this capacity, fought several victorious campaigns against their Gcaleka and Mpondo enemies. Early political restrictions[edit] Main article: Cape Qualified Franchise § Erosion and abolition According to the original laws of the Cape Colony, as well as the terms of the Annexation Act, Europeans were prohibited from owning land in the Thembu territories. This was initially intended to prevent the dispossession of the Thembu by aggressive settlers, however in the ensuing political upheavals, the law was badly enforced. From the 1880s, the pro-imperialist governments of Prime Ministers John Gordon Sprigg
John Gordon Sprigg
and Cecil Rhodes
Cecil Rhodes
turned a blind eye to white incursions. Already by 1882, white settlers had illegally moved north of the Great Kei River
Kei River
and, in the same year, Chief Ngangelizwe himself sold territory within Umtata
Umtata
district to white land owners. In 1894, the Glen Gray Act constituted the Thembu chiefs as leaders of "District Councils", thereby establishing a system of proxy rulers. The Government of Cecil Rhodes
Cecil Rhodes
passed legislation, such as the Parliamentary Registration Act, that severely curtailed the voting rights of the Thembu and all Black African citizens of the Cape. However it was the Union of South Africa, in the Twentieth Century, that was to oversee the greatest growth in oppression against the people of Thembuland. The Union of South Africa
South Africa
and Apartheid
Apartheid
history[edit] Later, in the lead up to the Union of South Africa
South Africa
and the beginning of Apartheid, the franchise and property rights of the Thembu were gradually revoked, and what rights remained were applied only in their original homeland. Later still, under apartheid, the Transkei
Transkei
was turned into a bantustan. In the ethnic theory underpinning apartheid, the Transkei was regarded as the "homeland" of the Xhosa people. As a result, the Thembu people are often misidentified as being Xhosa.[8][not in citation given] Secession dispute[edit] The current Thembu king is King Buyelekhaya Dalindyebo, son of Sabata Jonguhlanga Dalindyebo, and his praise name is Zwelibanzi. The King caused controversy in 2009, by calling for secession from South Africa, as a response to a criminal case against him. In December 2009 King Buyelekhaya was convicted of offences including culpable homicide, kidnapping, arson and assault. In response he proposed secession from South Africa[9][10] and later demanded that the South African government pay the king R900m and the tribe a further R80bn in compensation for the humiliation caused by the criminal trial.[11] Dalindyebo was imprisoned in December 2015, has since been customarily dethroned, and is expected to be administratively dethroned in the near future.[12] References[edit]

^ "Custom and the politics of sovereignty in South Africa
South Africa
- page 4 Journal of Social History". Findarticles.com. Retrieved 2012-07-16.  ^ S. Redding: Sorcery And Sovereignty: Taxation, Power, And Rebellion in South Africa, 1880-1963. Ohio University Press, 2006. p.150. ^ J.A. Tropp: Natures of Colonial Change: Environmental Relations in the Making of the Transkei. Ohio University Press, 2009. p.33. ^ M. Lipschutz: Dictionary of African Historical Biography. University of California Press, 1989. p.171. "Ngangelizwe (Qeya), c.1840-84". ^ C.C. Henkel: History, resources and productions of the country between Cape Colony
Cape Colony
and Natal, or "Kaffraria proper", now called the Native or Transkeian Territories. Hamburg Richter. 1903. p.10. "Tembuland". ^ MS18534. N.C. Tisani, E.G. Sihele: Who are the AbaThembu and where do the come from? Council of the Thembu King of Roda. pp.115-116. ^ http://www.ohioswallow.com/extras/0821416987_chapter_01.pdf ^ SAhistory -Transkei ^ Janet Smith, Bonile Bam (6 December 2009). "Troubled monarch sentenced to 15 years". Independent Online (South Africa). Retrieved 16 July 2012.  ^ Ben Maclennan (23 December 2009). "Convicted king plans independent state". iol.co.za. Retrieved 16 July 2012.  ^ "Tribe suspends secession plans". news24.com. 6 January 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2012.  ^ "Intrigue in the royal household as King Buyelekhaya Dalindyebo sits in jail". Times Live. 1 January 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2016. 

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountai

.
l> Thembuland
HOME
The Info List - Thembuland


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Thembuland, Afrikaans: Temboeland, is a natural region in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Its territory is the traditional region of the Thembu people, one of the sub-groups of the Xhosa nation. It was formerly also known as "Tamboekieland" or "Tambookieland". The area of Thembuland
Thembuland
proper includes present-day Mthatha, Mqanduli, Ngcobo, Mjanyana, Dutywa
Dutywa
and Willowvale as well as their surroundings.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Incorporation into the Cape Colony 2.3 Early political restrictions 2.4 The Union of South Africa
South Africa
and Apartheid
Apartheid
history 2.5 Secession dispute

3 References

Geography[edit] Thembuland
Thembuland
was historically defined as the area between Umtata
Umtata
and the upper Kei River. As such it formed an area of 50 by 120 miles, although its boundary was considered disputable with Pondoland
Pondoland
on the coast, and with Fingoland
Fingoland
just to the south. The definition of the area has also changed over time. Before colonial conquest, it was divided into Tembuland Proper, Emigrant Tembuland and Bomvanaland —the Bomvana
Bomvana
were a related people who lived on the east bank of the Bashee River, in what was later the district of Elliotdale. In colonial times it was defined as consisting of the districts of Emjanyana, Engcobo, Mqanduli, Umtata, St Marks, Southeyville and Xalanga. History[edit] Early history[edit] The hunter-gatherer San and Khoikhoi
Khoikhoi
people inhabited the region in scattered nomadic groups from c. 30,000 BCE. In the 16th century, iron-working Nguni farmers entered the area from the north-east. A sub-group of the Nguni peoples became the Thembu people. Although originally classed[by whom?] as a separate Nguni nation, the Thembu subsequently assimilated to a large degree with the neighbouring Xhosa people. Thembuland
Thembuland
became an independent kingdom, ruled by the Hala royal clan. British interference and incursions began in the 19th century. From 1871 the Thembu became engaged in a protracted war against an alliance of neighbouring Xhosa-speaking peoples, including the Pondo, the Bomvana
Bomvana
and the Gcaleka. The Thembu Paramount-Chief, Ngangelizwe, had sought to unite the various Thembu clans but had come under increasing military pressure from Sarhili, Paramount-Chief of the Gcaleka. The conflict had a personal side, as Ngangelizwe's Chief Wife Novili was the daughter of Sarhili, and rumours had been spread[by whom?] that Ngangelizwe had ill-treated her.[1] Facing severe military pressure from the combined armies of his enemies, Chief Ngangelizwe and his Ministers approached the nominally-independent Cape Colony
Cape Colony
to negotiate alliance and possible incorporation. Incorporation into the Cape Colony[edit] The Cape Colony, having recently achieved a degree of independence from Britain under the system of Responsible Government, operated under a relatively inclusive system of multi-racial franchise - whereby qualifications for suffrage applied equally to all male residents, regardless of race. Its laws also forbade any white settlement in traditional "Native territory". The Cape was therefore viewed by Ngangelizwe and his ministers as a satisfactory entity to merge with.[2][3] Ngangelizwe however, was a highly controversial leader in the Xhosa-speaking community. He was hated by many in the neighbouring Pondo and Gcaleka
Gcaleka
states, and accused of a range of crimes. The Cape Government demanded his resignation, as a precondition for any annexation.[4] According to Cape Parliamentary records, the Thembu leaders demanded, among other things, 4 magistracies with equal access to the Cape's current system of nonracial franchise, and military protection from both the British and their Gcaleka
Gcaleka
enemies. If these conditions were incorporated into law, together with respect for the traditional authority of the chiefs, then they would request incorporation.[5] The Cape government agreed to these terms and signed them into law with the Tembuland Annexation Act (1876), creating the magisterial districts of Xalanga, St. Marks, Elliot and Engcobo. Additional stipulations of the 1876 act were that the Thembu traditional government system was to get full government recognition; Thembu King, Chiefs and Subchiefs were to earn government salaries; normal taxation would only begin in 1878; the boundaries of Thembuland
Thembuland
were final and were not to be altered in any way; and that the sale of alcohol be prohibited to Thembu subjects.[6] [7] The resignation of the controversial Thembu King Ngangelizwe, in favour of his successor, had initially been demanded by the Cape government as a precondition for annexation, but this condition was waived as being impractical. Otherwise, the terms of the incorporation were implemented as stated. Traditional land ownership was fully recognised and, with the exception of a few missionaries and white traders, Thembuland
Thembuland
was preserved for Thembu occupation, as part of the "Transkeian territories". However, the British overthrow of the elected Cape government in 1878 and assumption of direct rule over the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
caused the Confederation Wars, and the later disruption of the treaty's peaceful implementation. The annexation was only finally completed in 1885. Thembuland
Thembuland
was defined at the time as being the territory between Umtata
Umtata
and the Tsomo River, and home to 60,000 people. Thembuland
Thembuland
also submitted troops to the Frontier Armed forces of the Cape Colony, who, in this capacity, fought several victorious campaigns against their Gcaleka and Mpondo enemies. Early political restrictions[edit] Main article: Cape Qualified Franchise § Erosion and abolition According to the original laws of the Cape Colony, as well as the terms of the Annexation Act, Europeans were prohibited from owning land in the Thembu territories. This was initially intended to prevent the dispossession of the Thembu by aggressive settlers, however in the ensuing political upheavals, the law was badly enforced. From the 1880s, the pro-imperialist governments of Prime Ministers John Gordon Sprigg
John Gordon Sprigg
and Cecil Rhodes
Cecil Rhodes
turned a blind eye to white incursions. Already by 1882, white settlers had illegally moved north of the Great Kei River
Kei River
and, in the same year, Chief Ngangelizwe himself sold territory within Umtata
Umtata
district to white land owners. In 1894, the Glen Gray Act constituted the Thembu chiefs as leaders of "District Councils", thereby establishing a system of proxy rulers. The Government of Cecil Rhodes
Cecil Rhodes
passed legislation, such as the Parliamentary Registration Act, that severely curtailed the voting rights of the Thembu and all Black African citizens of the Cape. However it was the Union of South Africa, in the Twentieth Century, that was to oversee the greatest growth in oppression against the people of Thembuland. The Union of South Africa
South Africa
and Apartheid
Apartheid
history[edit] Later, in the lead up to the Union of South Africa
South Africa
and the beginning of Apartheid, the franchise and property rights of the Thembu were gradually revoked, and what rights remained were applied only in their original homeland. Later still, under apartheid, the Transkei
Transkei
was turned into a bantustan. In the ethnic theory underpinning apartheid, the Transkei was regarded as the "homeland" of the Xhosa people. As a result, the Thembu people are often misidentified as being Xhosa.[8][not in citation given] Secession dispute[edit] The current Thembu king is King Buyelekhaya Dalindyebo, son of Sabata Jonguhlanga Dalindyebo, and his praise name is Zwelibanzi. The King caused controversy in 2009, by calling for secession from South Africa, as a response to a criminal case against him. In December 2009 King Buyelekhaya was convicted of offences including culpable homicide, kidnapping, arson and assault. In response he proposed secession from South Africa[9][10] and later demanded that the South African government pay the king R900m and the tribe a further R80bn in compensation for the humiliation caused by the criminal trial.[11] Dalindyebo was imprisoned in December 2015, has since been customarily dethroned, and is expected to be administratively dethroned in the near future.[12] References[edit]

^ "Custom and the politics of sovereignty in South Africa
South Africa
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Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountai

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